Builth Genealogical Records

Builth Birth & Baptism Records

England & Wales Birth Index (1837-2006)

An index to births registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of birth certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Builth Baptism Registers (1691-1912)

Baptism registers record the baptism of those born in and around Builth and were subsequently baptised in an Anglican place of worship. They are the primary source of birth details before 1837, though are useful to the present.

FreeBMD Births (1837-1957)

An index to births registered at the central authority for England & Wales. The index provides the area where the birth was registered, mother's maiden name from September 1911 and a reference to order a birth certificate.

British Army Birth Index (1761-2005)

An index to births registered to British Army personal at home and abroad.

Birth Notices from The Times (1983-2003)

An index to over 100,000 birth and christening notices from The London Times.

Builth Marriage & Divorce Records

England & Wales Marriage Index (1837-2008)

An index to marriages registered throughout England & Wales. This is the only national marriage index that allows you to search by both spouse's names. Provides a reference to order copies of marriage certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Builth Banns Registers (1877-1923)

The Banns register of Builth gives details on those who intended to marry. They record an individual's real parish of residence if they moved to a parish temporarily for the purpose of a marriage.

Builth Marriage Registers (1700-1927)

Marriage registers are the primary source for marital documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They typically the record marital status and residence of the bride and groom.

Vicar General’s Office Marriage Licences (1600-1679)

Abstracts of marriage licences granted by the Vicar-General in London. These licences could be used to marry in any church in the Province of Canterbury.

Brecknockshire Marriages (1813-1837)

An index to early 19th century marriages in Brecknockshire.

Builth Death & Burial Records

England & Wales Death Index (1837-2006)

An index to deaths registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of death certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Builth Burial Registers (1813-1980)

Burial registers are the primary source for death documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They record the date someone was buried, their age & residence. Details given may include the deceased's name, residence, age, names of relations, cause of death and more.

FreeBMD Deaths (1837-1964)

An index to deaths registered at the central authority for England and Wales. To 1866, only the locality the death was registered in was listed. Age was listed until 1969, when the deceased's date of birth was listed. Provides a reference to order a death certificate, which has further details.

British Army Death Index (1796-2005)

An index to deaths of British Army personal at home and abroad.

Death Notices from The Times (1982-1988)

An index to over 54,000 death notices and obituaries from The London Times.

Builth Church Records

Builth Parish Registers (1691-1980)

The primary source of documentation for baptisms, marriages and burials before 1837, though extremely useful to the present. Their records can assist tracing a family as far back as 1691.

Brecknockshire Parish Registers (1600-1980)

The parish registers of Brecknockshire are a collection of books essentially documenting births, marriages and deaths. Their records can assist tracing a family back numerous generations.

Wales Parish Registers (1914-2013)

The parish registers of Wales are a collection of books documenting baptisms, marriages and burials from 1914 to 2013.

Wales Parish Registers (1538-1934)

The primary source of documentation for baptisms, marriages and burials before 1837, though useful to the present also.

The Welsh Church Year Book (1929)

Important information relating to the church, including jurisdictions and names of ministers, archdeacons etc.

Builth Census & Population Lists

England, Wales, IoM & Channel Islands 1911 Census (1911)

The 1911 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

1901 British Census (1901)

The 1901 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

1891 British Census (1891)

The 1891 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

1881 British Census (1881)

The 1881 census provides details on an individual's age, residence and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows for searches on multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

British Phone Books (1880-1984)

Directories containing over 275,000,000 entries. As well as name, address and phone number, occupations are often recorded. A useful census substitute.

Builth Wills & Probate Records

England & Wales National Probate Calendar (1858-1966)

Searchable index and original images of over 12.5 million probates and administrations granted by civil registries. Entries usually include the testator's name, date of death, date of probate and registry. Names of relations may be given.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury Admon Index (1649-1660)

An index to estate administrations performed by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. The index covers the southern two thirds of England & Wales, but may also contain entries for northerners.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury Admon Index (1581-1619)

An index to estate administrations performed by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. The index covers the southern two thirds of England & Wales, but may also contain entries for northerners.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury Admon Index (1581-1595)

An index to estate administrations performed by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. The index covers the southern two thirds of England & Wales, but may also contain entries for northerners.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury Admon Index (1559-1571)

An index to estate administrations performed by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. The index covers the southern two thirds of England & Wales, but may also contain entries for northerners.

Newspapers Covering Builth

Publications of The South Wales Record Society (1987-1994)

A journal publishing historical sources relating to South Wales, with introductory texts, indexes and illustrations.

Brycheiniog (1955-2003)

An annual English archaeological and historical journal, containing academic articles relating to the area, book reviews, and obituaries. It also includes society notes.

South Wales Daily Post (1893-1910)

2,700 fully searchable editions of a conservative newspaper. It contained local news, family announcements, sports etc.

South Wales Star (1891-1894)

A liberal newspaper that published local news, family notices, adverts etc. It was liberal in politics. Each edition has been indexed and digitised.

Tarian y Gweithiwr (1875-1910)

A radical, weekly newspaper that published political news and opinion, poetry, foreign news etc. Each edition has been indexed and digitised.

Builth Obituaries

iAnnounce Obituaries (2006-Present)

The UKs largest repository of obituaries, containing millions of searchable notices.

United Kingdom and Ireland Obituary Collection (1882-Present)

A growing collection currently containing over 425,000 abstracts of obituaries with reference to the location of the full obituary.

Quakers Annual Monitor (1847-1848)

A collection of 364 obituaries of Quakers from the British Isles. The volume was published in 1849 and includes obituaries of those who died in late 1847 through 1848.

Musgrave's Obituaries (1421-1800)

This transcribed and searchable work by Sir William Musgrave contains 10,000s of brief obituaries. The work is a reference point for other works containing information on an individual.

British Medical Journal (1849-Present)

A text index and digital images of all editions of a journal containing medical articles and obituaries of medical practitioners.

Builth Cemeteries

Billion Graves (1200-Present)

Photographs and transcriptions of millions of gravestones from cemeteries around the world.

Mausolea and Monuments (1500-Present)

Profiles of several hundred mausolea found in the British Isles.

Maritime Memorials (1588-1950)

Several thousand transcribed memorials remembering those connected with the nautical occupations.

Rail & Canal Photographs Catalog (1880-1970)

A searchable database of photographs relating to railways and canals in Britain.

Rail & Canal Monuments (1800-1950)

Details of monuments and plaques related to canals and railways. Contains some photographs.

Builth Directories & Gazetteers

Kelly's Directory, South Wales (1923)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Kelly's Directory, South Wales (1910)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key historical and contemporary facts. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions. Also contains a list of residents and businesses for each place.

Kelly's Directory, South Wales (1901)

A directory of residents and businesses; with a description of each settlement, containing details on its history, public institutions, churches, postal services, governance and more.

Kelly's Directory of Monmouthshire & S Wales (1895)

A directory of residents and businesses; with a description of each settlement, containing details on its history, public institutions, churches, postal services, governance and more.

Kelly's Directory, South Wales (1895)

A directory of residents and businesses; with a description of each settlement, containing details on its history, public institutions, churches, postal services, governance and more.

Home Office Prison Calendars (1868-1929)

Records of over 300,000 prisoners held by quarter sessions in England & Wales. Records may contain age, occupation, criminal history, offence and trial proceedings.

Central Criminal Court After-trial Calendars (1855-1931)

Over 175,000 records detailing prisoner's alleged offences and the outcome of their trial. Contains genealogical information.

Prison Hulk Registers (1802-1849)

From the late 18th century many prisoners in Britain were kept on decommissioned ships known as hulks. This collection contains nearly 50 years of registers for various ships. Details given include: prisoner's name, date received, age, year of birth and conviction details.

England & Wales Criminal Registers (1791-1892)

This collection lists brief details on 1.55 million criminal cases in England and Wales between 1791 and 1892. Its primary use is to locate specific legal records, which may give further details on the crime and the accused. Details may include the accused's age, nature of crime, location of trial and sentence. Early records can contain a place of birth.

Old Bailey Online (1674-1913)

A database of almost 200,000 fully transcribed criminal cases. Access to original documents is also provided. Records may provide ages and place of birth.

Builth Taxation Records

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

Duties Paid for Apprentices' Indentures (1710-1811)

An index linked to original images of registers recording apprenticeship indentures. Details are given on the trade and nature of apprenticeship. Many records list the parents of the apprentice.

Index to Death Duty Registers (1796-1903)

An index to wills and administrations that incurred a death duty tax. The index can be used to order documents that give a brief abstract of the will and details on the duty. It can be used as a make-shift probate index.

Index to the Royalist Composition Papers (A-F) (1646-1656)

Index to personal names listed in the Royalist Composition Papers that dealt with the estates of royalists.

Builth Land & Property Records

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

UK Poll Books and Electoral Rolls (1538-1893)

Poll books record the names of voters and the direction of their vote. Until 1872 only landholders could vote, so not everyone will be listed. Useful for discerning an ancestor's political leanings and landholdings. The collection is supplemented with other records relating to the vote.

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem (1236-1291)

Abstracts of records detailing the estates and families of deceased tenants from the reigns of Henry III and Edward I.

NLW Manuscript Transcripts (1200-2000)

A searchable database of thousands of transcribed and abstracted manuscripts, largely pertaining to land.

Landowners of England & Wales (1873)

A list of owners of above one acre of land in England & Wales. Lists a landowner's residence, acreage and estimated gross yearly rental.

Builth Occupation & Business Records

Swansea Gazette & Daily Shipping Register (1909-1910)

A liberal newspaper that predominantly covered mercantile and shipping matters. It did not contain family announcements. Each edition has been indexed and digitised.

Teacher's Registration Council Registers (1870-1948)

A name index linked to original images of registers recording the education and careers of teachers in England & Wales.

UK Medical Registers (1859-1959)

Books listing doctors who were licensed to operate in Britain and abroad. Contains doctor's residencies, qualification and date of registration.

Railway Employment Records (1833-1963)

A rich collection of records documenting those who worked for railway companies that were later absorbed by the government. Records include: staff registers, station transfers, pensions, accident records, apprentice records, caution books, and memos. Records may include date of birth, date of death and name of father.

Royal Navy Medical Journals (1817-1857)

Indexed medical journals from British ships containing personal and medical details of patients. The journals list names, ages, rank/status, diseases, illness duration and notes on symptoms and treatment. Contains details on military men as well as people immigrating or being deported to colonies.

Builth School & Education Records

Teacher's Registration Council Registers (1870-1948)

A name index linked to original images of registers recording the education and careers of teachers in England & Wales.

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge Alumni Database (1198-1910)

A searchable database containing over 90,000 note-form biographies for students of Cambridge University.

Dissenting Academy Database (1660-1860)

Histories of schools operated by non-conformist clergy.

Pedigrees & Family Trees Covering Builth

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Visitation of England and Wales (1700-1899)

Over 600 pedigrees for English and Welsh families who had a right to bear a coat of arms.

Ancestry Member Family Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A compilation of lineage-linked family trees submitted by Ancestry users. The database contains over 2 billion individuals and is searchable by numerous metrics.

Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage (1921)

A dictionary of families elevated to the peerage of Great Britain & Ireland. It includes genealogies and biographical details.

Builth Royalty, Nobility & Heraldry Records

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Visitation of England and Wales (1700-1899)

Over 600 pedigrees for English and Welsh families who had a right to bear a coat of arms.

Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage (1921)

A dictionary of families elevated to the peerage of Great Britain & Ireland. It includes genealogies and biographical details.

Burke's Landed Gentry of Britain & Ireland (1885)

Lineages of Britain and Ireland's untitled landed families; supplemented with biographical sketches.

Builth Military Records

Prisoners of War of British Army (1939-1945)

A searchable list of over 100,000 British Army POWs. Records contains details on the captured, their military career and where they were held prisoner.

British Prisoners of World War II (1939-1945)

Details on around 165,000 men serving in the British Army, Navy and Air Force who were held as prisoners during WWII.

British Army WWI Medal Rolls (1914-1920)

Index and original images of over 5 million medal index cards for British soldiers It can be searched by individual's name, Coprs, Unit and Regiment. Due to the loss of many WWI service records, this is the most complete source for British WWI soldiers

British Army WWI Service Records (1914-1920)

This rich collection contains contains records for 1.9 million non-commissioned officers and other ranks who fought in WWI. Due to bomb damage in WWI, around 60% of service records were lost. Documents cover: enlistment, medical status, injuries, conduct, awards and discharge. A great deal of genealogical and biographical documentation can be found in these documents, including details on entire families, physical descriptions and place of birth.

Silver War Badges (1914-1920)

An index to nearly 900,000 military personnel who were awarded the Silver War Badge for sustaining injures. Records include rank, regimental number, unit, dates of enlistment and discharge, and reason for discharge.

Builth Immigration & Travel Records

Passenger Lists Leaving UK (1890-1960)

A name index connected to original images of passenger lists recording people travelling from Britain to destinations outside Europe. Records may detail a passenger's age or date of birth, residence, occupation, destination and more.

UK Incoming Passenger Lists (1878-1960)

A full index of passenger lists for vessels arriving in the UK linked to original images. Does not include lists from vessels sailing from European ports. Early entries can be brief, but later entries may include dates of births, occupations, home addresses and more. Useful for documenting immigration.

17th Century British Emigrants to the U.S. (1600-1700)

Details on thousands of 17th century British immigrants to the U.S., detailing their origins and nature of their immigration.

Migration from North America to Britain & Ireland (1858-1870)

A list of over 40,000 passengers traveling from North America to the British Isles. Details of passengers may include: occupation, nationality, gender, age, martial status, class, destination, and details of the vessel they sailed on.

Aliens Entry Books (1794-1921)

An un-indexed collection of over 100,000 documents of correspondence and other documents of the Home Office and the Aliens Office. Contains a great deal of information on aliens and those who applied for naturalisation.

Builth Histories & Books

Publications of The South Wales Record Society (1987-1994)

A journal publishing historical sources relating to South Wales, with introductory texts, indexes and illustrations.

Powys Church Photographs (1890-Present)

Photographs and images of churches in Powys.

Geograph: Photos of the UK and Ireland (2005-Present)

A growing database including millions of photographs of the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Ireland catalogued by latitude & longitude and OS grid reference.

Britain from Above (1919-1953)

Ariel photographs of the British Isles. Browsable by location.

UK & Ireland Historical Postcards (1885-1950)

Over 19,000 postcards depicting places in the UK & Ireland.

Biographical Directories Covering Builth

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Crockford's Clerical Directories (1868-1914)

Brief biographies of Anglican clergy in the UK.

The Concise Dictionary of National Biography (1654-1930)

A directory containing lengthy biographies of noted British figures. The work took over two decades to compile. Biographies can be searched by name and are linked to images of the original publication.

Church of England Clergy Database (1500-1835)

A database of CoE clergy, giving details of their education of service. Contains references to source documents. Also contains profiles of various church institutions.

Builth Maps

Maps of Brecknockshire (1610-1860)

A collection of digitalised maps covering the county.

Ordnance Survey Maps of Wales (1868-1954)

An interactive map featuring four OS map editions published between 1868 and 1954. To load a map select the menu tab on the far right, select the edition you wish to view and zoom in to a locality.

Ordnance Survey 1:10 Maps (1840-1890)

Maps showing settlements, features and some buildings in mainland Britain.

A Vision of Britain (1190-Present)

A sprawling website setting out and describing the historical divisions of Britain. Also contains countless maps of various sorts. Covers the UK, Ireland, Isle of Man & has fleeting details of other localities.

Ordnance Survey One-inch to the Mile Maps (1945-1947)

High-quality digital reproductions of maps plotting, settlements, roads, natural features and other features in England & Wales.

Builth Reference Works

Wales Research Guide (1538-Present)

A beginner’s guide to researching ancestry in Wales.

Parish Register Abstract (1538-1812)

Compiled in 1831, this book details the coverage and condition of parish registers in England & Wales.

Building History Research Guide (1066-Present)

A comprehensive guide to researching the history of buildings in the British Isles.

Surname Origins (1790-1911)

A service that provides advanced and custom surname maps for the British Isles and the US.

British Family Mottoes (1189-Present)

A dictionary of around 9,000 mottoes for British families who had right to bear arms.

Builth Information

Civil & Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction:

Historical Description

Buallt (Signifying Oxcliff, or Oxenholt) is a neat market town, pleasantly situated on a little plain, surrounded by wood, and mountains, with a handsome stone bridge, which divides it from Radnorshire. This small town is singularly built, having two parallel streets, which form irregular terraces on the side of a deep declivity. The principal of these streets is very near the river Wye, but extremely narrow, and ill shaped; and the houses, for the greater part, mean and irregular,. Still Buallt has long been extolled for the salubrity of its air, and the singular beauty of its position on the banks of one of the finest rivers in South Wales, and encompassed by such magnificent scenery, that many gentlemen have been induced to fix their residence in its vicinity, as some good houses lately built will testify: it has beside the benefit of Llandrindod Wells, only seven miles off. This town has also a claim to great antiquity, being the same that Ptolemy calls the Ballffaeum Silurum of the Romans. In the neighbourhood are several entrenchments, in which, we are informed, have been found Roman bricks with this inscription: LEG. II.; but the most remarkable and best preserved of entrenchments in these parts, is near the road leading from Buallt to Brecon. In recurring to the Chronicle of Caradoc, we find this place suffered considerably by the Danes in 893, who, being persecuted by Alfred, sailed to Wales; and after destroying the country about the coast, advanced to Buallt, which they likewise demolished. The same fatal consequences happened in 1216; for when Reynold de Bruce peremptorily broke off his alliance with Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, to make peace with Henry the Third, the former destroyed all Buallt, except the castle. This castle was built by the Bruces or Mortimers; but, being out of repair in 1209, Gilbert, Earl of Gloster, fortified it for his own use. About 1215, we find it in the possession of Giles de Bruce, bishop of Hereford; but when he formed a conspiracy against Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, the latter came in person to Buallt, and had the castle delivered to himself; however it reverted again to Reynold Bruce, who was besieged in it by some Welsh barons in 1220, but before it could be taken, Henry the Third raised the siege.

In 1256 we find it in the possession of Rhys Vychan, whom Llewelyn ab Gruffydd defeated, and forced out of Buallt; he afterwards conferred the same on Meredith ab Rhys, but he was soon dispossessed of it by Roger Mortimer, with whom it continued till 1260, when Llewelyn retook it without opposition, and found within a plentiful magazine. Of the town and castle nothing more is mentioned, till the unfortunate event which put a period to the independency of the Welsh, and their royal line of princes, occasioned by the death of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, who was here basely betrayed by the inhabitants of Buallt, on Wednesday, December the 11th, 1282.— The minute circumstances preceding and following this great event are no where recorded, except in the following account, preserved by tradition among the inhabitants of this place.

Llewelyn had posted his army on a hill near Llechryd, a village below Buallt, on the south side of the Wye. On the north side of the river, two miles below Buallt, the prince had a house, called Aberedw, to which he came for the purpose of conferring with some chieftains of the country. During his stay there, he was alarmed by the approach of some English troops, who probably had intelligence of his situation. The prince, to extricate himself from the danger that threatened, caused his horse's shoes to be reversed, to deceive his pursuers, as the snow was on the ground: but this circumstance was made known to the enemy, through the treachery of the smith; and they followed so closely, that Llewelyn had but just time to pass the drawbridge at Buallt, which being drawn up secured his retreat. In the mean time, the English troops posted at Aberedw, had information of a ford a little lower down, called Cavn Twm Bach, which they crossed, and by that means came between Llewelyn and his army stationed at Llechryd. The only means of safety that now offered was to secrete himself; but the enemy were so diligent in their pursuit, that the Welsh prince was soon found in a narrow dingle, in which he had concealed himself, three miles north of Buallt, and about five miles from his army; which place, from this event, was called Cwm Llewelyn. After Llewelyn was killed, they cut off his head, and buried his body in a field, called Cafan, about two miles from Buallt; and at some subsequent period, a farm house was erected over his grave, which goes by the name of Cevn-y-Bedd.

A little below Buallt are the remains of Aberedw Castle, having only a stone wall, now overgrown with ivy, but one of the residences of Llewelyn the Great. Two miles further is Cevn-y-Bedd, in Cafan Field; and contiguous, Llechryd, with its ancient castle, now a modern house, surrounded by a moat; but this place and its vicinity is chiefly rendered remarkable, by being the sacred ground where Llewelyn, the last Welsh prince, lineally descended from the Cambro-Britons, lost his principality and his life.

At Buallt they preserve several traditions concerning the death of Llewelyn, prince of Wales, in the year 1282. He considered his position on the west side of the Wye, above Buallt, as secure, so long as the bridge at the town was defended; but when the ford was treacherously pointed out to the enemy, the prince was unexpectedly attacked, and he, taken by surprise, fell by the hands of one Adam Franckton. A descendant of this A. Franckton, and of the same name, now, or lately lived at Salop, who preserves the memorial of this deed.

About one mile northwest of Buallt, are some saline springs, called Park Wells; and about six miles from Garth, is Llanwrtyd Well, situate in a parish of that name. It was first discovered by a clergyman, about one hundred and fifty years ago, who, it is said, wrote a tract on its virtues. Its situation is between two hills, in a romantic vale, which the river Irvon meanders through, with a picturesque view of hanging woods, impending rocks, contrasted with rich land and barren hills. It has also veins of lead ore, from which some tons have been formerly dug, and sold for 12l. per ton. About three hundred yards from Dol-y-Coed, or the house of accommodation, is this remarkable spring, called in Welsh, Fynnon Drewllyd, or foetid well, which smells strongly of sulphur, and changes silver almost instantaneously into a gold colour. This well was opened in 1774, to investigate its source, and after removing the stones and rubbish which covered its channel, some black turf, twelve inches thick, and a stiff clay of a very dark colour, mixed with marl, were discovered; and under the latter a light gravel. The water does not spring from under the gravel, as at first supposed, but flows perpendicularly from a bog, or morass. The water is very transparent, and never loses its taste or smell, nor is it ever impregnated with rain water, even in the wettest season. As soon as it is received into a glass, it sparkles, and you may see the air bubbles rise gradually, till they are disseminated through the whole, and remain so for hours.

This water is very light and perfectly soft, for when you wash your face and hands in it, you feel the same sensation as when soap and common water are used. It sits easy in the stomach. The efficacy of Llanwrtyd Wells has been proved in various cases, particularly in gravel, nervous affections, and scorbutic eruptions.

Topography of Great Britain, written: 1802-29 by George Alexander Cooke

BUILTH, or Builth Wells, parish of Llanfair-in-Buallt, is an inland watering-place and market town in the county of Brecon, with a station on the Cambrian railway and another at Builth road, about 1 ¾ miles distant, on the London and North Western and Cambrian railways, but on the latter known as “Leehryd,” 171 miles from London, 88 from Birmingham, no from Liverpool, 130 from Bristol, 58 from Shrewsbury, 70 north-west from Gloucester and 25 north, from Brecon, the county town, and is the head of a petty sessional division, union and county court district, in Builth hundred, and in the rural deanery of Builth, archdeaconry of Brecon and diocese of St. David’s. Builth is called by the Welsh "Buallt,” a term derived from “bu, " an ox and “allt,” a wooded eminence, signifying an oxcliff or oxenholt; in ancient documents it is styled “Llanfair-yn-Muallt,” and was evidently a great grazing district; the town is very pleasantly seated in the valley of the Wye, which passes through and separates it from Radnorshire, and it is surrounded by some of the most magnificent mountain scenery in South Wales: owing to its agreeable climate and celebrated mineral springs, it is a favourite place of resort for invalids and others, and the attractiveness of the surrounding scenery causes it to be much frequented by tourists. The town railway station of the Cambrian Railway, from Brecon to Llanidloes, is in Radnorshire, on the apposite side of the Wye, which is here spanned by a stone bridge of six arches, erected in 1779 at the joint expense of the counties of Brecon and Radnor; the station on the same line at Llechryd, or Builth road, is the Central Wales Junction of this lane with the London & North Western, and the trains run, for the most part, connectedly. The town was governed by a Local Board from February, 1866, until the formation, under the provisions of the “Local Government Act, 1894,” of an Urban District Council; it consists chiefly of a single street, and is well paved and supplied with water from two springs, 4 miles south-east of the town, and stored in two reservoirs holding 122,000 gallons: the town is lighted with gas by a company formed in 1864, from works now leased to Mr. W. H. Morgan, of (Rhayader. An effective system of sewerage has also been carried out. Several terraces of good houses have been erected. The river Wye joining the Irfon at Aberpool, near here forms a considerable stretch of water about a mile in length, and affording good boating, and boats of all kinds can be hired at the boat house on the Grae Green. Nearly all the fishing hereabouts is preserved, but trout fishing is obtainable. The church of St. Mary, Llanfair-yn-Builth, an ancient edifice of Norman origin, was entirely rebuilt, with the exception of the tower, in 1875, at a cost of about £4,967, of which amount the patron gave upwards of £1,000: it now consists of chancel, nave, north aisle, south porch and an embattled tower of the 14th century on the south side, containing 6 bells: and has sittings for about 450 persons. The register of baptisms and burials dates from the year 1687; marriages, 1770. The living is a vicarage, tithe rent-charge £84, average £64, net income £230, with 20 acres of glebe and residence, the gift of Miss Thomas, of Llwynmadoc, and held since 1891 by the Rev. Howard Augustas Crosbie M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, who is also perpetual curate of Llanddewircwm. The Congregational chapel, erected at a cost of £1,800, and opened in July, 1869, is a building of native stone in the Italian style, from the designs of Mr. R. Moffat Smith, architect, of Manchester, and has 500 sittings: underneath the building is a school-room for 300 children. The Baptist chapel, situated on the bank, will seat 320 persons. The Wesleyan chapel, ab the east end of the town, was erected in 1804 and rebuilt in 1866, at a cost of £500, and has sittings for 170. The Calvinistic Methodist chapel in the Strand built in 1747, rebuilt in 1824, and remodelled in 1878, will seat 420 persons. At the east side of the town, on an eminence, are the remains of the castle, a fortress dating from the 11th century; but little of the fabric now exists, but the moat is still fairly perfect. The Lower Market, adjoining the Bridge, contains a range of shops on the ground floor, with a market below; above is a large room which is let for public meetings, entertainments &c. An agricultural show, aquatic sports, and an Eisteddfod are held annually. The principal hotels are the “Lion,” “Llanelwedd,” and “Crown,” and there are numerous boarding and lodging houses. The market day is on Monday. Fairs for cattle, sheep and pigs are held on the 16th Feb. Monday next before May 12th, June 27th, Builth feast, last week in August, October 2nd, and Dom fair, Dec. 6th. Fairs for horses are held on the 31st January, 16th April, 17 July and 16th October; when any of the above days fall on a Sunday the fair is hold on the following Monday.

The Public Recreation ground lies between the town and the river Wye, along side which is a pleasant path, leading to the rapids: an efficient band plays on the ground during the season-May to October-under the control of the Recreation Committee.

The Park Wells mineral springs, situated about, a mile from the town, are reached by a pleasant walk along the banks of the Wye to the junction of the Irfon, which is crossed by a Swing bridge. These springs possess renovating properties of extraordinary character; the most singular circumstance in connection with them is, that though placed at distances of not a yard apart they differ entirely in quality, being either saline, sulphur, or chalybeate; over the springs are 1st and 2nd class pump rooms, with conveniently arranged hot and cold sulphur and saline baths. Shower and vapour baths can also be taken, and near the baths is a good boarding house, with extensive grounds from which magnificent views are obtained.

Analysis of the Saline Mineral Water of Park Wells, near Builth Wells, Breconshire, January 17, 1891, by Professor Attfield Ph.D., F.R.S., F.I.S., F.C.S. Professor of Practical Chemistry to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, author of a Manual of Chemistry and a Handbook of Water Supplies &c.

One imperial gallon contains:

Chemical NameChemical DefinitionsGrains
Chloride of SodiumNaCl878.300
Iodide of SodiumNaltraces
Bromide of SodiumNaBrtraces
Nitrate of SodiumNaNO3450
Chloride of AmmoniumNHCl'440
Chloride of LithiumLiCl1'250
Chloride of CalciumCaCl249'375
Sulphate of CalciumCaSO2204
Carbonate of CalciumCaCO31'590
Chloride of MagnesiumMgCl26'416
Iron, with traces of Aluminium and ManganeseFe2O3'238
SilicaSiO2'714
1138'977

Remarks.-The analysis , shows that the mineral water of Park Wells, Builth, is a true saline water, in composition not unlike the corresponding saline springs of Homburg, Kissengen, Kreuznach, and Wiesbaden. Thus the four chief springs of Homburg yield over 1000 grains average of solids per gallon, this Park Wells, Builth, spring giving over 1100; the Homburg solids being 30 to 80 grains of the bitter chloride of magnesium (Park Wells, Builth, 6 ½), 70 to 170 grains of chloride of calcium (Park Wefis, Builth, 250), and nearly 800 grains average of chloride of sodium (Park Wells, Builth, nearly 900). These Homburg waters contain no lithium. The leading Kissengen springs are saline, but only to about half the extent of this Park Wells, Builth, water, and they also by my analysis contain much less lithium. This Builth water is not unlike Kreuznach water, but the latter contains, according to my analysis, somewhat more lithium. The Wiesbaden waters are Similar to but weaker than this Builth water.

Analytical data.-Potassium, a trace; sodium, 345'442; lithium, 0'206; ammonium, 0'148; barium, none; strontium, none; calcium, 90’560; magnesium, 1'621; oxide of iron, including traces of aluminium and manganese, 0’238. The radicals of-sulphates (SO4), 0'144; nitrates (NO3), 0'328; carbonates (CO3), 0'955; chlorides (Cl), including traces of iodides (I) and bromides (Br), 698'621; silica (SiO3), 0'714; organic matter, an insignificant trace.

Glanne wells sulphur and chalybeate springs and baths are about ¾ mile west from the town, and have adjoining a convenient residential house for visitors.

Owm Llewellyn, a wooded ravine, where Prince Llewellyn fell, 11 April, 1240, and Cefn-y-bedd, his burial place, Aberedw rocks and cave, Erwood Boughrood, Garth hill, and other interesting spots may be conveniently reached from this place.

Sir Joseph Russell Bailey bart. of Glanwye Park, who is lord of the manor, Howel Gwynne esq. Llanedwedd Hall; Edward David Thomas esq. Welfield House; Venables Llewellyn, Llysdimam Hall; Miss Thomas, Llwynmadoc; Major Thomas Chichele Bargrave Watkins; Stanley Bligh esq. Cilmery Park; Capt. Harcourt Wood Bower P. Woosnam esq. Capt. C. Woosnam, W. F. Maitland esq. M.P. M. G. Howell esq. the Strand, Builth, are the chief landowners. The chief crops are wheat, barley and roots. The soil is sandy; subsoil, gravel and stone. The area of the parish, is 675 acres of land, 26 of water; rateable value, £5,079 11s. 8d.; of the urban district, 391 acres; the population of the urban district in 1891 was 1,383, and of the parish 1,414, including 53 officers and inmates in the Workhouse.

Petty Sessions are held at the Police Station on the 2nd & 4th Monday in every month at 1 p.m. & at the Police Court, Llanwrtyd, on the 2nd Thursday in April, May, June, July, August, September & October at 12 noon. The following plaices are included in the petty sessional division:-Builth, Alltmawr, Gwarafog, (Gwenddwr, Llanafanfawr, Llanfechan, Llanwrthwl, Treflis, Penbuallt, Tyrabbot, Llanddewi Abergwessin, Llandidewi’r-Cwm, Llanfihangel-Abergwessin, Llanfihangel Brynpabuan, Llanganten, Llangynog, Llanlleonfel, Llanwrtyd, Llanynis, Llysdinam, Maesmynis, Rhosferig.

Petty Sessions are held at Builth every alternate Monday at 1 p.m. & at Colwyn the 2nd Friday in every month at 11 a.m. The following places are included in the petty sessional division:-Aberedw, Bettws, Disserth, Colva, Cregrina, Disserth & Trecoed, Glascwm, Llanbadarn-y-Garreg, Llanelwedd; Llanfaredd, Llansaintfraed-in-Flvel & Rhulen.

Volunteers

1st Volunteer Battalion (Brecknockshire) South Wales Borderers (E company); armoury, West street; Capt. Charles W. Woosnam, commanding.

Builth Union

Board day, Monday fortnightly, at 12.30 a.m. at the Workhouse.

The union comprises the following parishes:-Aberedw (Radnor), Alltmawr, Bettwis, Disserth (Radnor), Builth or Llanfair-in-Buallt, Cregrina (Radnor), Crickadarn, Disserth, & Trecoed (Radnor), Gwarafog, Gwanddwr, Llanafan-fawr, Llanbadarn-y-Garreg (Radnor), Llanddewi-Abergwessin, Llanddewi’r-Cwm, Llandrindod (Radnor), Llanelwedd (Radnor), Llanfechan, Llanfihangel-Abergwessin, Llanfihangel, Bryn-Pabuan, Llanganten, Llangynog, Llanlleonfel, Llansaintffraed-in-Elvel (Radnor), Llanfareth (Radnor), Llanynis, Llysdinam, Maes-Mynis, Penbuallt, Rhosferig, Rhulen (Radnor) & Treflis. The population of the union in 1891 was 8,196; area, 123,786 acres; rateable value, £49,000.

Workhouse, a building of stone, built in 1877, to hold 60 inmates.

Places of Worship, with times of Services. Llanfair-yn-Builth, or St. Mary’s Church, Rev. H. A. Orosbie M.A. vicar; 8 & 11 a.m. & 6 p.m.; 1st Sun. 4.15 p.m.; 3rd Sun. 3 p.m.; Wed. & saints' days, 7.30 p.m.

Baptist, Bank, Rev. Henry Evans; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.

Calvinistic Methodist, Strand, Rev. Lewis James; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.

Congregational, West end, Rev. Lewis Beynon; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.

Wesleyan, East end, Rev. Ernest Rhodes; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.

Endowed School (mixed & infants), for about 250 children; with an average attendance of 185; the endowment dates from the 17th century, & the management is in the hands of a body of six trustees.

Kelly's Directory of South Wales (1895)

Surnames Found in Builth

RankSurnameNo. of People% of Population
1Jones16511.34
2Price1349.21
3Davies1339.14
4Williams916.25
5Evans755.15
6Thomas654.47
7Lewis422.89
8Powell402.75
9Morgan322.20
10Lloyd241.65
11Phillips171.17
12Pugh171.17
13Morris161.10
14Hamer161.10
15Stanton161.10
16Meredith140.96
17Jenkins140.96
18Pritchard130.89
19Griffiths130.89
20James130.89
21Grocock130.89
22Grant120.82
23Prosser110.76
24Gwynne110.76
25Weatherly100.69
26Howell100.69
27Bennett90.62
28Cork90.62
29Samuel90.62
30Taylor90.62
31Weatherley80.55
32Straffon80.55
33Willis80.55
34Burns80.55
35Richards80.55
36Probert70.48
37Hughes70.48
38Eckley70.48
39Robinson70.48
40Owen70.48
41Steer70.48
42Simcock60.41
43Eadie60.41
44Twist60.41
45Watkins60.41
46Bagley60.41
47Dorrington60.41
48King60.41
49Wesley50.34
50Ware50.34
51Roberts50.34
52Brown50.34
53George50.34
54Chambers50.34
55Workington50.34
56Coore50.34
57Bird40.27
58Jacques40.27
59Goodwin40.27
60Herring40.27
61Owens40.27
62Boulter40.27
63Morrow40.27
64Walters40.27
65Whiting40.27
66Bebb40.27
67Stephens40.27
68Sellis40.27
69Stewart40.27
70Lamvarne40.27
71Hoby40.27
72Freeman40.27
73Weale30.21
74Smiles30.21
75Vaughan30.21
76Maund30.21
77Floyd30.21
78Fairclough30.21
79Russell30.21
80Platt30.21
81Watchman30.21
82Horsey30.21
83Turner30.21
84Farthing30.21
85Wright30.21
86Yates30.21
87Rathbone30.21
88Hill30.21
89Pring20.14
90Wilding20.14
91Kelly20.14
92Dunn20.14
93Webb20.14
94Jordan20.14
95Rogers20.14
96Protheroe20.14
97Howson20.14
98Trott20.14
99Rees20.14
100Games20.14