Kendal Genealogical Records

Kendal Birth & Baptism Records

England & Wales Birth Index (1837-2006)

An index to births registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of birth certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

FreeBMD Births (1837-1957)

An index to births registered at the central authority for England & Wales. The index provides the area where the birth was registered, mother's maiden name from September 1911 and a reference to order a birth certificate.

British Army Birth Index (1761-2005)

An index to births registered to British Army personal at home and abroad.

Birth Notices from The Times (1983-2003)

An index to over 100,000 birth and christening notices from The London Times.

London Clandestine Marriages & Baptisms (1667-1754)

Registers of clandestine marriages and baptisms from the Fleet Prison, King's Bench Prison, the Mint and the May Fair Chapel. These events were recorded to avoid church regulations. Although the majority of records related to people in the London area, they cover people from throughout Britain and in some cases abroad.

Kendal Marriage & Divorce Records

England & Wales Marriage Index (1837-2005)

An index to marriages registered throughout England & Wales. This is the only national marriage index that allows you to search by both spouse's names. Provides a reference to order copies of marriage certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

UK Divorce Records (1858-1911)

Digital images of documents from civil divorce cases. The cases cover both the cause of the case and the outcome, such as division of property and visitation rights. These records also contain details of illegitimate children. Cases can be searched by a name index.

FreeBMD Marriages (1837-1961)

An index to marriages registered at the central authority for England & Wales. To March 1912 only the area of registration and name of one party is given. From then on, the spouse's surname is also given. Provides a reference, which can be used to order a marriage certificate with more details.

British Army Marriage Index (1796-2005)

An index to marriages registered for British Army personal at home and abroad.

Marriage Notices from The Times (1982-2004)

An index to over 80,000 marriage and engagement notices from The London Times.

Kendal Death & Burial Records

England & Wales Death Index (1837-2006)

An index to deaths registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of death certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Deceased Online (1629-Present)

Images of millions of pages from cemetery and crematoria registers, photographs of memorials, cemetery plans and more. Records can be search by a name index.

FreeBMD Deaths (1837-1964)

An index to deaths registered at the central authority for England and Wales. To 1866, only the locality the death was registered in was listed. Age was listed until 1969, when the deceased's date of birth was listed. Provides a reference to order a death certificate, which has further details.

British Army Death Index (1796-2005)

An index to deaths of British Army personal at home and abroad.

Death Notices from The Times (1982-1988)

An index to over 54,000 death notices and obituaries from The London Times.

Kendal Church Records

Westmorland Church Photographs (1990-Present)

Low-resolution photographs of Anglican churches in the county of Westmorland.

England Parish Registers (1914-2013)

Documentation for those baptised, married and buried at England. Parish registers can assist tracing a family back numerous generations.

England Parish Registers (1817-1934)

The primary source of documentation for baptisms, marriages and burials before 1837, though extremely useful to the present. Their records can assist tracing a family back numerous generations.

Crockford's Clerical Directories (1868-1914)

Brief biographies of Anglican clergy in the UK.

Parish Register Abstract (1538-1812)

Compiled in 1831, this book details the coverage and condition of parish registers in England & Wales.

Kendal Census & Population Lists

England, Wales, IoM & Channel Islands 1911 Census (1911)

The 1911 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Westmorland Hearth Tax (1670-1675)

A transcription of records naming those who had taxes levied against them for the privilege of owning a hearth. Two transcriptions, one from 1670 and the other from 1674/5.

1901 British Census (1901)

The 1901 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

1891 British Census (1891)

The 1891 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

1881 British Census (1881)

The 1881 census provides details on an individual's age, residence and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows for searches on multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Kendal Wills & Probate Records

England & Wales National Probate Calendar (1858-1966)

Searchable index and original images of over 12.5 million probates and administrations granted by civil registries. Entries usually include the testator's name, date of death, date of probate and registry. Names of relations may be given.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills (PPV) (1384-1858)

A index to testators whose will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. They principally cover those who lived in the lower two thirds of Britain, but contain wills for residents of Scotland, Ireland, British India and other countries. A copy of each will may be purchased for digital download.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills (Subscription) (1384-1858)

An index and digital images of PCC wills, available on a subscription basis.

Unclaimed Estates in England & Wales (1980-Present)

The names of deceased individuals whose estates have not been inherited. Includes name and date & place of death. Other details may include date and place of birth, marital status, aliases and spouse's name.

Index to Death Duty Registers (1796-1903)

An index to wills and administrations that incurred a death duty tax. The index can be used to order documents that give a brief abstract of the will and details on the duty. It can be used as a make-shift probate index.

Newspapers Covering Kendal

Soulby's Ulverston Advertiser (1848-1862)

A newspaper recording on (among other topics) births, marriages & deaths, sports, shows, shipping and business news in the Ulverston area.

Kendal Mercury (1834-1869)

A record of births, marriages, deaths, legal, political, organisation and other news from the Kendal area. Original pages of the newspaper can be viewed and located by a full text search.

Northern Echo (1870-1900)

Britain's most popular provincial newspaper, covering local & national news, family announcements, government & local proceedings and more.

Westmorland Gazette (1818-1898)

Original images of a regional newspaper, searchable via a full text index. Includes news from the Westmorland area, business notices, obituaries, family announcements and more.

Cumberland & Westmorland Newspaper Transcriptions (1781-1959)

A collection of transcribed extracts, particularly BMD columns, from over 20 newspapers.

Kendal Obituaries

iAnnounce Obituaries (2006-Present)

The UKs largest repository of obituaries, containing millions of searchable notices.

United Kingdom and Ireland Obituary Collection (1882-Present)

A growing collection currently containing over 425,000 abstracts of obituaries with reference to the location of the full obituary.

Quakers Annual Monitor (1847-1848)

A collection of 364 obituaries of Quakers from the British Isles. The volume was published in 1849 and includes obituaries of those who died in late 1847 through 1848.

Musgrave's Obituaries (1421-1800)

This transcribed and searchable work by Sir William Musgrave contains 10,000s of brief obituaries. The work is a reference point for other works containing information on an individual.

British Medical Journal (1849-Present)

A text index and digital images of all editions of a journal containing medical articles and obituaries of medical practitioners.

Kendal Cemeteries

Deceased Online (1629-Present)

Images of millions of pages from cemetery and crematoria registers, photographs of memorials, cemetery plans and more. Records can be search by a name index.

Billion Graves (1200-Present)

Photographs and transcriptions of millions of gravestones from cemeteries around the world.

Maritime Memorials (1588-1950)

Several thousand transcribe memorials of those connected with the nautical occupations.

Rail & Canal Photographs Catalog (1880-1970)

A searchable database of photographs relating to railways and canals in Britain.

Rail & Canal Monuments (1800-1950)

Details of monuments and plaques related to canals and railways. Contains some photographs.

Kendal Directories & Gazetteers

Kelly's Cumberland & Westmorland Directory (1929)

A directory of settlements in Cumberland & Westmorland detailing their history, agriculture, topography, economy and leading commercial, professional and private residents.

Kelly's Directory of Westmorland (1929)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Kelly's Directory of Westmorland (1925)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Kelly's Directory of Westmorland (1921)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Kelly's Directory of Cumberland & Westmorland (1914)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Records Relating to the Barony of Kendale (1086-1900)

Transcriptions and abstracts of documents relating to parts of Westmorland. They include records relating to roads, bridges, religion, taxation etc.

Home Office Prison Calendars (1868-1929)

Records of over 300,000 prisoners held by quarter sessions in England & Wales. Records may contain age, occupation, criminal history, offence and trial proceedings.

Central Criminal Court After-trial Calendars (1855-1931)

Over 175,000 records detailing prisoner's alleged offences and the outcome of their trial. Contains genealogical information.

Prison Hulk Registers (1802-1849)

From the late 18th century many prisoners in Britain were kept on decommissioned ships known as hulks. This collection contains nearly 50 years of registers for various ships. Details given include: prisoner's name, date received, age, year of birth and conviction details.

England & Wales Criminal Registers (1791-1892)

This collection lists brief details on 1.55 million criminal cases in England and Wales between 1791 and 1892. Its primary use is to locate specific legal records, which may give further details on the crime and the accused. Details may include the accused's age, nature of crime, location of trial and sentence. Early records can contain a place of birth.

Kendal Taxation Records

Westmorland Hearth Tax (1670-1675)

A transcription of records naming those who had taxes levied against them for the privilege of owning a hearth. Two transcriptions, one from 1670 and the other from 1674/5.

Records Relating to the Barony of Kendale (1086-1900)

Transcriptions and abstracts of documents relating to parts of Westmorland. They include records relating to roads, bridges, religion, taxation etc.

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

Duties Paid for Apprentices' Indentures (1710-1811)

An index linked to original images of registers recording apprenticeship indentures. Details are given on the trade and nature of apprenticeship. Many records list the parents of the apprentice.

Red Book of the Exchequer (1066-1230)

A compilation of records from the Court of the Exchequer primarily dealing with taxes and land. These records are in Latin.

Kendal Land & Property Records

Records Relating to the Barony of Kendale (1086-1900)

Transcriptions and abstracts of documents relating to parts of Westmorland. They include records relating to roads, bridges, religion, taxation etc.

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

UK Poll Books and Electoral Rolls (1538-1893)

Poll books record the names of voters and the direction of their vote. Until 1872 only landholders could vote, so not everyone will be listed. Useful for discerning an ancestor's political leanings and landholdings. The collection is supplemented with other records relating to the vote.

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem (1236-1291)

Abstracts of records detailing the estates and families of deceased tenants from the reigns of Henry III and Edward I.

Red Book of the Exchequer (1066-1230)

A compilation of records from the Court of the Exchequer primarily dealing with taxes and land. These records are in Latin.

Kendal Occupation & Business Records

Smuggling on the West Coast (1690-1867)

An introduction to smuggling on the west coast of Britain & the Isle of Man, with details of the act in various regions.

North England Mines Index (1896)

Profiles of coal and metal mines in the north of England.

Lost Pubs of Westmorland (1750-Present)

Short histories of former public houses, with photographs and lists of owners or operators.

Teacher's Registration Council Registers (1870-1948)

A name index linked to original images of registers recording the education and careers of teachers in England & Wales.

UK Medical Registers (1859-1959)

Books listing doctors who were licensed to operate in Britain and abroad. Contains doctor's residencies, qualification and date of registration.

Kendal School & Education Records

Teacher's Registration Council Registers (1870-1948)

A name index linked to original images of registers recording the education and careers of teachers in England & Wales.

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge Alumni Database (1198-1910)

A searchable database containing over 90,000 note-form biographies for students of Cambridge University.

Dissenting Academy Database (1660-1860)

Histories of schools operated by non-conformist clergy.

Pedigrees & Family Trees Covering Kendal

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Visitation of England and Wales (1700-1899)

Over 600 pedigrees for English and Welsh families who had a right to bear a coat of arms.

Ancestry Member Family Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A compilation of lineage-linked family trees submitted by Ancestry users. The database contains over 2 billion individuals and is searchable by numerous metrics.

Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage (1921)

A dictionary of families elevated to the peerage of Great Britain & Ireland. It includes genealogies and biographical details.

Kendal Royalty, Nobility & Heraldry Records

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Visitation of England and Wales (1700-1899)

Over 600 pedigrees for English and Welsh families who had a right to bear a coat of arms.

Knights of England (1127-1904)

The most comprehensive listing of Knights of the Crown, listing details where known to the order, date, place and reason for elevation.

Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage (1921)

A dictionary of families elevated to the peerage of Great Britain & Ireland. It includes genealogies and biographical details.

Kendal Military Records

Prisoners of War of British Army (1939-1945)

A searchable list of over 100,000 British Army POWs. Records contains details on the captured, their military career and where they were held prisoner.

British Prisoners of World War II (1939-1945)

Details on around 165,000 men serving in the British Army, Navy and Air Force who were held as prisoners during WWII.

British Army WWI Medal Rolls (1914-1920)

Index and original images of over 5 million medal index cards for British soldiers It can be searched by individual's name, Coprs, Unit and Regiment. Due to the loss of many WWI service records, this is the most complete source for British WWI soldiers

British Army WWI Service Records (1914-1920)

This rich collection contains contains records for 1.9 million non-commissioned officers and other ranks who fought in WWI. Due to bomb damage in WWI, around 60% of service records were lost. Documents cover: enlistment, medical status, injuries, conduct, awards and discharge. A great deal of genealogical and biographical documentation can be found in these documents, including details on entire families, physical descriptions and place of birth.

Silver War Badges (1914-1920)

An index to nearly 900,000 military personnel who were awarded the Silver War Badge for sustaining injures. Records include rank, regimental number, unit, dates of enlistment and discharge, and reason for discharge.

Kendal Immigration & Travel Records

Passenger Lists Leaving UK (1890-1960)

A name index connected to original images of passenger lists recording people travelling from Britain to destinations outside Europe. Records may detail a passenger's age or date of birth, residence, occupation, destination and more.

UK Incoming Passenger Lists (1878-1960)

A full index of passenger lists for vessels arriving in the UK linked to original images. Does not include lists from vessels sailing from European ports. Early entries can be brief, but later entries may include dates of births, occupations, home addresses and more. Useful for documenting immigration.

Alien Arrivals in England (1810-1869)

Details on over 600,000 non-British citizens arriving in England. Often includes age and professions. Useful for discerning the origin of immigrants.

17th Century British Emigrants to the U.S. (1600-1700)

Details on thousands of 17th century British immigrants to the U.S., detailing their origins and nature of their immigration.

Migration from North America to Britain & Ireland (1858-1870)

A list of over 40,000 passengers traveling from North America to the British Isles. Details of passengers may include: occupation, nationality, gender, age, martial status, class, destination, and details of the vessel they sailed on.

Kendal Histories & Books

Cumbria Church Photographs (1890-Present)

Photographs and images of churches in Cumbria.

Records Relating to the Barony of Kendale (1086-1900)

Transcriptions and abstracts of documents relating to parts of Westmorland. They include records relating to roads, bridges, religion, taxation etc.

St George's Police Orphanage (1898-1956)

A website with extensive historical articles on an orphanage that took in children from police officers in the northern counties. Contains a list of children admitted.

Cumbria Windmills (1998-Present)

An index of windmills in the county, with brief notes and some photographs.

Westmorland Church Photographs (1990-Present)

Low-resolution photographs of Anglican churches in the county of Westmorland.

Biographical Directories Covering Kendal

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Crockford's Clerical Directories (1868-1914)

Brief biographies of Anglican clergy in the UK.

The Concise Dictionary of National Biography (1654-1930)

A directory containing lengthy biographies of noted British figures. The work took over two decades to compile. Biographies can be searched by name and are linked to images of the original publication.

Church of England Clergy Database (1500-1835)

A database of CoE clergy, giving details of their education of service. Contains references to source documents. Also contains profiles of various church institutions.

Kendal Maps

Maps of Westmorland (1607-1922)

Digital images of maps covering the county.

Ordnance Survey 1:10 Maps (1840-1890)

Maps showing settlements, features and some buildings in mainland Britain.

A Vision of Britain (1190-Present)

A sprawling website setting out and describing the historical divisions of Britain. Also contains countless maps of various sorts. Covers the UK, Ireland, Isle of Man & has fleeting details of other localities.

Speed's Maps of Britain (1612)

County and national maps covering the British Isles, extracted from John Speed's landmark work, Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain.

Maps of England (1360-1922)

Digital images of maps covering the country.

Kendal Reference Works

England Research Guide (1538-Present)

A beginner’s guide to researching ancestry in England.

Parish Register Abstract (1538-1812)

Compiled in 1831, this book details the coverage and condition of parish registers in England & Wales.

Building History Research Guide (1066-Present)

A comprehensive guide to researching the history of buildings in the British Isles.

Surname Origins (1790-1911)

A service that provides advanced and custom surname maps for the British Isles and the US.

British Family Mottoes (1189-Present)

A dictionary of around 9,000 mottoes for British families who had right to bear arms.

Kendal Information

Ecclesiastical Juristiction:

  • York province
    • Carlisle diocese
      • Westmorland archdeaconry
        • Kendal deanery

    Historical Description

    Kendal, called also Kirby Candale, i.e. a church in a valley. The approach to the town is very pleasant; a noble river (the Rennet) is discovered flowing briskly through fertile fields, and visiting the town in its whole length. It is crossed by a bridge more venerable than handsome, where three great roads coincide from Sedburg, Kirkby Stephen, and Penrith. The main street, leading from the bridge, slopes upwards to the centre of the town, and contracts itself into an inconvenient passage, where it joins another street, which falls with a gentle declivity both ways, and is a mile in length, and of a spacious breadth. A new street has of late years been opened from near the centre of the town to the river side, which has much improved the road through it for carriages. There have also been erected, near the middle of the town, butcher’s shambles, said to be the neatest and most convenient of any in the north of England. Here is a workhouse for the poor, which, for neatness and economy, exceeds most of the kind in the kingdom. The principal inns are commodious and plentifully served.

    The church is a handsome structure, supported by thirty-two large pillars; the tower is seventy-two feet high, and has a ring of eight bells; there is also a handsome organ; there are likewise twelve chapels of ease belonging to it. The free-school stands by the side of the church-yard, and is well endowed, having exhibitions to Queen’s College.

    There is a very large market on Saturday, and two annual fairs, as mentioned in our list; but the objects most worthy of notice here are the manufactures; the chief of which is for Kendal cottons, a coarse woollen cloth, of lindseys and of knit worsted stockings. A considerable tannery is also carried on in this town. The smaller manufactories are of fishhooks; of waste silk, which is received from London, and after scouring, combing, and spinning, is returned; and of wool-cards, in which branch considerable improvements have been made by the curious machine invented here for that purpose; there are other articles of industry well worth seeing, as the mills for scouring, fulling, and frizing cloth; for cutting and rasping dying-wood. But what is most to the credit of the place is, that notwithstanding many inconveniences which this town has ever laboured under, the manufactures have all along continued to flourish, and have of late years been greatly increased by the spirit and industry of the inhabitants. These manufactures were particularly noticed so early as the reign of King Richard the Second and Henry the Fourth, in whose reign§ special laws were enacted for the better regulation of Kendal cloths, &c.

    When William the Conqueror gave the barony of Kendal to Ivo de Tallebois, the inhabitants of the town were villain-tenants of the baronial lord; but one of his successors emancipated them, and confirmed their burgages to them by charter. Queen .Elizabeth, in the 18th year of her reign, erected it into a corporation, by the name of aldermen and burgesses, and afterwards James the First incorporated it with a mayor, twelve aldermen, and twenty-four capital burgesses; but it sends no members to parliament, though Kendal is the largest town in the county, and much superior to Appleby in trade, wealth, buildings, &c.

    There are seven companies here, who have each their hall, viz. mercers, sheermen, cordwainers, glovers, tanners, taylors, and pewterers.

    By the late inland navigation, it has communication with the rivers Mersey, Dee, Ribble, Ouse, Trent, Derwent, Severn, Humber, Thames, Avon, &c. which navigation, including its windings, extends above five hundred miles, in the counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, York, Lancaster, Chester, Stafford, Warwick, Leicester, Oxford, Worcester, &c. Here are kept the sessions of the peace for this part of the county, called the Barony of Kendal.— The river here, which runs half through the town in a stony channel, abounds with trout and salmon; and on the banks of it live the dyers and tanners.

    Mr. Gray’s description of this town is equally injurious to it and his memory; but his account of the church and castle is worth transcribing. Near the end of the town stands Abbot Hall, the seat of Allen Chambre, Esq. and adjoining to it the church, a very large Gothic fabric, with a square tower; it has no particular ornaments, but double aisles; and at the east end, four chapels or choirs. Mr. Gray's account proceeds to the inside of the church, which he describes with his usual accuracy and ease:— Speaking of the four chapels or choirs he says, there is one of the Parr's; another of the Stricklands; the third is the proper choir of the church; and the fourth of the Bellinghams, a family now extinct, and who came into Westmorland before the reign of Henry the Seventh, and were seated at Burneside in the reign of Henry the Eighth. Adam Bellingham purchased of the king the twentieth part of a knight’s fee, in Helsington, a parcel of the possession of Henry duke of Richmond, and of Sir John Lumley (Lord Lumley) which his father, Thomas Bellingham, had farmed of the crown; he was succeeded by his son, James Bellingham, who erected the tomb in the Bellingham Chapel. There is an altar-tomb of Adam Bellingham, dated 1577, with a flat brass arms and quarterings; and in the window their arms alone argent, a hunting-horn sable, string gules. In the Strickland’s Chapel are several modern monuments, and another old altar-tomb, not belonging to the family: this tomb is probably of Ralph D’Aincourt, who, in the reign of King John, married Helen, daughter of Anselm de Furness, whose daughter and sole heiress, Elizabeth D’Aincourt, was married to William, son and heir of Sir Robert de Strickland, of Great Strickland, knight.— In the 23rd year of Henry the Third, the son and heir was Walter de Strickland, who lived in the reign of Edward the First, was possessed of the fortune of Anselm de Furness and D’Aincourt, in Westmorland, and erected the above tomb to the memory of his grandfather, Ralph D’Aincourt. The descendants of the said Walter de Strickland have lived at Sizergh, in this neighbourhood, ever since, and this chapel is the family burying place.—In Parr’s Chapel is a third altar-tomb in the corner; no figure or inscription, but on the side, cut in stone, an escutcheon of Ross of Kendal, three water buckets, quartering Parr, two bars in a border ingrailed; secondly, an escutcheon, three vaive-a-fess for Marmion; thirdly, an escutcheon, three chevronels braced, and a chief, which we take for Fitzhugh: at the foot is an escutcheon surrounded with the garter, bearing Ross and Parr, quarterly, quartering the other two before-mentioned, but cannot say whether this is Lord Parr, of Kendal, Queen Catherine’s father, or her brother, the Marquis of Northampton: perhaps it is a cenotaph for the latter, who was buried at Warwick, 1571.

    The following epitaph, composed for himself, by Mr. Ralph Tyrer, vicar of Kendal, who died in 1627, and placed in the choir, may be worth the reader’s perusal on account of its quaintness, and yet uncommon historical precision: "London bred mee,—Westminster fed mee, Cambridge sped mee,—My sister wed mee, Study taught mee,—Living sought mee, Learning brought mee,—Kendal caught mee, Labour pressed mee,—Sickness distressed mee, Death oppressed mee,—The grave possessed mee, God first gave mee,—Christ did save mee, Earth did crave mee,—And heaven would have mee." The remains of the castle are seated on a fine hill on the side of the river, opposite to the town; almost the inclosure wall remains, with four towers, two square and two round, but their upper parts and embattlements are demolished; it is of rough stone and cement, without any ornament or arms round; inclosing a court of like form, and surrounded by a moat; nor could it ever have been larger than it is, for there are no traces of outworks. There is a good view of the town and river, with a fertile open valley, through which it winds.

    If the traveller ascends from the end of Stramongate Bridge to the castle, which was the only way to it when it was in its glory, and is the easiest at pre sent, he will observe a square area that had been fortified by a deep moat, and connected to the castle by a drawbridge, where was probably the back court: the stones are entirely removed, and the ground levelled, "and laughing Ceres reassumes the land." The present structure was undoubtedly raised by the first barons of Kendal, and probably on the ruins of a "Roman station, this being the most eligible site in the county for a summer encampment; and, at a small distance from Water-crook, there are still some remains of a dark-red freestone, used in facings, and in the doors and windows, that have been brought from the environs of Penrithmoor, more probably by the Romans, than by either the Saxon or Norman lords. Fame says that this castle held out against Oliver Cromwell, and was battered from the Castle-law-hill; but this is not so probable as that its present ruinous state is owing to the jealousy of that usurper.

    Castle-law-hill is an artificial mount that overlooks the town of Kendal, and faces the castle, and surpasses it in antiquity; being one of those hills called Laws, where, in ancient times, distributive justice was administered. From its present appearance it seems to have been converted to different purposes; but, though well situated as a watch upon the castle, it would never be a proper place to batter it from, as it has been reported.

    The town of Kendal, according to the late population act, consisted of 1,424 houses, and 6,892 inhabitants; viz. 2,950 males, and 3,942 females, of which number 3,729 were returned as being employed in different trades and manufacture, and 151 in agriculture.

    There is a most pleasant morning’s ride of about five miles, down the east side of the river.—About one mile distant from Kendal, on the right, close by the Kennet, is Water-crook, where was the Concangium of the Romans: here a body of the vigilators (or watchmen) kept guard, and was the intermediate Station between the ditches at Ambleside and the garrison at Overborough. The line of the foss may be still traced, though much defaced by the plough. Altars, coins, and inscribed stones, have been found here; and in the wall of the barn, on the very area of the station, is still legible the inscription preserved by Mr. Horseley, to the memory of two freemen, with an imprecation against any one who should contaminate their sepulchre, and a fine to the fiscal.— There is also an altar without any inscription, and a Silenus without a head. At a small distance is a pyramidal knoll, crowned with a single tree, called Sattury; where probably something dedicated to the god Saturn has stood.

    Topography of Great Britain, written: 1802-29 by George Alexander Cooke

    KENDAL, or Kirkby Kendal, i.e. Kirk-by-Kent-Dale, is a municipal borough, market and union town, parish, head of a county court district and petty sessional division, in the Southern division of the county, Kendal ward, rural deanery of Kendal, archdeaconry of Westmorland and diocese of Carlisle, with a station on the Kendal and Windermere branch of the London and North Western railway from Oxenholme junction, 261 miles from London (252 by rail), 46 south from Carlisle, 72 ½ northwest from Manchester, 70 north from Liverpool, 22 north from Lancaster and 22 south-west from Appleby.

    The town, which is the largest in Westmorland, stands on an acclivity, gradually rising from the banks of the river Kent; it consists chiefly of one main street running north and south and comprising Stricklandgate, Highgata and Kirkland; the other streets branching therefrom include Finkle street and Stramongate. With the exception of a few modern buildings, the houses are built entirely of the mountain limestone peculiar to the district, and the roofs are covered with light green slates.

    The houses of the oldest portions of the town are peculiarly arranged in yards and courts; on either side of almost every thoroughfare there are curious narrow entries communicating with a number of houses entirely hidden: from sight of the casual wayfarer; the explanation of this fact is to be found in the necessity that once existed for ensuring protection against the raids of the northern plunderers; these approaches, on aocount of their narrowness, could be easily barricaded, and thus afforded an efficient defence to the inhabitants of the many houses in their rear.

    There are three well built stone bridges and one of iron across the river Kent; the last, a flat girder bridge, connecting Sandes’ avenue with Station road, was built in 1887 by the Corporation in commemoration of Her Majesty’s Jubilee. The Mill bridge, from New road to Aynam road, erected in 1818 by the Corporation, from designs of the celebrated engineer, John Rennie, took the place of one built in 1743, which, in its turn, supplanted one built in 1668-9 with stone pillars, the ancient wooden structure having been carried down by a flood. The Stramongate bridge, belonging to the county, and running from Stramongate to Wildman street, was enlarged and improved in 1793-4; a bridge appears to have existed af Stramongate from time immemorial, and is referred to in the registers of the see of Carlisle as “De ponte de Strowmondgats” in the year 1379. The Nether bridge, also a county bridge, connects Kirkland with Netherfield. The suspension bridge connecting Romney road and Lound road, and spanning the river Kent, was erected about 1906, and is a structure of steel, divided into four side spans of 25 feet each and one span 41 feet 6 inches, and a suspension span over the Kent of 120 feet. All these, with the exception of the central span, are carried by open web lattice girders, and were constructed from the designs of Mr. R. H. Clucas C. E. borough engineer.

    The river Kent affords excellent breeding ground for salmon; there is also an abundance of trout, smelt and sparling, but the latter are but poor sport; charm sometimes be met with, but are more commonly found in the various lakes.

    The Kendal and Lancaster Canal, which has its northern terminus here, was constructed in pursuance of various Acts of Parliament passed in 1792-3, 1799 and 1807. and was opened in sections in 1700. 1819 and 1826, the total cost being upwards of £600. 000: the carnal is now in two sections; the northern section from Kendal to Preston, a distance of 57 miles, has belonged since 1885 to the London and North Western Railway Co.; the southern portion, connected with the former by a tramway 5 miles in length, is worked by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Co. The northern section is fed by a reservoir near Killington. and at Kendal there is a spacious basin surrounded by convenient wharves.

    The town was lighted with oil lamps for the first time in 1767, but has been lighted with gas since July 25, 1825, from works near the canal, originally erected at a cost of £7,600. but since considerably enlarged; the Kendal Union Gas and Water Co. was formed under a special Act obtained in 1846, and the undertaking was transferred to the Corporation; of Kendal under a new Act in 1894, at a cost of £90,000. A good supply of water is obtained in part from works at, Bird’s Park, belonging to the same authority.

    Kendal is one of the towns near the line of aqueduct from Thirlmere lake for the further supply of Manchester. Thirlmere is now the property of the Corporation of Manchester, and under the provisions of the 81st section of the “Manchester Water Works Act, 1879,” the Corporation of Kendal may demand a supply which, with that existing, shall not exceed 25 gallons daily per head of the population, including a reasonable quantity for prospective increase. Until 1868 the supply of water depended on the gravitation works at Bird's Park, which include two reservoirs, having a joint capacity of 18,000, 000 gallons, drawn from an area of 210 acres; these works were established in 1847 under the provisions of the “Kendal Union Gas and Water Act, 1846,” and cost about £14,000. The pumping station at Mint’s Feet includes a set of boilers and steam pumps in duplicate; the well is an open one with a water surface of 54 feet by 25 feet, the water rising occasionally to within 9 feet of the ground level and being g feet deep. About 120,000, 000 gallons of water are supplied annually to Kendal, of which the gravitation works contribute 80,000, 000 and the pumping station 40,000, 000. A new reservoir was commenced in 1896 at Fisher Town, with a capacity of about 100,000, 000 gallons, at an estimated cost of about £30,000, which amount was left as a legacy to the town by the late mayor, Alderman Bindloss.

    The local sanitary arrangements are controlled by the Urban Authority, and an extensive and very perfect system of drainage was carried out during the period 1869-72 at a cost of upwards of £30,000, and extended in 1903.

    Kendal was incorporated in 1575 by Queen Elizabeth, whose charter was extended in 1636 by Charles I. and further privileges were subsequently bestowed by later Sovereigns. By the “Municipal Corporations Act, 1835” (5 & 6 William IV. c. 76), the government of the borough is now vested in a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen town councillors, the town being divided into three wards—East, West and North, each ward returaning six councillors. Under the “Local Government Act, 1894” (56 & 57 Viet. c. 73). the Town Council was constituted the Urban Authority. The borough was constituted a Parliamentary borough under the “Reform Act, 1832” (2 & 3 William IV. c. 45). and returned one member to Parliament, until the passing of the “Redistribution of Seats Art. 1885” (48 & 49 Viet. c. 23), by which the representation was merged in that of the Southern division of the county. The quarter sessions for Westmorland are held here, but the assizes at Appleby.

    That Kendal is a place of high antiquity is evident from the fortified earthworks and post-Roman remains which have been discovered or still exist, upon the site: in 1210 the town was attacked and plundered by a Scottish force and In the reign of Edw. I. it was again subject to their depredations: at a very early period it became a seat of the woollen manufacture, and is believed to have been the first place in England in which this manufacture was established, for in 1331 (5 Edw III. ) a letter of protection was granted by that monarch to John Kemp, of Flanders, cloth weaver, so that he might, together with his “men, servants and apprentices,” exercise his craft in this country, and he accordingly settled at Kendal; and some years later, large numbers of weavers came to England from Brabant: by 1390 the Kendal woollen manufactures had acquired importance, and in the reign of Rich. II. and Hen. IV were the subjects of special enactments; the material itself was spotted by hand, or dyed with various colours, among which the “Kendal green” obtained a high degree of popularity: the woollen industry here was in the highest repute at the beginning of the 17th century, and the Kendal goods were largely exported to America and the West Indies; knit yarn and worsted stockings once also made a flourishing trade here, and these manufactures, in spite of the severe competition of the present day, and the absence of coal in the district, continue to be actirely maintained. The military spirit was constantly stimulated by the necessities of “border service " against the Scottish marauders, and at Flodden Field, 9 Sept. 1513, the men of Kendal held their own, and the prowess of their bowmen has been celebrated in verse: in the religious rising of 1536, known as “the Pilgrimage of Grace,” they also took part; and in 1584 and 1593, lists of all male inhabitants in the county from 16 to 60 years of age were made out, all of whom were required to muster, when necessary, for the defence of the border. Kendal, like many other towns, had its Corpus Christi plays, and these are mentioned as having been given in 1604; in 1617, Jas. I. on his return from Scotland, visited the town, and was lodged in Strickland-gate; in 1635 (Oct. 18), the river Kent rose and flooded the churchyard and vestry; this again happened 11 Sept. 1672; and at a later date, 9 Feb. 1831, when a great part of the town was inundated: in 1696, a mob of “unemployed” from Kendal traversed and terrorised the surrounding district, demanding alms; many were arrested and some sent to Appleby under guard. On the outbreak of the “Rebellion” of 1715, a force of 1,600 Scots arrived in the town on their march southward and stayed one night: in 1731, the first local newspaper, called the “Kendal Courant,” was published, being issued 1 Jan. in that year; and in 1740 fire engines were purchased: in the second “Rebellion” of 1745 the Scots again marched into Kendal on Nov. 21, 22 and 23, the rearmost body being led by Prince Charles Edward, the “Young Pretender”; his father, Prince James Edward, was thereupon proclaimed king, and himself Regent, at the Market Cross, the mayor and senior alderman being compelled to attend; the Prince, who was accompanied by James (Drummond), 3rd Duke of Perth, is said to have lodged at the house, 95 Stricklandgate, now occupied by Mr. W. Bousfield Thompson; on his retreat, the Prince again came to Kendal, 13 Dec. and stayed at the same house, which on the day following received the Duke of Cumberland, who was then in hot pursuit. In 1753 the post-chaise was introduced here; stage wagons in place of pack horses first ran to and from Kendal and London in 1756, and in 1762 the first stage coach, called the “Flying Machine,” ran hither from London with six horses, but the London mails do not appear to have been carried by coach till 1785; in that year also umbrellas were first seen in Kendal: in 1790 the cruel sport of bull baiting was suppressed by the corporation; and shortly afterwards (1795-6) a library and museum were established. On What Monday, 1811 (June 3), a riot took place here, arising out of some disturbance between the country folk and towns people, and the soldiers of the 55th regiment: in 1817 (Nov. 9), the town was shaken by an earthquake, and in 1843 (Mar. 17), a similar visitation occurred; and a slight shock is recorded on April 11, 1840: the year 1833 witnessed the first election of a member of Parliament for Kendal, unfortunately attended by serious rioting, many persons being injured: a regular police force was first organised in 1836, with a station in Finkle street; and on Sept. 1, 1852, the electric telegraph was extended to Kendal by the London and North Western railway: pillar letter boxes were first erected in Dec. 1857; and in Dec. 1859, a Volunteer Bifle Corps (now 2nd Batt. Border Regt. ) was formed: later occurrences and matters of interest are mentioned in the other portions of this topography.

    The barony of Kendal, comprising a portion of the county of Westmorland, was bestowed by the Conqueror, together with part of Lancashire, upon Ivo de Tailboys, or Taillebois, brother of Fulk, Earl of Anjou: he married Lucy, sister of the Saxon earls Edwin and Morcar, and his great grandson William, either on account of his property in Lancashire, or because he was governor of Lancaster castle, assumed the surname of de Lancaster; his son, of the same name, left an only daughter and heiress, who married Gilbert Fitz Reinfride, and from their daughter Helewise were descended the Parrs, barons Parr of Kendal; William, the eldest son of this Gilbert, re assumed the name of de Lancaster, and was the last of the legitimate line of the de Lancasters, barons of Kendal; he had, however, a bastard brother, Roger, whose son, John de Lancaster, of Rydal, having distinguished himself in the Scottish wars, was summoned to Parliament as Baron de Lancaster by writs from 29th Dec. 1299, to 12th Dec. 1300, and his name, as “Joh's de Lancastr’ Dns de Grisdale,” is affixed to the letter of the barons to the Pope in 1301; he died without issue in 1334, when the barony of Lancaster became extinct.

    Kendal, or Kentdale, as a division of the county of Westmorland, has given peerage titles to various persons and families: in the first instance. John Plantagenet, 3rd son of Henry IV. was created in 1414, earl of Kendal, but the title became extinct on his death, 14th Sept. 1435: the earldom of Kendal was next bestowed in 1443 on John Beaufort, duke of Somerset, and again became extinct on his death, 27th May, 1444: in 1446 John de Foix, Vicomte de Chastillion, is stated to have been created Earl of Kendal, but he was never summoned to Parliament, and is believed to have surrendered the peerage on his becoming a liege subject to Louis XI. King of France, in or shortly before 1462: he died c. 1485. The dukedom of Kendal seems to have been first bestowed upon Charles Stuart, 3rd but 2nd surviving son of James, duke of York, afterwards King James II. but on his death, 22nd May, 1667, this peerage ceased. In 1689 the earldom of Kendal was revived in favour of George, Prince of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne, but as he died without surviving issue, 28th Oct. 1708, the title was then extinguished: the dukedom was a second time bestowed in 1716 upon Ermengarde Melusina, Baroness von der Schulenberg in Germany, and mistress of King George I. subsequently created by the Emperor of Germany Princess of Eberstein: she resided chiefly at Kendal House, Twickenham, Middlesex, and died unmarried 10th May, 1743, and the title therefore again lapsed: lastly, the barony of Kendal was conferred in 1784, together with the earldom of Lonsdale and other titles, upon Sir John Lowther bart. but all the honours of this creation expired on his death, 24th May, 1802, and Kendal does not now bestow any peerage title.

    The parish church of the Holy Trinity, standing in the township of Kirkland, appears from Domesday to have been of Saxon foundation, but to have been either wholly rebuilt or greatly enlarged and altered in 1201, and restored about 1230: it then consisted of nave and chancel, with continuous aisles and a western tower, but at later periods additional aisles were built on the north and south, and the church, as now existing, is a rectangular embattled structure of four aisles, the central portion comprising the chancel of four and nave of five bays, with lean-to aisles and clerestory, all, save the clerestory, in the Early English style: on the south is a continuous additional aisle, known as the Parr aisle, the date of which is uncertain, and on the north, a similar, but much more spacious annexe, called the Bellingham aisle, built in the reign of Henry VIII. and therefore in the Late Perpendicular style: at the west end of the Parr aisle is a lofty and spacious porch, erected in 1847 in place of an earlier one with an Early Norman doorway: the tower, at the west end of the nave, rises from within the church, and is there carried on three massive open arches; it is 25 feet square and 80 feet in height: the upper stage, which is a Perpendicular-addition, has a battlemented parapet and eight low crocketed pinnacles; the lower portion belongs to the earlier fabric, and has a good recessed west doorway: in the tower is a chiming clock with dial, presented in 1891 by his family, as a memorial to the late Ald. George Foster Braithwaite, and a fine peal of 10 bells, bearing the dates 1631, 1774, 1775 and 1816, besides a small sanctus bell: the church underwent some renovation in 1829, when the arcades were cleared of the limewash with which they had been covered: in 1847 the western organ gallery with its wings was removed, and during the period 1850-52 the whole building was thoroughly restored at a total cost of £6,400, to which the patrons, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, contributed the sum of £1,800: the work included the rebuilding of the east end of the chancel, with a new east window, the reconstruction of the roof of the chancel, and the erection of a chancel arch of timber work, with richly-moulded hammer beams, having traceries spandrils and angel corbels bearing shields: the body of the church was also entirely renewed: in 1868 the roof of the north aisle was renewed in pine: the easternmost portions of the aisles at one time formed chapels: the Bellingham chapel, now serving as a choir vestry, occupies the two eastern bays of the aisle of that name, rising considerably above the aisle roof and having a clerestory: the elaborate fan-traceries oak roof, renewed in 1850-52, is adorned with gilt pendants and bosses, displaying the heraldic devices of the Bellingham family: in the chapel is a tomb of feet stone, the sides of which are adorned with carved shields of arms, of Bellingham quartering Burneshead; on the upper slab are male and female effigies in brass, with four shields of arms and an inscription, also on brass, to Sir Roger Bellingham kt. the founder of the chapel, ob. 18th July, 1533, and Margaret (Aske) his wife; the inscription was renewed in facsimile of the original by the late Mr. Broadbent, of Kendal: in the chapel is suspended an ancient helmet, said to have belonged to a certain Major Robert Philipson, a Royalist officer, living during the period of the Commonwealth on Belle Isle, in Windermere, and known, from his daring spirit and licentious character, as “Robin the Devil;” the legend, referred to by Sir Walter Scott in “Rokeby,” Canto VI. Stanza 33, is that on one occasion, accompanied by a small band of cavaliers, be came to Kendal on a Sunday in search of Col. Briggs, a leading magistrate and an officer in the Cromwellian army, against whom he cherished feelings of the strongest hostility, and rode on horseback into the church, but, failing to meet his foe, was retreating, when he lost his helmet by a blow on passing through a doorway, and it was thereupon taken up and placed in the church as a record of this act of sacrilege: on a pier in the chapel is a monument of stone and marble to Thomasin, wife of Sir William Thornburgh kt. of Selside, with a shield of arms quarterly of six and an inscription to William Guy, of Watercrook, gent. ald. and thrice mayor of Kendal, ob. 25 Dec. 1683, and there are others, removed hither in 1852, to Alice, wife of Roger Bateman, ob. 25 March, 1637; and to Frances (Backhouse), wife of John Strickland of Strickland, buried 24 June, 1725: the original colours of the Kendal and Lonsdale Volunteers hang on the wall in this chapel, where they were deposited about 1816; the chapel, owing to the extinction of the Bellingham family, is now the property of the parish and is used as a choir vestry: between the Bellingham chapel and the sacrarium is now the organ chamber: the corresponding space on the south side, inclosed by screen work, forms the Strickland chapel, in which is a low tomb of black marble with recumbent effigy, under a flat canopy supported on four pillars, erected in memory of Walter, son of Sir Thomas Strickland kt. of Sizergh, ob. 20 Sept. 1656, and four other infant children; there are also here other memorials of the. Stricklands from 1737 to 1814 and an ancient monument of grey marble bearing the impaled or quartered arms of Deincourt, Strickland and Neville: the Parr chapel, which adjoins, and forms the east end of that aisle, is now a vestry; it has a flat ribbed ceiling with roses at the intersections and five shields of arms, displaying the arms of Parr quartering Brus, Fitzhugh, Green, Maplethorpe and Roos; on the south side is a large tombstone of black marble, bearing the arms of Parr quartering Fitzhugh and Roos, and the shields of Brus and others separately; it has no inscription, but is believed to mark the burial place of Sir William Parr K. G. and knight banneret, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry, 5th baron Fitzhugh, and died before 1512: on the cap of one of the columns in this chapel, and over each of the south windows is a maiden’s head, the badge of the Parr family: the chancel, inclosed by screens on both sides, is fitted with choir stalls, and has an arcaded reredos of Caen stone with marble shafts and sculptured heads of kings and bishops: the baptistery, an inclosed space on the south side of the tower, is laid with tiles, and contains a marble font raised on a massive stone base in the form of a cross pattee: the organ, originally built in 1702, was repaired and enlarged in 1804 and again in 1824, and in 1846 was reconstructed at a cost of £600, but in 1877 it was replaced by a new organ, built by Willis, of London, at a cost of £1,300, and now standing on the north side of the chancel: the east window of the chancel, renewed as stated at the restoration in 1850-52, was filled with stained glass at the cost of Hilton Halhead esq. of Liverpool: the stained west window in the tower was given by James Gandy esq. of Heaves, near Kendal, and there are many others, including sixteen in the clerestory: besides the tombs previously mentioned, there is in the Parr aisle a monument restored about 1815, from fragments preserved in the vestry, to Sir Augustine Nichols kt. justice of the Common Pleas and chancellor to Charles, Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles I.; he was born at Ecton, Northants, in 1559, and died here while on circuit, 3 Aug. 1616, and was buried in the church: and in the church of Faxton, Northants, where he had an estate, is a monument, with a substantially identical inscription: here also is a marble slab inscribed to John Archer esq. M. D., J. P. ob. 4 Dec. 1735: in the chancel lies buried Robert Dawson, Bishop of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh, 1627-43, ob. 13 April, 1643, to whom there is an inscribed brass: at the east end of the north aisle was interred Sir Thomas Braythwaite, knighted at Theobalds, Herts, 6 June, 1616, ob. 14 May, 1683, and to whom there is an inscribed brass, now in the Bellingham chapel: in or near this aisle are also monuments to John Leyburne esq. of Cunswick, ob. 9 Dec. 1737; Sir John Wilson kt. F. R. S. justice of the Common Pleas, d. 18 Oct. 1793; George Romney, the eminent portrait painter, d. here 15 Nov. 1802, and buried at his birthplace, Dalton-in-Furness; and Sir Alan Chambre, kt. justice of the Common Pleas, d. 20 Sept. 1823: on the north wall is also a marble tablet to Zachary Hubbersty and his family, with a group in marble, by Flaxman R. A. of a widow, with six children: in the porch is a memorial, with epitaph in Latin, to Thomas Sandes, founder of the hospital and school bearing his name, ob. 22 Aug. 1681: of the vicars of Kendal, there are inscribed brasses to Ralph Tirer B. D. ob. 4 June, 1627; and William Crosby M. A. ob. 7 Dec. 1753, and memorials either in the church or church yard to Michael Stanford M. A. ob. 3 March, 1682; Richard Cuthbert M. A. ob. 7 Nov. 1744; Thomas Symonds D. D. ob. 16 Feb. 1789; Henry Robinson M. A. d. 25 Feb. 1806; Matthew Murfitt M. A. d. 7 Nov. 1814; and John Hudson M. A. d. 31 Oct. 1843; and in the cemetery is interred Joseph Watkins Barnes M. A. d. 15 May, 1858; at the north-west angle is a monument of white marble, erected to the officers, non-commissioned officers and privates of the 55th regt. who died during the Crimean war of 1854-5; and on the wall near it are suspended the colours carried by this regt. (now the 2nd batt. Border regt. ) from 1759 to 1888, together with a flag captured in the China campaign of 1860; in the vestry is a stone, formerly part of an arched recess, discovered in 1829 in a pillar on the south side of the chancel; it bears an inscription which has been read—“Salutis nostrae anno 1201,” and assumed to indicate the enlargement or rebuilding of the church at that

    date: the ancient church plate was, it is said, stolen in 1778, but has been in part replaced: the church affords 1,360 sittings. The churchyard was closed against interments by orders issued in 1854-5: in 1635 and 1672 is was flooded by the overflow of the river Kent. The registers date from the year 1555, but the entire register from 1631 to 1679 is missing, as well as portions of other years, or entire years between 1558 and 1631: there were in 1831 fifteen volumes; there are now, including those in use at present, 35; this number does not include 14 books which contain copies of the entries of christenings at the “chapels” in the ancient parish of Kendal from 1813 to about 1850. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £401, with residence, in the gift of Trinity College, Cambridge, and held since 1896 by the Rev. William Robert Trench LL. M. of Trinity College, Cambridge, hon. canon of Liverpool, rural dean of Kendal, Proctor in York Convocation, chaplain to the Bishop of Carlisle, and surrogate.

    All Hallows’ chapel of ease, attached to the parish church, on Fell Side, was erected in 1865 at a cost of about £1,200, mainly contributed by George, 1st baron Wolverton, and is a building of stone in the Perpendicular style, consisting of nave, south porch and a western turret containing one bell: the carved reredos was presented by Lady Wolverton in memory of her husband, and on the south side is a stained window: the chapel affords 150 sittings, and in the basement below is a mission room, holding 50 persons.

    St. George’s is an ecclesiastical parish formed out of Kendal parish, 28 April, 1848. The church, standing on the eastern side of the Kent, near the foot of Stramongate bridge, and built in 1839-41 in place of Old St. George’s chapel erected in 1754, at a cost of £4,500, is an edifice of limestone in the Lancet style, from designs by Mr. George Webster, architect, consisting of chancel, nave, and two octagonal turrets, each 100 feet in height, with low spires, one of which contains a bell: the interior was altered and re-arranged in 1882-3, a cost of £1,507, raised by public subscription, and a pulpit of oak erected; it stands on four marble shafts rising from a stone pedestal: there are 1,044 sittings. The register dates from the year 1849. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £230, with 85 acres of glebe and residence, in the gift of the vicar of Kendal, and held since 1893 by the Rev. Robert William Britton M. A. of Balliol College, Oxford, and surrogate. The parsonage house, in Castle street, was built in 1849 at a cost of £850, raised by subscription.

    The district church of St. Thomas, at the northern end of Stricklandgate, erected in 1837 at a cost of about £3,000, to which Mrs. Thomasin Richardson contributed £1,000, is a building of stone in the Early English style, from designs by Mr. George Webster. architect, and consists of western chancel, nave, and an eastern tower, surmounted by crocketed pinnaces and rising to a height of 95 feet: Mrs. Thomasin Richardson also gave, in addition, £1,000 for an endowment, and presented the organ, which cost £300: the pulpit, erected in 1882 as a memorial to the Rev. Canon J. A. La Trobe M. A. for 25 years vicar of this church (1839-64), has an arcaded stone base with alternately single and clustered shafts of polished marble, and carved capitals and cornice: the west windows are stained: there are 700 sittings. The churchyard was closed to interments in 1876. The register dates from the year 1837. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £200, with residence, in the gift of five trustees, and held since 1901 by the Rev. Carl Ludvig Olsen M. A. of Hatfield Hall, Durham.

    The Catholic church, in the New road, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and St. George, and erected in 1837 at a cost of about £4,000, is an edifice of stone in the Lancet style, consisting of chancel, nave, and two turrets with crocketed spires, one of which contains a bell: on the principal front, within a niche, is a sculptured group of St. George and the Dragon: the west window over the high altar is filled with stained glass, as a memorial to the Rev. Thomas Wilkinson, for 65 years priest of this church, and who died at the age of 95: there are two other stained windows, and four statues of Out Lord and certain saints: the font is of stone and has a suspended cover of oak: the church will seat 700. The mission here was established in 1750. Dodding Green Catholic chapel, near the town, is in Skelsmergh parish.

    The Congregational chapel, Lowther street, was erected in 1762, and will seat 300. Zion Congregational chapel, off Highgate, was erected in 1898 in the Gothic style, and has 700 sittings, and adjoining is a lecture hall; the former chapel, in New Inn yard, Highgate, was built in 1844, and is now used as a Sunday school. St. John’s Presbyterian Church of England, Sandes avenue, erected in 1896, will seat 250; the register of members dates from 1753, and the church was originally formed in Natland in 1662. The Unitarian chapel, Market place, was built in 1720, and has 200 sittings. The Wesleyan chapel, Stricklandgate, erected in 1882, on the site of an earlier structure built in 1808, affords 810 sittings; attached is a burial ground, now closed: there is another chapel in Chapel lane, Kirkland, built in 1873, and seating 150, and a mission room in Long pool. The Plymouth Brethren's chapel, Stramongate, erected in 1858 and enlarged in 1873, will seat 300 persons. The Primitive Methodist chapel, Blackhall yard, erected in 1871, will seat 250 persons. The Friends’ meeting-house, in Stramongate and New road, was erected in 1816, at a cost of about £4,000, on the site of the old meeting-house built in 1688, and will seat about 1,200 persons: the register of births belonging to this chapel dates from 1649; marriages, 1654, and burials, 1655. The mission hall, in Gillingate, was erected in 1894. The Inghamite chapel, on Summer Hill, was built in 1844, on the site of the old meeting-house erected in 1757, and affords 250 sittings: the burial ground was closed in 1855: this sect has no paid ministry. The Salvation Army Barracks are in Blackhall yard, Stricklandgate.

    The cemetery is situated on both sides of the road leading from Kirkland to Parkside; the larger portion, consecrated 23 Aug. 1854, being 8 acres, and the smaller portion, which is unconsecrated, 2 ½ acres in extent: there are chapels and lodges to each: the total cost of the original ground, including the chapels, was £3,790; in 1868 the cemetery was enlarged at a cost of about £910, and a further enlargement was made in 1895 at a cost of about £1,100; it is under the control of a Burial Board of 15 members. In Castle street is a small cemetery of about 1 acre in extent, opened in 1843 for the use of all denominations, and having one mortuary chapel. On the Sedbergh road is a cemetery of 1 acre, opened in 1860 at a cost of £150, for the use of the Society of Friends.

    The Town Hall, which stands in the centre of the town, was erected during the period 1893-96, on the north side of and adjoining the old building, at a cost of about £15,000, of which William Bindloss esq. J. P. and Mrs. Bindloss contributed £7,000, and the Corporation the remainder. The building, designed in the Renaissance style by Mr. Stephen Shaw F. R. I. B. A. of Kendal, and incorporating the existing structure, with certain modifications, contains on the upper floor a large hall or assembly room, formed by an enlargement of the old room and estimated to seat 900 persons, with retiring, cloak and committee rooms; on the ground floor is a council chamber, police and sessions court and municipal offices; and on the lower ground floor borough and county police stations. The council chamber is hung with portraits, and in the magistrates’ room is one of Thomas Shaw D. D., F. R. S. born at Kendal in 1692; above the entrance hall is a lofty tower, about 120 feet in height, containing an illuminated clock with chimes.

    The old Town Hall, incorporated in the new structure, was originally erected in 1827, by a joint stock company, as the “Whitehall Assembly Rooms,” at a cost of about £6,000, but in 1858 was purchased by the Corporation for the sum of £2,250; it was a building of stone, in the Classic style, from designs by Mr. George Webster, architect, of Kendal. The Courts of Quarter and Petty Sessions, the County Court and the meetings of the Town and County Councils are held in the new Town Hall.

    The corporation insignia comprise two maces, a jewel, a sword of state, mayor’s chair and badge and common seals. The maces, of silver, form a pair, but differ slightly in height, one being 26 ½ and the other 27 inches; each has a plain shaft with foot knot, and central hexagonal band and circular crowned heads, surmounted by orbs, the crosses of which, however, have been lost; the exterior of the heads is divided into compartments by the usual foliaged figures, and adorned with the royal badges; the maces bear the London hall marks of 1647-8 and the monogram of the maker. By the charter of Charles I. (1635-6), confirmed by Charles II. in 1684, the mayor was empowered to have a sword of state carried before him by an appointed sword-bearer (portator gladii); the present sword, of the time of Charles II. or later, is 3ft. 11 ½ in. long, and has hilt, pommel and mountings of silver, with the royal arms of the Stuarts and those of the borough; the scabbard is of black velvet. The mayor’s jewel, presented in 1875, on the 300th anniversary of the grant of the charter of Queen Elizabeth, in memory of the late Ald. John Fisher, who died 2 Oct. 1870, consists of a large gold Maltese cross, set with diamonds and pearls, and bearing a medallion portrait of Queen Elizabeth, surrounded by a fillet with the legend: ELIZABETH D: G: ANG: FRA: ET: HIB: REGINA; on the back is an inscription recording the circumstances of the gift. The mayor’s chain of gold consists of a number of angular shields set on oblong frames and coupled together by circular links; in the centre are the royal arms of the Tudors, pendent from which is the badge, displaying the emblazoned arms of the borough; the chain and badge were presented by the burgesses, 28 Nov. 1875, on the same occasion as the jewel. The original common seal is circular and of silver and 1 ½ inches in diameter; it bears a quaint view of the town, with the church on one side and the castle in the background; at the base are the letters K K, and the date 1576; the other seal, probably dating from 1635-6, is: also circular but rather smaller, and has for a device a half-length figure of King Charles I. crowned and holding the orb and sword, surrounding which is a marginal legend. The insignia &c. are kept in an elaborately carved box, given by John Hudson esq. mayor, 1852-3.

    The corporation plate includes a loving cup and two tankards; the loving cup, presented by Thomas Sleddal, first mayor of Kendal (1636-7) and re-made at the end of the 17th century, is of silver, inches in height, and bears an inscription; the earlier but smaller tankard has a flat lid and an inscription showing that it was given in 1629 by the alderman and his colleagues: the larger and similar tankard was given by will, dated 9 Nov. 1674, by Thomas Braithwaite, recorder 1648-73, who left £10 for its purchase. The corporation also possess two state chairs, presented by Lord Bective in 1875, and two snuff boxes, one of ebony, of local make, and another of black horn inlaid with silver, the gift of Richard Nelson, mayor, 17 Dec. 1885. The use of official gowns was discontinued in 1836. This account of the insignia is compiled from particulars kindly furnished by W. H. St. John Hope esq. M. A. Assist. Sec. Soc. Antiq. Lon. The original minute book of the corporation, dating from 1575, consists of about 350 leaves, and is an interesting record of the municipal government and customs of the borough.

    The House of Correction, which stands on a hill at the north end of the town, adjoining the road to Windermere (and was for some time used as a Military Prison), was built in 1786, on the site of an earlier thatched structure, from a plan said to have been suggested by John Howard, the eminent philanthropist, who visited the old gaol in 1779; in 1817 it was enlarged and much altered, and further enlarged and re modelled in 1893, at a cost of £7,500; the building contains 71 ordinary cells. The prison has not been used since 1901.

    St. George’s Hall, in Stramongate, built in 1880, and the property of Richard F. Chorley esq. is the largest hall for public gatherings in the town; it is fitted for theatrical performances, and will hold 1,200 persons; the Freemasons occupy a room here.

    Stramongate Hall, in the street of that name, was built in 1879-1881, at a cost of £4,000, raised by public subscription, and belongs to the Society of Friends, who use it for a Sunday school and for meetings of a religious and social character; it consists of a large hall, seating 450, and about 20 class rooms.

    The Public Library, on the west side of the Market place with a frontage in Stricklandgate, and formerly the market house, was built by public subscription in 1855 at a cost of £700; in Dec. 1892, it was opened as a public library, subscriptions amounting to over £2,200 having been raised for that purpose; the library contains about 13,000 volumes, and is available to persona outside the borough on payment of an annual subscription of 2s. 6d.; “travelling” libraries are supplied from this library to schools and institutions in the county on payment of a small charge.

    The Post Office, in Finkle street, was enlarged in 1890 and now affords every facility for the transaction of the postal business of the town.

    The Literary and Scientific Institution in Strickland-gate was founded in 1835 through the efforts of Thomas Gough and Cornelius Nicholson. Lectures are given during the winter months: the lecture hall, which seats 250 persons, is also used for meetings of all kinds; and there is a library containing about 9,500 volumes and a good supply of current periodicals and magazines: there were in 1906, 184 members: the building also contains an extensive museum, with a carefully arranged and very valuable collection of fossils belonging to the Cambrian, Silurian and Carboniferous rocks of the district, a beautiful collection of shells, ornithological specimens, some Japanese and Chinese curiosities and antiquities of local interest: there is also a well stocked mineral room, and the walls of the staircase and vestibule are covered with weapons and other objects from distant lands; in 1890, a collection of Siberian fur dresses was presented by the late Mr. Henry Seeholm; the museum is open daily (except Sunday), from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. except on Thursday, when it is closed at 1 p.m.; the library is open daily (except Sunday) to members, from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. except on Thursday, when it is closed at 1 p.m.: The Right Hon. J. W. Lowther M. P. Speaker of the House of Commons, is president; Henry King esq. hon. treasurer; Harry B. Greenwood B. A., LL. B. hon. secretary.

    The Working Men’s Institute in the Market place was established in 1841 and comprises a news room and library of about 2,500 volumes.

    The Young Men’s Christian Association in Stricklandgate, founded in 1865, comprises a good gymnasium, news room, draughts and chess room, a large and well-appointed writing room, with a library of about 300 volumes, and a lecture hall seating about 100 persons.

    The Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society was founded in 1866; president, the Lord Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness.

    The Kendal Chamber of Commerce was organized in 1,857 from a previous society, and incorporated in 1875: the meetings are held on the premises of the Literary and Scientific Institution in Stricklandgate.

    The Conservative Club in Highgate was established in 1878, and in 1906 had over 800 members; it contains news, billiard, recreation, smoking and discussion rooms, and has an attached bowling green: the working men’s section has separate reading, discussion, billiard and recreation rooms.

    The Liberal Club is in Stricklandgate, at the top of Finkle street.

    The Kendal Club, opened as a non political club, September 7th, 1893, occupies premises in the “Mercury and Times” chambers, Finkle street, and contains a well-appointed billiard room, chess and draughts room &c.

    There are two Golf Clubs here: the Kendal Golf Club with links on the old racecourse, and the Kendal Serpentine Golf Club, with links and club houses for ladies and gentlemen on the Heights: and on the Fell is a good shooting range of 1,100 yards, with a number of targets.

    The Westmorland and Kendal District Agricultural Society bolds an annual exhibition here on the Thursday nearest the 20th September, of farming stock &c. open to those within a radius of 30 miles.

    Kendal has long been noted for the excellency of its woollen manufactures, particularly knit stockings and cloths, which were introduced by emigrants from Flanders in 1331, and so early as the reigns of Richard II. and Henry IV. special laws were enacted for the better regulation of the “Kendal cloths;” notwithstanding severe competition, the spirit, industry and enterprise of the inhabitants has maintained these manufactures up to the present day. The principal articles now made here are travelling rugs, horse cloths, collar checks, linseys, fancy trouserings and cloths, hand-knit hosiery, guernsey frocks, girths, mits and braces, and some other descriptions of goods. Messrs. Whitwell, Hargreaves and Co. have a large and extensive wool warehouse close to the station, and a line of railway runs from the railway company’s main line into the premises. The Westmorland Woollen Co. does an extensive retail trade in all parts of the kingdom in the purest woollen goods, amongst which are dress materials, tweeds, serges, skirtings, rugs &c. The chief trade in carrying by water is in coal, coke, timber, stone, slates and other heavy commodities. Coal is brought here from Wigan. Close to the river is a carpet manufactory, and there are several iron foundries, agricultural implement works and breweries; as well a marble works, fish-hook and fishing tackle manufactories, wool carding works, a tannery and several tobacco and snuff and boot and shoe manufactories; and near the town are two large gunpowder works and two paper mills. The making of fish-hooks, carried on by Messrs. Hutchinson & Son, is perhaps the oldest business of its kind in Great Britain; having been in existence, and in the hands of the same family, in the early part of the 18th century. The tobacco trade was established in Kendal a few years after the introduction of the weed into this country in 1584; and this is one of the few inland towns permitted by the board of excise to have a tobacco bonding warehouse, which is situated on the river side, near the railway station; the amount of duty paid through the warehouse for tobacco and wine and spirits duties averages about £50,000 annually. There are three banks: —the Kendal Bank, established in 1788 and owned by the Bank of Liverpool Limited, is a handsome building on the east side of Highgate, close to the Town Hall: the London City and Midland Bank Limited, formerly the Bank of Westmorland, on the west side of Highgate, erected in 1835, is a building in the classic style with a front of the Doric order, on which is a life-sized figure of a lion couchant: the Lancaster Bank, on the west side of Stricklandgate, was bought by the Lancaster Banking Co. in 1864, for use as a branch establishment. There is also the Yorkshire Penny Bank, in Stricklandgate.

    The principal hotels are the “King’s Arms,” the “Commercial” and the Railway hotel.

    The market here was first established under a charter of Richard I.: tolls were, until 1855, payable to the lord of the manor, but in that year they were bought off by subscription. The Market house in the Market place, erected by subscription in 1887 at a cost of £4,253, on land partly given by Messrs. John Brunskill, Matthew Burton and Thomas Richmond, subject to cellar rights under the building, is a large and convenient structure: vegetables and other commodities are sold in the covered and open market place: the pig and potato market is held in the upper part of Stramongate, and the cattle market at the bottom of Kent street: the shambles for the sale of meat, opened in 1804, are conveniently situate near the Market place, and there is a fish market in Finkle street. Saturday is the market day when there is a good attendance. The fairs are: February 22, for horses; March 22; April 29, for cattle; Whit Saturday, for hiring servants; November 8, for cattle; November 9 for horses; Martinmas for hiring servants. A market for fat sheep and cattle is held every Monday near the railway station.

    The first newspaper published in Kendal was the “Kendal Courant,” issued by Thomas Cotton, in 1731; this was followed in 1734 by the “Kendal Weekly Mercury,” published for twelve or thirteen years by Thomas Ashbnrner (successor to Thomas Cotton), after which time “The Agreeable Miscellany” was issued; in 1811 “The Kendal Chronicle” appeared, but in 1834 it was renamed the “Kendal Mercury,” and is now called the “Kendal Mercury and Times;” in 1818 the “Westmorland Gazette” was commenced, and until Nov. 1819, was edited by the distinguished writer, Thomas de Quincey, it continues to the present day; “The Kendal Times,” started in 1864, was amalgamated with the “Mercury” in 1879.

    Kendal is the head quarters of the A Squadron, Westmoreland & Cumberland Imperial Yeomanry, the 2nd (Westmoreland) Volunteer Battalion, The Border Regiment, three companies of which are stationed in the town and have a drill hall in Aynam road and the Lancaster and Border Bearer Co. Royal Army Medical Corps (Volunteers) have head quarters in New Road.

    The Baths and Washhouses, in Allhallows lane, were purchased by the Corporation from the Baths and Washhouses Co. in 1884, in which year also a swimming bath was added the total cost of this addition and the purchase being £4,931: the swimming bath is 60 feet by 30 feet, with a minimum depth of 3 ½ feet and a maximum of 6 ½ feet; annexed is a shower bath and 16 dressing boxes, and above is a gallery for spectators; competitions are organised by the Kendal Amateur Swimming Club and three classes of certificates are given for proficiency in swimming. There are five private baths, and a laundry available for 29 workers at one time.

    Charities. —In 1904 by order of the Charity Commissioners dated 11 Oct. in that year, a number of the following charities called the “General Poor’s Charities” were vested in a body of 18 trustees; George Rushforth, clerk. The charities for distribution are as follows: —Fleming’s of £4 10s.; Banks’s and Holmes’s of £2 1s.; Mason’s of £4 10s.; Prissoe’s of £15; Stephenson’s of £100 yearly, in sums of £1 each to 6 poor men and 6 poor women, the remainder being expended in other charitable purposes as the trustees may advise; Bryan Lancaster’s of £400; Whitehead’s of £1 10s. and the Kirkland Dole of 15s. 6d.; Janson’s of about £55 yearly, is for money and cloth; Gandy’s of £20 yearly, for food; Emma Unthank’s of £7 2s. 8d. and Elizabeth Thexton’s of £11 yearly, are for food and clothing; Mary Ann Jackson’s of £2 15s. 2d. yearly, is for food, clothing and fuel; Mary Carter’s of £1 5s. yearly, for coals; Agnes Mitchell’s of £2 2s. Archer’s of £31, Gilpin's of £3 7s. 8d. Park’s, Towers’s and Stratford’s of about £4 and Simpson’s of £4 9s. yearly, are for clothing; the interest of Braithwaite’s gift of £198 15s. 2d. Sleddall's of £156 7s.10d. Bordley’s of £119 2s. 11d. and Gardner’s of £108 5s. 1d. invested in Consols, amounting to £17 os. 4d. yearly and Rigg’s of £7 10s. yearly, besides other gifts amounting to £5 4s. yearly, are all for bread; Dorothy Greenhow’s of £221 4s. yearly, derived from £5,530 invested in 4 per cent, railway stock, is for the payment of 10s. per week to eight Nonconformist spinsters; a sum of £456 invested in India 3 per cent, stock, is the residue of a fund raised by public subscription in 1830, to meet the exceptional distress then existing among the poor, and the income is now only applied when such distress occurs; Sleddall’s of £g 16s. 8d. derived from £375 10s. invested Consols, is for bibles and prayer books; Lord Wharton’s charity, founded by Philip, 4th baron Wharton, a violent Puritan, who died 5 Feb. 1695, provides bibles and prayer books and some other books yearly for distribution; a sum of £16 14s. 2d. yearly, being a moiety of £66 8s. 4d. derived from the Farleton tithes, is for the aldermen of Kendal.

    The Ecclesiastical charities include £1 1s. yearly from Knott’s charity for the Kendal church Sunday school; Barrow’s of £100, Wilson’s of £50, Fisher’s of £20, Foard’s of £10, producing £15 12s. yearly and 6s. 8d. rent-charge on land, given by John Hay, are paid by the Corporation to the vicar, for an afternoon lecturer in Kendal church; Bateman’s of 3s. 4d. and Alice Duckett’s of 2s. yearly, are for repairs to the parish church; Jennet Wilson's of £51 19s. yearly, is for the organist of the parish church; Crosby’s of £60 is for the vicar at his induction, who repays it to his successor; Elizabeth Thexton’s of £11 and Jane Luce’s of 11s. 8d. yearly, are for the incidental expenses of St. George’s church: Sleddall’s of £17 14s. 2d. derived from a sum of £2 yearly, being a moiety of £66 8s. 4d. derived from the Farleton tithes, is for the vicar of Beetham; Fleming’s of £2 yearly is for the churchwardens of Kendal.

    The Educational charities comprise Inglis’s of £12 13s. yearly, derived from £449 8s. 6d. in Consols, for prizes for boys in Kendal schools; of the Farleton tithes charity £15 is for three Kendal scholars and £20 for four Kirkby Lonsdale scholars, for exhibitions to Queen’s College, Oxford, and £16 14s. 2d. is for Kirkby Lonsdale school; Fleming’s of £2 yearly is for exhibitions to Queen’s College, Oxford; Emma Unthank’s of £7 2s. 8d. and Jane Luce’s of 1s. 8d. yearly, are for St. George’s church schools.

    The Sick Poor Fund receives £7 10s. yearly from Rigg’s charity and £1 1s. from Knott’s charity; £897. being the donations of various benefactors, and invested in railway debenture stock, producing £45 17s. yearly, is also for this fund, which was established in 1811, and is managed entirely by ladies, assisted by a paid nurse; the amount expended in food, clothing, bedding, medicine and appliances is about £100 yearly.

    Sandes’ Hospital, in Highgate, founded and endowed by Thomas Sandes in 1670 for eight poor widows, was rebuilt in 1852; the funds of this hospital, under a new scheme adopted by the Charity Commissioners in 1886. are amalgamated with those of the Free Grammar school, and the eight widows now (1906) receive from the governors of the United School and Hospital Foundation a sum of £108 yearly, with the addition of about £27 yearly, derived from £1,088 8s. 9d. invested in Consols and bequeathed by Maria Wilson in 1863.

    The Old Maids’ Hospital, at the bottom of Highgate, erected in 1833, in accordance with the will of the late Miss Dowker, for the reception of six old unmarried women, is a building of stone, consisting of six separate dwellings; the endowment, consisting of £3,242 in Consols, produces about £80 yearly, and there is an auxiliary endowment, founded by the will of Maria Wilson in 1863, of £2,097 in Consols, producing about £48 yearly, and each inmate receives about £16 yearly.

    Sleddall’s Almshouses, built in 1887, through the munificence of the late John Sleddall esq. at a cost (including the chapel) of £3,500, are pleasantly situated on Aynam road, and comprise twelve neat houses of Kendal Fell rubble walling stones, with freestone dressings. The attached chapel is in the Geometrical Decorated style, and consists of nave, south porch and a turret containing one bell: the dripstone over the archway of the porch terminates in two carved heads, representing Her late Majesty Queen Victoria and the donor, and under the west window is a brass plate bearing the following inscription: —“The Sleddall Victoria Jubilee Almshouses, erected and endowed by John Sleddall esq. late of Hutton-le-Hay, to the honor and glory of God, for the succour and protection of worthy inhabitants of the borough of Kendal, and in commemoration of Her Most Gracious Majesty’s Jubilee (at whose coronation the donor was present), 1887.” The endowment consists of £17,887, invested in 3 per cent, railway debenture stock, and producing £536 yearly. Seven trustees are appointed, who have made regulations as to the admission of inmates and the management of the charity. The occupier of each house receives an allowance, if single of 10s. a week, and if married of 12s. 6d. weekly, and an additional 10s. at Christmas.

    The Memorial Hospital, in Captain French lane, was erected in 1870 by James Cropper esq. D. L., J. P. and friends, at a cost of about £2,500, in memory of his wife, and is a neat building of stone, containing 25 beds: it is managed by two committees of eight ladies and eight gentlemen respectively. Under the will of the late Christopher Gardner the hospital has received a reversionary bequest amounting to £868 4s. 4d. and the bequest of the late Mrs. Holme-Simpson, amounting to £10,786: the yearly expenditure, amounting to about £1,100 yearly, is raised by voluntary subscriptions and interest from investments. During the year 1905, 164 cases were dealt with (32 medical and 132 surgical); 91 operations were performed.

    A new hospital is now (1906) in course of erection, on a site near the present building, at an estimated cost of upwards of £14,000.

    The Sanatorium, in Park Side road, was built in 1882 by the Urban Sanitary Authority for infectious cases; it consists of two buildings, available for 10 patients, and in 1895 a galvanised iron building was erected for 13 additional patients and 5 cots.

    The Orphan Girls’ Home, on the Milnthorpe road, and in the parish of Helsington, was founded in 1865 by the Hon. Mary Howard, of Levens Hall, for the education and training of orphan girls as domestic servants: the foundress, besides giving the land and buildings, provided an endowment of £2,000, which, together with a sum of £1,000 given by John Wakefield esq. and other auxiliary endowments, is invested in railway debenture stocks, the whole producing about £170 yearly: the cost of maintenance, about £460 yearly, is in part borne by the guardians of the unions from which the girls are sent: there are now (1906) 35 girls in the home, which is managed by two committees of seven ladies and seven gentlemen respectively.

    Kendal is believed to have been a Roman station, and about a mile south, at Water Crook, is a camp, which some archaeologists have designated Concangium, while others fix this station at Greta Bridge, in Yorkshire. At this camp, underneath the bank of the river, some Roman urns containing the ashes of human bodies were discovered in 1813, part of the bones being unconsumed; in 1892 five similar urns were found by the gardener of Joseph Swainson esq. whilst levelling for an archery ground; they were from 1 ½ to 2 feet high, and contained calcined bones and pieces of metal: in 1814 the remains of what was probably a pottery were discovered about 200 yards from the camp; it contained a pit 5 feet long, divided from the kiln by a narrow wall, and in the pit were two human skeletons. In the museum is an inscribed stone, an altar and a statue, taken from this station, but all are more or less broken and imperfect; the altar is without inscription, but is carved with festoons and clusters of grapes; only the lower half of the statue is preserved. During the drought of 1887 the part of the Crook occupied by the camp was all marked out in straight lines, the sun having scorched up the turf over the lines of the street foundations, and at the E. S. E. side of the camp the original earthworks are still visible: the circumference of Water Crook, which is now laid down for pasture, is a little over half a mile, and has an area of 19 acres, of which the camp and earthworks occupy 3a. 3r. 17p. the space within the ramparts being about 2a. 1r. 26p.; the whole forms a parallelogram with several openings and would probably hold 5 cohorts or 2,488 soldiers.

    This town was the birthplace in 1859 of Robert Dawson, Bishop of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh from 1626; he died in 1643 and was buried in the chancel of the parish church. Anthony Askew B. A., M. D., F. R. S. born here in 1722, was educated at Sedbergh school, d. 27 Feb. 1774. Sir George Wharton bart. born in Kendal in 1617, gained some repute as an astronomer, and under the anagrammatic name of George Naworth published some almanacks; upon the Restoration he was made treasurer and paymaster to the ordnance, and on Dec. 31st, 1677, in consideration of services rendered to the royalist cause, he was created a baronet; d. 12 Aug. 1681.

    George Romney, the celebrated portrait painter and rival of Sir Joshua Reynolds, although a native of Dalton-in-Furness, served his apprenticeship here to a portrait painter, and also married a lady of this town; he died in 1802 and was buried at Dalton, but there is a monument to him in Kendal parish church. John Gough, the blind philosopher and naturalist, was born at Kendal 17 Jan. 1757, and died 28 July, 1825, and there is an inscribed slab over his grave. James Duckett, a native of this place, and sometime a bookseller in London, was executed at Tyburn about the year 1603 for having had Roman Catholic books bound for him; he had previously become a convert to the Catholic faith. Sir Myles Fenton kt. formerly general manager of the South Eastern railway, is also a native of Kendal.

    The ruins of Kendal Castle, on the east side of the river and a quarter of a mile from the town, stand at the top of a lofty eminence about 170 feet in height, and command an extensive prospect of the town, the surrounding country and the windings of the Kent. The name of the founder is unknown, but the fortress was the residence in the 12th century of the de Lancasters, feudal lords of Kendal and descendants of Ivo de Tailleboys, through his great-grandson William de Taillebois, who was governor of Lancaster Castle, and is presumed to have hence acquired the name of de Lancaster: he died about 1246, and the estate then passed to his sister Helwise, who has married Peter de Brus; Margaret, one of their daughters, marrying Robert, second Baron Ros of Werke, transferred it to the Ros or de Roos family, and for nearly a century the castle was almost deserted: Elizabeth de Ros, the eventual heiress of this family, was the wife of Sir William Parre kt. of Parre, whom she wedded in 1383; he died 4th October, 1405, but the castle remained in the possession of this family until 1562, and was held at the beginning of the 14th century by Sir Thomas Parr, whose daughter Katherine, born at Kendal Castle in 1509, is best known as Queen Katherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII.: his son, William Parr, was created Baron Parr of Kendal, and upon the accession of Edward VI. was advanced to the dignity of Marquess of Northampton, and made a Knight of the Garter; these honours, of which he was for a time deprived on account of his having espoused the cause of Lady Jane Grey, were restored to him by Queen Elizabeth; he died in 1571, and was buried at St. Mary’s, Warwick. The castle, by the attainder of the marquess, was escheated to the Crown, and subsequently granted and re granted to various persons: in 1723 it belonged to Sir James Anderton bart. of Lostock, who in turn sold it to John Huggins esq.: in 1735 it passed to his brother William, who bequeathed it to his two sons-in-law, Sir Thomas Gatehouse kt. and the Rev. James Musgrave D. D. who sold it in 1765 to Thomas Holme, James Dowker and Benjamin Hall esquires: it eventually passed to Mrs. Thomasin Richardson, and subsequently became by purchase the property of Alderman Thompson, formerly M. P. for Westmorland: the ruins, while the property of the trustees of the late Earl of Bective, were repaired and to some extent underpinned, at a cost of about £200: the castle, on the death of Lord Bective, 15 Dec. 1893, passed to his daughter, afterwards Lady Henry Bentinck, from whom, in 1897, the ruins, together with over 31 acres of land, were acquired by the Corporation of Kendal, who at the same time obtained over 11 acres of land, known as “Castle Haggs,” and adjoining the castle grounds, from Miss Fleming; and the whole was then laid out as pleasure and recreation grounds for the use of the public, in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, Miss Fleming subscribing £200 towards this object and the directors of the Kendal Savings Bank a similar sum. The site of the castle, presumed to have been once occupied by a Roman camp, is about 250 feet in diameter; the hills on the east and west side rise somewhat precipitously to the summit, and the castle is encompassed by wide and deep ditches excavated in the rock and having extremely steep scarp; the walls, constructed of the intractable silurian stone of the neighbourhood, are of great thickness, and conform in position to the outline of the site, and there still remain three towers and parts of the domestic buildings; the entrance on the north side is gained by a causeway of earth, where once was a drawbridge; the walls on either side of the entrance have crumbled away considerably, and a portion was, in 1824, blown down, but with this exception they run continuously round the area. The north-east tower, a lofty square structure with a front measurement of 28 feet, is without openings for light, except loopholes in its sides; it has three floors, and was apparently a floor higher in its original state; near this tower were the domestic buildings and the hall: the gateway and the stairs to the hall are now gone, but the cellars, in one of which is a fireplace, still exist: on the south is a small drum tower, about 18 feet in diameter, but full of earth, and now without any upper storey: on the north-west is a drum tower, 22 feet in diameter, with a wall 6 feet thick, and containing a vaulted chamber entered by a narrow doorway: the castle was extended from its original plan on the east side and lower down the hill, and in this way a base court was formed, also defended by a moat, and on the north side are traces of outworks.

    Castle Dairy, in Wildman street, and now a private residence, was formerly, as its name implies, connected with the castle as a dairy; it still retains several trefoil headed stone-mullioned windows and two curious and large circular chimneys with a square base; many curiosities have been found in this house, among which are an illuminated manuscript on vellum of the genealogy of some of the Saxon kings, an old mass book (now in the vestibule of the museum) and some roundels anciently used in playing games of chance; a carved oak bedstead with recessed panels and an oak chest bearing the date 1567 are still in this house; in the bedroom and kitchen windows there are several pieces of stained glass with the arms of the Stanley family, Earls; of Derby, and the date 1567.

    Collin Field Manor House, now a farmhouse, about one mile south from the town, just off the Milnthorpe road and behind the new vicarage, is a building in the Elizabethan style, surrounding three sides of a quadrangle, the remaining side being inclosed by a strong wall which formerly served to shelter the cattle from the Border raids of the period: the original old oak door still retains a large lock and key, the former bearing the initials A. P. (signifying Anne. Countess of Pembroke); above the door is a stone with a Latin inscription and the date 1663: the entrance hall is wainscoted, and contains some carved oak screens: in the dining hall is a carved oak cupboard with the initials “G. S. 1674”: in the pantry is a series of cupboards, upon which rest four turned oak pillars, supporting a piece of carved oak bearing the same initials and the date 1675: one of the bedrooms has a solid oak floor, and formerly contained some antique chairs and paintings by Romney, but these were removed in 1885: in another bedroom there was a fragment of a carved oak bedstead bearing the initials A. P. The first known resident here was Jeffrey Sedgwick, who was living here in 1620 and died in 1627: it was afterwards the occasional residence of the famous Anne, Countess of Pembroke and Montgomery, and was next purchased by George Sedgwick, grandson of Jeffrey Sedgwick, and for eighteen years private secretary to the countess; after his death in 1685 it became the residence of the Chambre family: in 1747 it was purchased by John Yeates from George Sedgwick’s nephew, and it now belongs to Robert Henry Machel Yeates esq. of Windermere.

    An ancient building at the top of Stramongate, erected in 1546, and now used as an ironmonger’s shop, was formerly the town house of the Bellingham family: it retains two old carved oak chimney pieces.

    In or near Kendal there are many fine open spaces and pleasant walks. The Kendal Fell lands, formerly common or waste land, were inclosed under an Act of Parliament passed in 1767, and placed under the control of thirteen trustees, twelve of whom are elected by the ratepayers every three years, the mayor being an ex officio member; and in 1861 a further Act was passed conferring power upon the Trust to sell part of the land for building purposes. Kendal green, six acres in extent, the Bowling Fell of about three acres, and the greens on Summer hill are all open to the public. The Serpentine wood, which has an area of about 18 acres, is intersected by charming walks, and well provided with seats: there are also two recreation grounds, called respectively “Abbot Hall” and “Castle Hill”; the former estate was acquired in 1897 by the directors of the Kendal Savings Bank for the sum of £3,750, and afterwards sold, on certain conditions, to the Corporation for £1,250; it contains 5a. 1r. 37 ¼p. of land, the whole of which has been laid out and dedicated to the use of the public in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria. Maude’s Meadow, behind the museum, is used by the Kendal Football Club and for open air amusements and festivities. The time gun, which is in telegraphic communication with Greenwich, is fired from here at one o’clock every week day, and under favourable atmospheric conditions can be heard for a distance of from ten to twelve miles. From the heights above the woods a magnificent view is obtained of the town and the vale of the Kent, with Whinfell Beacon, 1,500 feet high, and the long line of hills on either side.

    Scout Scar, 700 feet high, is about two miles from Kendal, and slopes up to the westward by a gentle gradient on to a plateau; the path on it leads past Low Bradley Field farmhouse, near which, on a clear day, the mountains High Street (2,663 feet) and Ill Bell (2,476 feet) may be seen. On the west side are vertical precipices, skirted at the bottom by a beautiful wood; in the foreground is the village of Underbarrow, and beyond are the mountain summits called Black Combe (1,969 feet), Harter Fell (2,140 feet), Coniston Old Man (2,638 feet) and Wetherlam (2,019 feet). On the left is Morecambe Bay. Benson Knott, 1,098 feet high, lies to the east of the town.

    Castle How hill, on the Fell side, facing the castle, is a circular moated mound about 30 feet in height and 60 yards in circumference; on its summit is an obelisk, erected by the inhabitants of Kendal in 1788, to commemorate the centenary of the Revolution, and on one side is an inscription recording the circumstance.

    The principal seats in the neighbourhood are: —Birklands, Mrs. W. Wakefield; Castle Meadows, Ernest Crewdson esq. J. P.; Eller Green, Charles James Cropper esq. J. P., D. L.; Helme Lodge, William Dilworth Crewdson esq. J. P.; High Park, Mrs. Wilson; Moresdale Hall, William Thompson esq. J. P., D. L.; Parkside House, Mrs. Rice; Shaw End, Arthur Shepherd esq. J. P., D. L.; Singleton Park, Rev. William Walrond Jackson D. D.; Under fell, Herbert Moser esq.

    Park and Castle Lands, a district attached to the ancient castle, is part of the township of Kendal, and the inhabitants enjoy the privilege of paying a lesser sum towards the maintenance of the poor than those residing in Kendal proper.

    The area of the municipal borough is 2,622 acres; rateable value, £69,211; the population in 1901 was 14,183, viz.: Kendal 12,062, Kirkland 1,125 and Nethergrave ship 996.

    The population of the municipal wards in 1901 was: —East, 4,897; North, 2,853, and West, 6,433.

    The area of the township is 2,209 acres of land and 34 of water; rateable value, £61,334; the population in 1901 was 12,062, including 113 inmates and 8 officials in the Workhouse.

    The population of the ecclesiastical parishes in 1901 was: —Holy Trinity (parish church), 8,710; St. George, 3,092, and St. Thomas, 2,389.

    Parish Clerk, George Rushforth.

    Petty Sessions are held in the Town ball every Saturday at 11 a.m. The places included in the petty sessional division are: —Ackenthwaite, Arnside, Bannisdale, Barrowsgreen, Beetham, Bradleyfield, Burneside, Crosthwaite, Docker, Dillicar, Fawcett Forest, Firbank, Grayrigg, Hale, Haverbrack, Hay, Helsington, Heversham, Hincaster, Holmescales, Hutton-in-the-Hay, New Hutton, Old Hutton, Lambrigg, Leasgill, Levens, Longsleddale, Lyth, Meathop, Milnthorpe, Natland, Patton, Scalthwaiterigg, Sedgwick, Selsides Sizergh, Skelsmergh, Stainton, Storth, Strickland Kettel, Strickland Roger, Ulpha, Underbarrow, Whassett, Whinfell, Whitwell & Witherslack.

    KENDAL UNION

    The Board meets at the Bindloss room, Town hall, on every alternate Saturday, at 10. 45 a.m.

    The Union comprises the following places: —Ambleside, Arnside, Barbon, Beetham, Bowness-on-Windermere, Burton-in-Kendal, Casterton, Crook, Crosthwaite & Lyth, Dalton, Dillicar, Docker, Farleton, Fawcett Forest, Firbank, Grasmere, Grayrigg, Haverbrack, Helsington, Heversham, Hincaster, Holme, Hugill, Hutton (New), Hutton (Old) & Holmescales, Kendal, Kentmere, Killington, Kirkby Lonsdale, Kirkland, Lambrigg, Langdales, Levens, Longsleddale, Lupton, Mansergh, Meathop & Ulpha, Middleton, Milnthorpe, Natland, Nerthergraveship, New Hutton, Patton, Preston Patrick, Preston Richard, Rydal & Lough-rigg, Scalthwaiterigg, Sedgwick, Skelsmergh, Stainton, Staveley (Nether), Staveley (Over), Strickland Kettel, Strickland Roger, Troutbeck, Underbarrow & Bradleyfield, Undermillbeck, Whinfell, Whitwell &, Selside, Windermere & Witherslack The area of the whole union is 198,349 acres; rateable value in 1906, £356,569; the population in 1901 was 43,480.

    PLACES OF WORSHIP, with times of services

    Holy Trinity (parish) Church, Kirkland, Rev. Canon William Robert Trench LL. M. vicar; Rev. Edward John Miller B. A. & Rev. James Hugh Powell A. K. C. L. curates; 8 & 10. 30 a.m. & 3 &. 6. 30 p.m.; wed. & fri. 11 a.m.; daily, 10 a.m.

    St. George’s Church, Castle street, Rev. Robert William Britton M. A. vicar; Rev. William Hayes B. A. curate; 8 & 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; wed. 7. 30 p.m.

    St. Thomas’s Church, Stricklandgate, Rev. Carl Ludvig Olsen M. A. vicar; 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.

    All Hallows’ Chapel of Ease, Fell side; 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; wed. 7. 30 p.m.

    Sleddall’s Chapel, Aynam road (curate from the parish church); evensong, 5 p.m. daily; services for deaf & dumb held on first Sunday in each month Holy Trinity & St. George’s Catholic Church, New road, Riv. William Stevenson, priest; mass, 8 & 10. 30 a.m. & evening service, 6 p.m.; holy days, mass, 8 & 10 a.m. & 7. 30 p.m.

    Congregational, Lowther street, Rev. John Edward Houghton Thomas; 10. 30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; wed. 8 p.m.Congregational (Zion), Highgate, Rev. Thomas Gourlay Taylor M. A.; 10. 30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; wed. 7. 45 p.m.Friends’ Meeting House, Stramongate; 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; wed. 11 a.m.

    Friends’ Mission Hall, Gillingate; 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; wed. (bible class), 7. 30 p.m.Plymouth Brethren Meeting House, Stramongate; 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; mon. 7. 30 p.m. & wed. 8 p.m.Presbyterian Church of England, Sandes avenue, Rev. Marshall N. G. Gray M. A.; 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; wed. 7. 30 p.m.

    Primitive Methodist, Black Hall yard, Rev. William Sutton; 10. 30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; mon. 8 p.m.Unitarian, Market place, Rev. Herbert Vincent Mills; 11 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.Wesleyan: —Stricklandgate; 10. 30 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; wed. 7. 30 p.m.; Chapel lane, Kirkland; 10. 45 a.m. & 6. 30 p.m.; wed. 7. 30 p.m.; Mission Room, Long-pool; 6. 30 p.m.; wed. 7. 30 p.m.; Rev. John Bateman (superintendent); Rev. Joseph Reaney & Rev. Thomas Henry Johns Inghamite, Summer hill; 10. 30 a.m. & 6 p.m.

    Salvation. Army Barracks, Blackhall yard, Stricklandgate Far Cross Bank Mission Room, served by the clergy of St. George; 6. 30 p.m.

    SCHOOLS

    The Kendal Grammar School, near Netherfield, was founded in 1525, by Adam Pennington, of Boston, Lincolnshire, & endowed by Edw. VI. in 1548, Philip & Mary, Queen Elizabeth & various local benefactors: in 1868 it was re-organized under a new scheme of the Charity Commissioners, who in 1886 approved a further scheme by which the funds of this school were amalgamated with those of Sandes’ Hospital & the Blue Coat School & placed under one governing body called “The Governors of the United School & Hospital Foundation of Kendal”: the various endowments under the control of the various governors produce in the aggregate about £750 yearly; this amount, less about £135 for the widows’ houses & about £25 applied to other charitable purposes, is devoted to the maintenance of the school: the new scheme provides six “Sleddall,” two “Foundation,” two “Wakefield,”

    14 “Sandes” & eight “Harrison” scholarships & also a " Langhorne” scholarship; there are besides exhibitions to any higher place of education awarded to boys who have been not less than three years at the school; these comprise the “Sleddall” exhibition of the value of £80 yearly, tenable for three years at any college in the Universities of Oxford & Cambridge; the “Wilson” exhibition of £25 yearly & the “Sandes” of £5 yearly, for three years, at Queen’s College, Oxford: this school also shares with others in the benefits of the six exhibitions on the “Hastings” foundation at Queen’s College, Oxford; the two “Argles” exhibitions to Oxford & Cambridge, the four “Eglesfield” exhibitions to Queen’s College, Oxford, & the Earl Tranent exhibition of £45, also at Queen’s College; under this scheme power is further given to add indefinitely to the number of scholarships: the executors of the late John Sleddall esq. have given £4,000 for the foundation of an exhibition & scholarships out of the magnificent legacy of about £40,000 left by that gentleman for the erection & endowment of almshouses &c.: the present school buildings, together with a headmaster’s house, were erected in 1888 & 1893, at a cost of upwards of £7,500; the land, consisting of 4 acres, being given by the late William Henry Wakefield esq.; the buildings are in the Tudor Gothic style, from designs by Mr. Stephen Shaw F. R. I. B. A. architect, of this town, & comprise spacious fireproof entrance hall & corridors on the ground floor, headmaster’s room, cloak room & two class rooms, an assembly room, 50 by 32 feet, & on the first floor a governors’ room, with a memorial window to the late W. H. Wakefield esq. & Sir James Whitehead bart.; & another to the late Mr. W. & Mrs. Bindloss, formerly mayor & mayoress of Kendal, each of whom bequeathed a legacy of £1,000 to the school; & another to the late Archdeacon Cooper, first chairman of the governors; this room also contains a library of about 700 volumes; there are also on this floor three more class rooms; in 1902 a science & art wing was added to the school at a cost of over £1,000, defrayed by Mr. Richard Pennington, of London, a former scholar: annexed are covered & open playgrounds & six acres of cricket & football grounds, with a pavilion: the School house is available for 40 boarders & in addition to the headmaster’s rooms it comprises boys’ dining hall, prefect’s study, masters’ rooms & spacious dormitories: the school was built to hold 120 boys & there are now (1906) III: the school is now a recognised pupil teachers’ centre for Kendal Borough & County districts: the governing body consists of one ex officio (the mayor), nine representative & seven co-optative governors; of the representative governors, four are appointed by the town council, two by the corporation, two by the Westmorland County Council & one by the Victoria University, Manchester: headmaster, Rev. Horace Gray M. A. of Jesus College, Cambridge: at this school were educated Thomas Shaw D. D., F. R. S. born at Kendal in 1692 & distinguished as an Oriental traveller; he was subsequently professor of Greek & principal of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, d. 15 Aug. 1751; Edmund Law, bishop of Carlisle 1769-87; George Fothergill D. D. a native of Lockholme, fellow of Queen’s College, Oxford & also principal of St. Edmund Hall, d. 5 Oct. 1760; William Hudson F. R. S. a distinguished naturalist & author of “Flora Anglica,” born at the White Lion inn, Kendal, in 1734, d. 23 May, 1793; Ephraim Chambers F. R. S. born at Milton, near Faversham, Kent, about 1690 & author of the first encyclopaedia, d. 15 May, 1740 & buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey & Sir Alan Chambre kt. born at Kendal in 1740 & appointed in 1816 a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, d. 20 Sept. 1823 Stramongate School was founded in 1698 by members of the Society of Friends for pupils of both sexes: the present buildings, erected in 1772, comprise a school house for 40 boarders, assembly hall, laboratory, lecture room, gymnasium, workshop, library, museum, changing-room and a number of class-rooms: Dalton house. Thorny hills, the residence of the headmaster, is a boarding house for 20 boys, & Shortlands. Shap road, the residence of the headmistress, is a boarding house for girls: there are at present (1906) 75 boys & 55 girls: from 1781 to 1793 John Dalton D. C. L., F. R. S. the distinguished meteorologist, who advanced new views on the composition of atmospherical air & established the atomic theory, was the schoolmaster. Wilfred Sessions B. Sc. of the University of London, principal & headmaster; Miss Lucy Reynolds B. A. headmistress; George Frederick Linney, Owen T. Evans B. A. Godfrey J. Williams B. A. Albert Copland Sergeant B. A. Robert T. Tollerton, E. J. Reynolds (art), E. Roberts L. R. A. M. (piano) & John S. Winder (singing), assistant masters Kendal Technical Schools, Kent street, Charles J. R. Tipper B. Sc. sec. Art Department, Philip W. Holyoake (medallist), principal; Jane E. Hargreaves, Olivia Horne, George Ed. Thorpe, Leonard Lancaster & Robert H. Airey, assistants. Science & Commercial Department, John B. Coppock B. Sc. (Lond. ), principal; Rev. S. D. Smart M. A. (languages), James E. Newby (bookkeeping), William Wilkinson (shorthand & commercial correspondence); Wm. Gardiner (commercial arithmetic), Henry Webster (voca. M.Sic) &; Thomas H. Turner (workshop arithmetic), teachers Church High School for Girls, Thorny hills, opened in 1888; Miss Annie Warren B. A. headmistress A Sunday school, called the “Green Coat school,” to consist of 35 boys & 12 girls, was founded & endowed in 1801 by W. Sleddall, & further endowed in 1895 by will of the late Miss Elizabeth Brownrigg; the endowment now (1906) consists of £644 1s. 8d. 2 ½ per Cent. Consolidated Stock on account of Sleddall’s Trust & £92 18s. 3d. ditto on account of Miss Elizabeth Brownrigg's Trust, producing together £18 8s. 4d. annually; the remaining cost of the school is made up to the Corporation by annual grants from the tithes of Farleton, in the parish of Beetham, & other sources; the children are now taught in schools connected with the parish church, a rent being charged for their accommodation.

    Public Elementary Schools

    The Corporation is the local education authority for elementary education within the borough Secretary, John Bolton, Kent street, School Attendance Officer, John Atkinson, 83 Highgate Cookery Centre, Fell side; Miss Jane Cowx, instructor Handicraft Centre, New road; Robert Henry Airey, instructor.

    Beast banks (boys), endowed with £2,000 in 1817 by Matthew Piper, of Whitehaven, a member of the Society of Friends, who died at the age of 93 & was at his own desire buried in the school-room; his portrait hangs over the master’s desk; the endowment now (1906) consists of £2,159 in Consols, with the auxiliary endowments of Miss Lambert, of £542 (for girls’ school), Miss Maria Wilson of £100 & of Miss Robinson of £100, in the hands of official trustees & producing in all about £88 yearly; in 1895 the late Alderman Bindloss left a sum of £200 towards the endowment of the boys’ school; the school will hold 550 boys; average attendance, 362; Alfd. Lister, master Beast banks (girls), built in 1823, for 200 girls; average attendance, 187; Miss Agnes Bell, mistress Beast banks (infants), built in 1874 at a cost of £450, for 230 infants; average attendance, 161; Miss Mary Elizabeth Winder, mistress In 1892 the above schools were much improved & enlarged, at a cost of nearly £1,000, raised by public subscription, & further enlarged & improved in 1903 Castle street, built in 1835, for 288, & enlarged in 1893, at a cost of £500, for 413 boys; average attendance, 192; John Wilcock, master Castle street, built in 1830, for 130 girls & 100 infants; average attendance, 126 girls & 89 infants; Miss Margaret Drysdale, mistress; Miss Elizabeth Rimel, infants’ mistress.

    Holy Trinity (girls), Kirkland, built in 1861, & enlarged & improved in 1896, for 280 girls; average attendance, 205; Miss Annie Fairburn Sheard, mistress Holy Trinity (infants), Kirkland, built in 1877 & enlarged & improved in 1896, for 250 children; average attendance, 130; Miss Elizabeth Garnett, mistress Kendal green (mixed & infants), built in 1873 & enlarged in 1895. for 175 boys, 175 girls & 175 infants; average attendance, 140 boys, 120 girls & 94 infants; William Gardiner, master; Miss Amelia Jane Charlotte Anderson, infants’ mistress St. George’s (mixed). Station road, built in 1854, for 452 boys, girls & infants; average attendance, 189; Miss Mary Allsop, mistress St. Thomas’s (mixed & infants), Stricklandgate, built in 1841, for 190 boys & girls & 180 infants; average attendance, 151 boys & girls & 79 infants; Miss Mary Ann Jones, mistress; Mrs. Rachael Heslop, infants’ mistress.

    Catholic (Dean Gibson Memorial) (mixed & infants), Gillingate, built in 1899, for 450 boys & girls & 160 infants; average attendance, 196 boys & girls & 79 infants; conducted by the Sisters of Charity of St. Paul.

    Kelly's Directory of Westmorland (1906)

    Surnames Found in Kendal

    RankSurnameNo. of People% of Population
    1Atkinson3642.00
    2Thompson3441.89
    3Wilson3141.72
    4Robinson3141.72
    5Dixon2581.42
    6Airey1911.05
    7Harrison1630.90
    8Garnett1530.84
    9Taylor1490.82
    10Braithwaite1340.74
    11Walker1290.71
    12Troughton1250.69
    13Smith1200.66
    14Hodgson1100.60
    15Hine1080.59
    16Jackson1050.58
    17Bell1040.57
    18Wilkinson1040.57
    19Graham1030.57
    20Nicholson1010.55
    21Gibson990.54
    22Scott980.54
    23Simpson940.52
    24Nelson920.51
    25Johnson890.49
    26Dobson870.48
    27Rigg850.47
    28Medcalf840.46
    29Birkett800.44
    30Park790.43
    31Hutchinson760.42
    32Capstick680.37
    33Fisher660.36
    34Davis650.36
    35Brown630.35
    36Clark630.35
    37Preston630.35
    38Cragg620.34
    39Martindale620.34
    40Bland610.34
    41Sharp600.33
    42Barnes590.32
    43Hutton590.32
    44Storey590.32
    45Holmes580.32
    46Winder580.32
    47Hill570.31
    48Benson570.31
    49Allen560.31
    50Todd550.30
    51Jennings550.30
    52Shaw540.30
    53Richardson540.30
    54Shepherd540.30
    55Knowles540.30
    56Fawcett540.30
    57Lewthwaite540.30
    58Ward530.29
    59Hoggarth530.29
    60Turner510.28
    61Crossley510.28
    62Whitwell510.28
    63Bateman500.27
    64Hayton500.27
    65Pearson490.27
    66Whitehead490.27
    67Parker480.26
    68Lancaster480.26
    69Pennington480.26
    70Tyson480.26
    71Dawson470.26
    72Hudson470.26
    73Tomlinson470.26
    74Barrow470.26
    75Leighton470.26
    76Langhorn470.26
    77Cooper460.25
    78Dent460.25
    79Baines450.25
    80Ellwood450.25
    81Casson440.24
    82Caton440.24
    83Watson430.24
    84Lee430.24
    85Thwaites430.24
    86Clarke420.23
    87German420.23
    88Steele410.23
    89Stubbs410.23
    90Wallace400.22
    91Clement400.22
    92Stainton400.22
    93Philipson400.22
    94Hall390.21
    95Mitchell390.21
    96Kitchen390.21
    97Blamire390.21
    98Carradus390.21
    99Dodd380.21
    100Compston380.21

    * Statistics based on the 1881 census