Manchester Genealogical Records

Manchester Birth & Baptism Records

England & Wales Birth Index (1837-2006)

An index to births registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of birth certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

St Jerome, Ardwick Baptisms (1913-1914)

Name index linked to original images of the baptism registers of St Jerome (or Houghton Memorial Church), Ardwick. Records document parents' names and date of baptism and/or birth.

Bradford St Cuthbert, Manchester Baptism Records (1910-1913)

Baptism registers are the primary source for birth documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They record the date a child was baptised, their parents' names and more.

Holy Trinity, Failsworth Baptism Records (1905-1914)

Name index attached to original images of the baptism registers of Holy Trinity, Failsworth. Records document parents' names, date of baptism and/or birth, residence, occupations and more.

Old Trafford St Cuthbert, Manchester Baptisms (1902-1915)

Baptism registers record the baptism of those born in and around Old Trafford St Cuthbert, Manchester and were subsequently baptised in an Anglican place of worship. They are the primary source of birth details before 1837, though are useful to the present. Records can include name of child, parents' names, residence, occupations and more.

Manchester Marriage & Divorce Records

England & Wales Marriage Index (1837-2008)

An index to marriages registered throughout England & Wales. This is the only national marriage index that allows you to search by both spouse's names. Provides a reference to order copies of marriage certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Old Trafford St Cuthbert, Manchester Marriages (1928-1930)

Marriage registers record Anglican marriages in Old Trafford St Cuthbert, Manchester. They are the primary marriage document before 1837 and contain the same details as marriage certificates from then on. They typically record residence and marital status, though may contain ages and father's names.

St Jerome, Ardwick Marriages (1914-1930)

Name index linked to original images of the marriage registers of St Jerome (or Houghton Memorial Church), Ardwick. Records document marriages from 1914 to 1930.

Newton Heath St Wilfrid, Manchester Marriage Records (1910-1930)

Marriage registers are the primary source for marital documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They typically the record marital status and residence of the bride and groom.

Holy Trinity, Failsworth Marriage Records (1909-1930)

Details on those who married at Holy Trinity, Failsworth between 1909 and 1930. Information given may include parents' names, ages, marital status, abode and more.

Manchester Death & Burial Records

England & Wales Death Index (1837-2006)

An index to deaths registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of death certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Heaton Moor St Paul, Manchester Burial Records (1964-1980)

Records of burial for people buried at Heaton Moor St Paul, Manchester between 1964 and 1980. Details include the deceased's name, residence and age.

Bradford St Aidan, Manchester Burial Records (1960-1966)

Name index linked to original images of the burial registers of Bradford St Aidan, Manchester. Records document an individual's date of death and/or burial, age residence and more.

St Agnes, Birch in Rusholme Burial Records (1953-1979)

Burial registers are the primary source for death documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They record the date someone was buried, their age & residence. Details given may include the deceased's name, residence, age, names of relations, cause of death and more.

Clayton St Cross, Droylsden Burial Records (1874-1953)

Name index linked to original images of the burial registers of Clayton St Cross, Droylsden. Records document an individual's date of death and/or burial, age residence and more.

Manchester Church Records

Ardwick Parish Registers (1740-1812)

The parish registers of Ardwick are a collection of books documenting baptisms, marriages and burials from 1740 to 1812.

Manchester Apprenticeship Indentures (1700-1849)

A name index linked to original images of abstracts of apprenticeship indentures from Manchester. These records provide details on parents' names and occupations.

Blackley Parish Registers (1655-1812)

The parish registers of Blackley are a collection of books essentially documenting births, marriages and deaths. Their records can assist tracing a family back numerous generations.

Manchester Parish Registers (1655-1812)

Documentation for those baptised, married and buried at Manchester. Parish registers can assist tracing a family back numerous generations.

Manchester Cathedral Parish Registers (1573-1812)

A name index connected to original images. A collection of church registers, essentially recording births, marriages and deaths.

Manchester Census & Population Lists

England, Wales, IoM & Channel Islands 1911 Census (1911)

The 1911 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Lancashire Lay Subsidy (1332)

A tax list of wealthier Lancashire residents.

Lancashire Lay Subsidies (1216-1307)

Two lay subsidies from the reigns of Henry III and Edward I.

Lancashire Chartist Land Plan (1842-1848)

A history of the Chartist Cooperative Land Society, which aimed to settle chartists on smallholdings. Also includes a list of over 5,000 chartist sympathizers in Lancashire.

1901 British Census (1901)

The 1901 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Manchester Wills & Probate Records

England & Wales National Probate Calendar (1858-1966)

Searchable index and original images of over 12.5 million probates and administrations granted by civil registries. Entries usually include the testator's name, date of death, date of probate and registry. Names of relations may be given.

Chester Diocese Probate Images & Index (1492-1857)

A searchable index of testators connected to original images of their will and any probate documents. These records can help trace your Cheshire ancestors back to the 15th century.

Chester Diocese Probate, Admons & Depositions (1487-1620)

A calendar of probate, admon and testamentary depositions from Chester Diocese. The latter, deposition, are sworn statements at testamentary trials.

York Peculiar Probate Records (1383-1883)

Digital images, indexed by testor's name, of 28,716 wills, administrations, inventories and other probate documents. The records can shed light on an individual’s relations, possessions, land holdings, legal agreements and more. They cover various jurisdictions throughout the north of England.

York Prerogative & Exchequer Court Probate Index (1688-1858)

An index to 263,822 wills, administrations and other probate documents proved by an ecclesiastical court in York. The index included the testor's name, residence, year of probate, type of document and reference to order copies of the referenced document(s.).

Newspapers Covering Manchester

Manchester Evening News (1870-1916)

A database allowing full text searches of a newspaper covering local news, family announcements, obituaries, court proceedings, business notices and more in the Manchester area.

Bolton Evening News (1869)

A searchable newspaper providing a rich variety of information about the people and places of the Bolton le Moors district. Includes obituaries and family announcements.

Bury Times (1858-1867)

A local paper including news from the Bury area, legal & governmental proceedings, family announcements, business notices, advertisements and more.

Rochdale Observer (1856-1866)

Original images of a local newspaper, searchable via a full text index. Includes news from the Rochdale area, business notices, obituaries, family announcements and more.

Huddersfield Chronicle (1850-1900)

A local paper including news from the Huddersfield area, legal & governmental proceedings, family announcements, business notices, advertisements and more.

Manchester Obituaries

iAnnounce Obituaries (2006-Present)

The UKs largest repository of obituaries, containing millions of searchable notices.

United Kingdom and Ireland Obituary Collection (1882-Present)

A growing collection currently containing over 425,000 abstracts of obituaries with reference to the location of the full obituary.

Quakers Annual Monitor (1847-1848)

A collection of 364 obituaries of Quakers from the British Isles. The volume was published in 1849 and includes obituaries of those who died in late 1847 through 1848.

Musgrave's Obituaries (1421-1800)

This transcribed and searchable work by Sir William Musgrave contains 10,000s of brief obituaries. The work is a reference point for other works containing information on an individual.

British Medical Journal (1849-Present)

A text index and digital images of all editions of a journal containing medical articles and obituaries of medical practitioners.

Manchester Cemeteries

Rusholme Road Cemetery Burials (1821-1933)

Digital images of registers recording 65,611 burials in a cemetery in Chorlton on Medlock, near central Manchester. The registers record residence, age, cause of death, date of interment and a reference of the grave plot. Images can be searched by a name index.

Ardwick Cemetery Monumental Inscriptions (1845-1938)

Details from over 6,000 headstones at a Manchester public cemetery.

Rusholme Road Cemetery Memorial Inscriptions (1821-1933)

Details from over 7,000 headstones at a Manchester public cemetery.

Oldham Cemetery Registers (1797-2004)

Burial registers for Hollinwood, Failsworth, Royton, Crompton, Chadderton, Lees, and Greenacres cemeteries. Records contain date of death, date of burial, address, age gender and a description of the grave.

Withington Workhouse, Interment registers 1898-1922 (1898-1922)

Register of inmate internments for a Manchester workhouse.

Manchester Directories & Gazetteers

Directory of Manchester of Salford and Suburbs (1929)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Manchester & Salford & Suburban Directory (1909)

Historical and contemporary descriptions of settlements, detailing their governance, churches, schools etc.; to which is appended lists of residents, with their occupations.

Slater's Manchester, Salford & Suburban Directory (1903)

Historical and contemporary descriptions of settlements, detailing their governance, churches, schools etc.; to which is appended lists of residents, with their occupations.

Kelly's Directory of Manchester (1895)

A directory of residents and businesses; with a description of each settlement, containing details on its history, public institutions, churches, postal services, governance and more.

Slater's Manchester & Salford Alphabetical Directory (1879)

Historical and contemporary descriptions of settlements, detailing their governance, churches, schools etc.; to which is appended lists of residents, with their occupations.

Manchester Workhouse Registers (1800-1911)

An index to over 650,000 poor law records for three workhouses in the Manchester area. The index is linked to images of the original documents.

Manchester Rate Books (1706-1900)

An index to over 9 million names in local tax records. The index is connected to digital images of the rate books, which record, land owner and occupier, description of property, address and details of the tax.

Constables' Accounts of Manchester (1612-1776)

An indexed and searchable transcription of the accounts of the Manor of Manchester township. These records detail payments to any by the manor, particularly in relation to criminal cases.

Manchester Quarter Sessions (1616-1623)

Abstracts of Lancashire court proceedings relating to a number of matters, including minor crimes, roads, jails, licencing, the police and more.

Manchester Prison Registers (1847-1881)

A name index linked to original images of over 250,000 Manchester prison records. Records contain details on the convict's birth, appearance, crime and more.

Manchester Taxation Records

Manchester Rate Books (1706-1900)

An index to over 9 million names in local tax records. The index is connected to digital images of the rate books, which record, land owner and occupier, description of property, address and details of the tax.

Lancashire Lay Subsidy (1332)

A tax list of wealthier Lancashire residents.

Lancashire Lay Subsidies (1216-1307)

Two lay subsidies from the reigns of Henry III and Edward I.

Tithe Apportionments (1836-1856)

An index to 11,000,000 parcels of land and property, connected to digital images of registers that record their owner, occupier, description, agricultural use, size and rateable value.

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

Manchester Land & Property Records

Manchester Rate Books (1706-1900)

An index to over 9 million names in local tax records. The index is connected to digital images of the rate books, which record, land owner and occupier, description of property, address and details of the tax.

Lancashire Final Concords (1189-1558)

Abstracts of records that detail land conveyances.

Lancashire Assize Rolls (1176-1268)

Early legal records, largely covering serious cases refereed by lower courts. Many entries record transfers and disputes relating to land.

Lancashire Inquisitions post Mortem (1606-1625)

Transcripts of records created on the death of a direct tenant of the monarch to asses their Lancashire land-holdings. Contains much useful genealogical information.

Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates (1600-1678)

Transcripts of records that detail the lives and lands of Cheshire and Lancashire landholders.

Manchester Occupation & Business Records

Manchester Police Index (1858-1941)

Transcriptions of enrolment records for officers joining the Manchester Police Force. Includes details on age, place of birth and previous police experience

Manchester Apprenticeship Indentures (1700-1849)

A name index linked to original images of abstracts of apprenticeship indentures from Manchester. These records provide details on parents' names and occupations.

Manchester Employers' World War I Roll of Honour (1914-1920)

A list of over 60,000 men from in and around Manchester that enlisted in the British Army or Navy during WWI. Gives details on an individual's employers.

Oldham Employers' WWI Roll of Honour (1914-1920)

A list of over 3,000 men from in and around Oldham that enlisted in the British Army or Navy during WWI. Gives details on an individual's employers.

Prestwich Asylum Admissions (1851-1901)

Abstracts of over 20,000 admissions to an insane asylum.

Manchester School & Education Records

Manchester School Registers (1870-1916)

A name index linked to original images of admission registers for several schools in Manchester. Records can contain numerous details such as parents' names and occupations, date of birth and more.

Manchester Industrial School Registers (1866-1912)

A name index linked to original images of admission registers for a school set up to educate vulnerable children. Records can contain numerous details such as parents' names and occupations, religion, date of birth and more.

Manchester Jewish School Admission Index (1872-1916)

An index of admission registers for a Jewish school, attached to images of the original registers. Records include name, date of birth, parents' names, residence, last school and details of their attendance.

Teacher's Registration Council Registers (1870-1948)

A name index linked to original images of registers recording the education and careers of teachers in England & Wales.

National School Admission & Log Books (1870-1914)

A name index connected to digital images of registers recording millions of children educated in schools operated by the National Society for Promoting Religious Education. Records contain a variety of information including genealogical details, education history, illnesses, exam result, fathers occupation and more.

Pedigrees & Family Trees Covering Manchester

Victoria County History: Lancashire (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Visitation of England and Wales (1700-1899)

Over 600 pedigrees for English and Welsh families who had a right to bear a coat of arms.

Ancestry Member Family Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A compilation of lineage-linked family trees submitted by Ancestry users. The database contains over 2 billion individuals and is searchable by numerous metrics.

Manchester Royalty, Nobility & Heraldry Records

Victoria County History: Lancashire (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates (1600-1678)

Transcripts of records that detail the lives and lands of Cheshire and Lancashire landholders.

Lancashire Church Monuments (1300-1900)

Photographs and descriptions of Lancashire's most illustrious church monuments, often featuring effigies, medieval inscriptions and heraldic devices.

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Manchester Military Records

Manchester City Battalions (1916)

A brief history of the regiment and lists of officers & NCOs, accompanied by photos of the men.

Oldham Pals WWI Service Details (1914-1920)

Particulars of the men of the 24th Service Battalion, The Manchester Regiment. Includes details on military service.

Manchester Employers' World War I Roll of Honour (1914-1920)

A list of over 60,000 men from in and around Manchester that enlisted in the British Army or Navy during WWI. Gives details on an individual's employers.

Oldham Employers' WWI Roll of Honour (1914-1920)

A list of over 3,000 men from in and around Oldham that enlisted in the British Army or Navy during WWI. Gives details on an individual's employers.

Manchester Pals Battalions' Photos (1914-1918)

Lists of over 11,000 men who served with the 16th to the 23rd Service Battalions, known as the Manchester Pals. Lists are supplemented with photographs of platoons.

Manchester Immigration & Travel Records

Manchester Naturalisation Society Cash Book (1896-1909)

Financial records of a mutual society helping immigrants to attain naturalisation. Names several hundred members.

Lancashire Vagrant Passes (1801-1835)

Records of around 40,000 people and their families who were forcibly moved from one parish to another. Contains many Irish individuals.

Passenger Lists Leaving UK (1890-1960)

A name index connected to original images of passenger lists recording people travelling from Britain to destinations outside Europe. Records may detail a passenger's age or date of birth, residence, occupation, destination and more.

UK Incoming Passenger Lists (1878-1960)

A full index of passenger lists for vessels arriving in the UK linked to original images. Does not include lists from vessels sailing from European ports. Early entries can be brief, but later entries may include dates of births, occupations, home addresses and more. Useful for documenting immigration.

Alien Arrivals in England (1810-1869)

Details on over 600,000 non-British citizens arriving in England. Often includes age and professions. Useful for discerning the origin of immigrants.

Manchester Histories & Books

Tameside Family History (1400-2012)

A resource for anyone researching their family history in Tameside, Greater Manchester originally for the nine towns straddling the Lancashire Cheshire Border

Manchester Church Photographs (1890-Present)

Photographs and images of churches in Manchester.

Manchester Windmills (1998-Present)

An index of windmills in the county, with brief notes and some photographs.

Lancashire & Cheshire History and Genealogy (1110-1879)

Extracts from a vast array of historical documents giving details on thousands of individuals connected to the history of Lancashire.

Victoria County History: Lancashire (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

Biographical Directories Covering Manchester

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Crockford's Clerical Directories (1868-1914)

Brief biographies of Anglican clergy in the UK.

The Concise Dictionary of National Biography (1654-1930)

A directory containing lengthy biographies of noted British figures. The work took over two decades to compile. Biographies can be searched by name and are linked to images of the original publication.

Church of England Clergy Database (1500-1835)

A database of CoE clergy, giving details of their education of service. Contains references to source documents. Also contains profiles of various church institutions.

Manchester Maps

Maps of Lancashire (1579-1922)

Digital images of maps covering the county.

Ordnance Survey 1:10 Maps (1840-1890)

Maps showing settlements, features and some buildings in mainland Britain.

Tithe Apportionments (1836-1856)

An index to 11,000,000 parcels of land and property, connected to digital images of registers that record their owner, occupier, description, agricultural use, size and rateable value.

Parish Maps of Britain (1832)

Maps of parishes in England, Scotland and Wales. They are useful in determining which parish records may be relevant to your research.

A Vision of Britain (1190-Present)

A sprawling website setting out and describing the historical divisions of Britain. Also contains countless maps of various sorts. Covers the UK, Ireland, Isle of Man & has fleeting details of other localities.

Manchester Reference Works

England Research Guide (1538-Present)

A beginner’s guide to researching ancestry in England.

Parish Register Abstract (1538-1812)

Compiled in 1831, this book details the coverage and condition of parish registers in England & Wales.

Building History Research Guide (1066-Present)

A comprehensive guide to researching the history of buildings in the British Isles.

Surname Origins (1790-1911)

A service that provides advanced and custom surname maps for the British Isles and the US.

British Family Mottoes (1189-Present)

A dictionary of around 9,000 mottoes for British families who had right to bear arms.

Manchester Information

Civil & Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction:

Historical Description

Manchester is situated on a gentle rising ground on the borders of the County on the south side next Cheshire, upon the rivers Irk, Medlock and Irwell, about seven miles from the junction of the latter with the Mersey, the latter of which has four bridges over it, two of them very handsome structures; the former is supposed to have more mill seats upon it than any other stream of its length in the united kingdom, and the latter is highly valuable on account of its banks being the seats of many dye- houses, and supplying with water the navigable canal of the late Duke of Bridgewater, which extends hence to the coal mines at Worsley, Walkden Moor, and Preston, where it joins the Grand Trunk Navigation, and to Runcorn, where it falls into the Mersey.

The rivers Irwell and Mersey, are navigable for vessels of 50 tons to Liverpool. Relatively considered, Manchester is situated on low ground; as there is a descent to it whichever way it is approached. Its appearance is such that the eye cannot reach half the boundaries of its far extended buildings: but the many magnificent steeples, spires, and manufactories, which are seen [rising among the clouds of smoke in almost every direction, sufficiently shew its consequence and importance.

In fact the many great improvements in the town of Manchester, within the last fifteen years, surpass belief, notwithstanding the gloomy prospect arising from the loss of trade, which for a time palsied the exertions of the greater portion of the kingdom. During this period different parts of the towns have undergone considerable alterations. Many streets that before were narrow, mean, and dirty, have been rendered spacious and commodious by removing all projections and other obstructions, and the foot paths have been considerably improved, by widening, flagging, or nicely paving them in a slanting direction from the houses to the carnage road, by which means they are generally dry and clean, the rain also contributing to the cleanliness of the pavement.

A short sketch of the trade and manufactures by which this town has risen to the important rank it holds, must interest the curious.

The original trade of Manchester was in those coarse woollen fabrics manufactured in various parts of the north of England; and about the middle of the seventeenth century it became noted for the making of fustians, mixed stuffs, and small-wares. Another branch of the trade of Manchester was leathern laces for women’s bodices, shoe-ties, and points for other uses, which were tagged like laces, and sold under the general denomination of Congleton Points. Upon the introduction of the Dutch looms, woven laces were substituted in the room of these. Inkle, tapes, and filleting, which had before been made in frames or single looms, were now likewise wrought in these new engines, and coarse felts were also made. About the year 1700, bolsters, bed ticks, linen, girth, web, and boot-straps, were manufactured here; but about thirty years afterwards, part of that trade began to decline, and coarse checks, striped hollands, hooping and some yellow canvas were then made. At the same time the silk branch was attempted in cherry-derrys and thread-satins. Fustians were principally manufactured at Bolton, and began as early as the middle of the sixteenth century: they were bought in the grey by the Manchester chapman, (particularly by the benevolent Humphrey Chetham, esq. who founded the Blue-Coat Hospital) who finished them and sold them in the country.

The kinds of fustians then made, were herringbones, pillows for pockets and outside wear; strong cotton-ribs, and barragon; broad-raced lin thicksets and tufts, dyed; with whited diapers, striped dimities, and linen jeans. Cotton thicksets were made sometimes, but as often dropped for want of proper finishing. Tafts were much in demand at that time. When tufts ceased to be called for, a variety of figured patterns were attempted with treddles, but as these were confined to a scanty range, recourse was had to draw-boys, which gave name to a new and important branch of trade. Some yard-wides being made upon this plan, were bought up with avidity, and great encouragement was given to the most ingenious weavers, and looms were mounted for them by their employers at a great expense. — An improved plan was afterwards invented of using draw-boys in quilting, making counterpanes, and a variety of corded dimities. About the time when the draw-boys were first invented, cotton velvets and cotton thicksets were attempted, and soon made tolerably perfect, especially the former.

The manufacture of checks had by this time made great advances, which afterwards were made broader, and finer. Gowns, striped across with cotton, in a variety of patterns and colours, were introduced about seventy years ago, and had a considerable run; and silk was at last shot with cotton, which gave them a superior richness, and contributed to a greater variety of patterns. To these succeeded washing hollands, all cotton in the warp, a valuable and much esteemed article, until yarn was mixed, which ruined their character. Slight cotton goods were likewise fabricated for the African trade, and continued until the late American war.

A demand for the lighter open striped checks for bed-hangings and window-curtains, about sixty years since, introduced the making of furniture checks, which have almost set aside the use of stuffs in upholstery. The several species of ginghams, damasks, moreens, &c. were now manufactured.

In 1770 Mr. Richard Meadowcroft invented fast colours for silk-handkerchiefs, &c. by which the tying and dying of these articles were brought to great perfection, so as to imitate those imported from India. The tying is now confined to fine calico and cotton handkerchiefs.

About the time that silk-handkerchiefs began to be tied for dying, velverets began to be stamped with golden spots and figures, by the ingenious Mr. Mather, who had before that time contrived to get thicksets dyed of one colour uncut, and, after being cut, of another, which gave a novel appearance to the article. A successful attempt was afterwards made to stripe calicoes by heated rollers, and print them with copper-plates in a rolling- press.

To the manufactory of laces, tapes, and filleting, was early added that of divers kinds of bindings, and worsted small wares. These bindings are, however, now little used, the upholsterers preferring cotton stripes, made on purpose, or prints with furniture patterns. White cotton binding, lace, and fringe, for curtains, are articles of extensive demand at present.

The Dutch being noted for the excellence of their manufacture of fine holland tape, plans were procured, and ingenious mechanics invited over to construct several engines, at a great expense, which have been employed in most branches of small wares with success.

A method of dressing was invented, by which the manufacture of cotton velvets and thicksets was brought to perfection, and the fustian trade has also been much improved by the addition of velveteens, approaching nearer to real velvets than velverets; likewise strong and fancy woollen and fustian cords. The practice of dressing caused a revolution in the whole system of bleaching and dying; that process rendering it necessary for the colours to be more fixed in the substance of the cotton goods. At length the art of printing here came to rival that of London, and this branch has in a great measure been transferred from thence to the town and neighbourhood of Manchester.

These improvements have been chiefly owing to the ingenious inventions of Mr. John Wilson, of Ainsworth, who was originally a manufacturer in the fustian branch at Manchester, and early engaged in the making of cotton velvets, which, by unwearied efforts, he brought to their utmost degree of perfection. Possessed of some chemical knowledge, he directed his inquiries to the investigation of the different known processes in dying, which led to very useful discoveries. He also procured from the Greek dyers at Smyrna the secret of dying Turkey red.

Thus one improvement succeeded another, till the London printers have now no superiority but in light airy patterns, to which those in Lancashire are making considerable progress; while the large capitals employed in the business secure to the latter all the improvements that are made.

Of late years, muslins have been made to a great extent, and many printed ones.

The introduction of the spinning machines could alone have enabled the masters and workmen to answer the immense demands for the various branches in the cotton manufacture. These were first used by the country people, on a confined scale; but such considerable improvements were made, that at length they were constructed so as thousands of spindles were put in motion by a water-wheel, without confusion, and with less waste of cotton than by the former methods. It was also contrived to card and scrib by machinery; but these branches required a greater range of invention to be brought to perfection.

Upon these machines twist for warps is made to any degree of fineness: mules were afterwards invented, by which weft was spun as fine as desired.

The newly-invented steam-engines were a great improvement, and employed to a great advantage, as the application of machinery to several branches of business was thereby extended. The engines consume a vast quantity of coal, and have rendered that useful article very dear; but they have been the means of accelerating motion, and of providing and diffusing, in a great degree, the money requisite for the advance.

There are supposed to be, at least, 1,515,500 spindles in the different factories in Manchester and the neighbourhood. One thousand spindles is considered to be a fair average for each horse power. A factory set in motion by an engine of ten horse power will consume, including the stove, a ton of coals per day; consequently there must be nearly 47,270 tons consumed annually in the different factories in Manchester.

The great extent of the several branches of the Manchester manufactures has likewise greatly increased the business of different trades and manufactures connected with or dependent on them.

Paper of all sorts is made here in great perfection; and there are no fewer than twelve capital iron foundries. Tin-plate workers, braziers, clock-makers, and harness-makers, have all found additional employment in preparing and fitting up the various engines of recent invention for manufacturing cotton, &c.

The value of cotton yarn depends upon its length, and is distinguished by numbers, which bespeak the number of hanks in the pound. Thus No. 20 yarn has 20 hanks; No. 100 has 100 hanks in each pound weight. Every hank is 840 yards long; so that one pound of cotton yarn, of No. 20, is 16, 800 yards long; and one pound of No. 100 contains 84, 000 yards.

The trade of Manchester is carried on to a surprising extent; and with a success hitherto unknown in the history of commerce, has spread itself over all the civilized world, and wafted the articles made at its manufactories to the most distant shores of both hemispheres. They consist of an almost infinite variety, both of cotton yarns and manufactured goods. Cotton yarns being spun any where from three to 300 hanks in the pound; and the variety of goods made from cotton, and silk and cotton mixed, are almost innumerable, as the pattern-cards and books of its merchants will abundantly prove.

There is also another article fabricated from cotton, viz. sewing thread, which has been introduced, brought to perfection, and the use of it in a few years diffused all over the kingdom, principally by the attention, perseverance, and activity, of Mr. David Holt, of Manchester. This is made by firmly twisting together three threads of the best cotton yarn, which proves to be the finest, smoothest, and cheapest article, for sewing, hitherto discovered or used for that purpose. It has likewise become an article of extensive demand on the continent, and other places.

The continual improvements in machinery, and its general application to almost every branch of manufacture, has given the Manchester tradesmen a decided advantage over their cotemporaries, and has mostly enabled them to find a quick and ready sale for their goods. Its trade has also been wonderfully assisted by canal navigations, which at the same time float to its manufactories, upon cheap terms, the prodigious supply of coals necessary for the working of its machinery, and carry back from thence, at the like easy rates, its different products to their respective markets. These advantages have been duly appreciated by the spirit and genius of the inhabitants, and Manchester has now, in every respect, assumed the style and manners of one of the greatest commercial capitals in Europe.

It is but just to add that for that fine compact article called mule yarn, of which are manufactured all those beautiful goods called jacconots, bucks, gauzes, and other fine Scotch fabrics and cambrics, also all fine cotton laces and threads, the commercial world is wholly indebted to Mr. Samuel Crompton, who first invented the machines called Hall i' th' Wood Wheels, or mules, for which Parliament, above thirty years after the discovery, granted Mr. Crompton the sum of 50001. clear of all fees, though, in the opinion of most persons, an annual pension to that amount would hardly have been a compensation adequate to the merits of his services, and of which so many tradesmen had availed themselves for such a number of years. —The various establishments with the machinery attached to them, when in full work, and in all the subsequent stages of the manufacture, have been estimated as employing 350, 000 persons; viz. 150, 000 men, 90, 000 women, and 110, 000 children, in various parts of the country, connected with this great manufacturing town, though the population of this place is somewhat less than 112, 000.

The cotton spinning here at present consists of weft used by weavers, as woof, or shoot and twist, which is often improperly called cotton yarn, and by the weavers cotton wool. Among the articles woven are muslins of various kinds, plain and figured; calicoes and counterpanes, but not in large quantities: the same may now be said of fustians, as thicksets, velveteens, velverets, corduroys, pillows, &c. many of which are now got up in the neighbourhood of Wigan. Glazing, or calendering of printed cottons, is carried on in Manchester to a great extent, and so also is fustian leather and dyeing. Very little silk is now manufactured here, though an attempt has been lately made to revive it. Hats are made here to a considerable amount. Much calico printing and bleaching, here called whitening, is done in the vicinity of Manchester.-This town, it has been observed, is the great centre of the cotton trade, the market for which on a Tuesday has equalled the bustle of the Royal Exchange in London. Here merchants from all parts of Lancashire, &c. flock for the purpose of buying and selling cotton goods of every description, cotton twist, weft, yarn, wool, &c. &c.

The municipal government is vested in a head-borough (called the boroughreeve) and two constables, chosen annually from the most respectable of the inhabitants, by a jury impanelled by the steward of the manor, at the Michaelmas court- leet of the lord of the manor. It has long been an established rule, in the choice of the boroughreeve, to select a gentleman who has already served the office of constable; and in no corporation is the mayor for the time being treated with more respect than the boroughreeve of Manchester. He does not appear to have many duties to discharge, since the actual superintendence of the police is performed under the direction of the two constables, by their deputy, who has a salary of 1501. per annum, and has under his command several beadles (formerly, in this place, emphatically called bang-beggars) to assist him in the laborious task of duty of constable in so populous a township.

The boroughreeve presides at all public meetings, which are convened by himself and the constables, at the requisition of respectable inhabitants, who notify the nature of the business intended to be brought forward. He also distributes certain charities, which are denominated "the boroughreeve’s charities."

In aid of the constables chosen by the jury, a great number of special constables are annually sworn, who, residing in different quarters of the town, tend very much to the conservation of the peace. The lord of the manor of Manchester holds a baronial court in Manchester once a month, for the recovery of small debts. The present lord of the manor is Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart. And in Salford, which is a royal demesne, is a hundred court, for the same purpose, holden under the King, by the deputy of the Right Honourable the Earl of Sefton, the present steward, once a fortnight.

Fur the administration of justice, several respectable magistrates sit in the court-room of the New Bailey, on Wednesday and Saturday mornings. — Sessions are held four times in the year, when the press of business is so great, as sometimes to keep the court sitting near a fortnight.

The division of the town into districts being a police regulation, we shall insert them here:

No. 1. New Cross District; bounded on one side by the New Cross and Ancoats-lane; on the other side by Newton-lane; and another side by the river Medlock; comprising within this district all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, contained within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 2. St. Michael’s District; bounded on one side by Newton-lane aforesaid; on another side by Swan-street and Miller’s-lane; on another side by part of Long-mill-gate to Scotland-bridge, and along the river Irk, in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid, and on the north side of the said church.

No. 3. Collegiate Church District, bounded on one side by Scotland-bridge and part of Long-mill-gate, to and through Miller’s-lane; on another side by Shude-hill, Hanging-ditch, Cateaton-street, down to Salford-bridge; on another side by the river Irwell; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid, and on the north side of the said church.

No. 4. St. Clement’s District; bounded on one side by Ancoat’s-lane aforesaid; on another side by Lever-street; on another side by Piccadilly; and on another side by the river Medlock; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 5. St. Paul’s District; bounded on one side by Lever-street, on another side by New Cross and Swan-street; on another side by Shude-hill, Nichol’s- croft and High-street; and on another side by Market-street-lane and Lever’s-row; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 6. Exchange District; bounded on one side by Market-street-lane, and St. Mary’s-gate, on another side by Dean’s-gate; on another side by Cateaton-street, Hanging-ditch, and Withy-grove; and on another side by Nichol's-croft and High-street; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 7. Mishull District; bounded on one side by Piccadilly and Bank-top; on another side by Garrat-lane; on another side by Brook-street; and on another side by the river Medlock; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 8. St. James’s District; bounded on one side by Lever’s-row; on another by Garrat-lane; on another side by Bond-street; and on another side by Fountain-street; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 9. St. Ann’s District; bounded on one side by St. Mary’s-gate and Market-street-lane; on another side by Fountain-street, on another side by Brazennose-street and Princes-street; and on another side by Dean’s-gate; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 10. Oxford-street district; bounded on one side by Bond-street and Brook-street; on another side by Dawson-street and a new street; and on another side by the river Medlock; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 11. St. Peter’s district; bounded on one side by Dawson Street and a new street; on another side by the river Medlock; on another side by Alport-street and Dean’s gate; and on another side by Brazennose-street and Princes-street; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 12. St. Mary’s district; bounded on one side by the street from Salford Bridge; on another side by Dean’s-gate; on another side by Bridge-street; and on another side by the river Irwell; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 13. Old Quay district; bounded on one side by Bridge-street; on another side by Dean’s-gate; on another side by Quay-street; and on another side by the river Irwell; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

No. 14. St. John’s district; bounded on one side by Quay-street; on another side by Alport-street; on another side by the canal and river Medlock; and on another side by the river Irwell; in which district are comprised all the streets, lanes, passages, and places, within the boundaries aforesaid.

Among the public buildings of Manchester we have already mentioned the Collegiate Church, as being principally deserving of notice, on account of its architectural beauty.

This truly venerable pile cannot fail to attract the attention and command the admiration of the antiquary and the man of taste. It is built in the rich ornamented Gothic style of architecture which distinguishes the buildings of the fifteenth century. It has a handsome tower, ornamented with battlements and pinnacles.

The interior of the church is profusely ornamented with the most curious specimens of Gothic sculpture; in many instances so perfectly grotesque and ridiculous as to set gravity at defiance. The inside is solemnly grand; the windows still possess a great part of the painted glass with which they were once filled. The roof is one of rich fret-work, and further ornamented by a number of carved angels, playing upon different musical instruments.

That part of the building which is more properly called the parish church, is strikingly grand: the ceiling is very lofty and richly ornamented.

The entrance into Trafford’s Chapel had formerly a most beautiful skreen; the remains of which, mutilated as they are, still claim the attention of the curious. Of the choir, the author of the Manchester Guide observes, "The general appearance will necessarily fill the spectator who enters it for the first time with sensations of awe and pleasure. The rich fore-ground of carved work, and the grand opening above the communion table, enlightened by the large east window, imperceptibly draw the eye from the minutiae to the whole, and form one of the richest interior architectural views which the county can boast. The tout ensemble conveys a pleasure to the feelings which cannot be described, but which will be reiterated on every subsequent visit to this admirable monument of the piety and taste of our forefathers."

An account of the numerous monuments and inscriptions in this church would far exceed the limits of this work.

"The choir, if a few cathedrals are excepted, is perhaps the finest, taken in all its parts, in the kingdom; and in some particulars even cathedrals do not excel it. The tabernacle work is perhaps unrivalled in this island; the work over the warden’s stall is particularly beautiful, and in as good preservation as any part of the church. ’’

The pews in the part which is more properly the parish church, are free for the parishioners at large; excepting those appropriated to the use of the officers of the parish, and to strangers. In one of these, the boroughreeve, for the time being, is seated, when he attends divine service. The pews in the different galleries are the property of the chaplains, and are let to different persons. Those which are in Brown’s, Trafford’s, and Strangeway’s chapels, belong to the freehold proprietors of the chapels.

There are two organs in this church; both are however supplied with wind by one pair of bellows, and may be played from the same point upon three rows of keys; the larger, a parish organ, cost 1000 guineas.

This part of the church has recently undergone considerable alterations. Two baptismal fonts have been removed out of it, and the ground which they occupied been covered with pews. On the area of the old font has been erected elegant seats for the use of the parish officers and strangers; and on the new one seats for the parishioners. The north gallery, which was erected in 1698, and projected considerably into the body of the church, has been taken down, and another built close to the north wall. This, and the west gallery, have added much to the magnificence, as well as commodiousness, of the church. They are lighted by dome, or hidden lights, which has a very good, though novel appearance. The pulpit, which was erected about the same time as the north gallery, has also been removed, for the better hearing of the congregation; and, what is rather uncommon, if nut altogether singular, the minister, during divine service, stands in a southwest direction. Chetham’s, and the Strangeway s’ galleries, which were erected about 1660, have also been taken down, and rebuilt, in uniformity with the others adjoining them. The south side of the church is now undergoing similar alterations as the north side; and when completed, we have no doubt but it will be one of the most commodious, grand, and magnificent structures for public worship in this part of the kingdom.

Over the seats appropriated to the use of the parish officers (formerly the old baptismal font), is the gallery in which sit the children belonging to Chetham’s hospital. In the front of this gallery are the arms of the founder of that charity; and over it are the arms of King Charles the First, with his initials, C. R. When the church has been repaired, the old arms have been preferred to those of succeeding monarchs; perhaps out of respect to him who granted the charter to the church, by which it is now governed. Above that is the clock, and on each side it were lately placed the colours of the seventy-second regiment of foot, which was raised by subscription in the town of Manchester. The brave soldiers, on their return from Gibraltar, crowned with laurels, in 1783, deposited the colours they had so nobly and so successfully fought under, in the venerable building where very many of them had been received, by baptism, into the church of Christ, and round which many of their relations sleep in peace.

The surrounding chapels have not now so much claim to attention as they once possessed. In Brown’s are three small marble monuments. In Trafford’s chapel are four escutcheons, a spear, and a helmet. One side of this chapel is wainscoted, in pannels, which have been painted with the history of the life of our Saviour; but which has been so much obliterated by time and inattention, that few of the pannels now exhibit the part of his history, which they were meant to illustrate. The entrance of this chapel had once a most beautiful skreen; the remains, mutilated as they are, still possess a claim to the attention of the curious. A monument has been erected in this chapel, to the memory of the late Lady Trafford, who died, and was interred here, in the year 1813. Jesus’ Chapel, which also has a \ery handsome skreen, contains two handsome mural marble monuments; one to the memory of John Moss, Esq., and the other of William Clowes, Esq. of Hunt’s Bank. There is also in this chapel a brass plate monument, framed in wood, commemorating the death of Mr. Nathaniel Gaskell. The library which formerly was in this chapel is completely fallen into decay. Nothing remains of it but the bookcases and desks, and the chains which secured the hooks from thieves. A few torn leaves are the only relics of what the pious founder, Humphrey Chetham, intended for the instruction of his fellow-parishioners. By his will, dated December, 1651, £200 were ordered to be bestowed on godly English books, to be placed in the parish churches of Manchester and Bolton in the Moors; and in the chapels of Turton, Walmsley, and Gorton, in this county. The old baptismal font has been removed into this chapel, which is used occasionally for the purpose of christening. In Chetham’s Chapel are handsome monuments to the memory of Samuel Chetham and Edward Chetham. Two tombs, which cover the remains of James and George Chetham, are in this chapel, as are also two brass plate effigies, unknown. The beautiful window which is over this chapel was placed there in 1812. It was carefully selected and formed, under the direction of the Rev. C. Wray, from the remains of painted glass in the different windows of the church.

If the conductor of a stranger through this church proceeds with judgment, he will reserve the exhibition of the choir till the last; and will enter from the body of the church, in preference to the side gates. The general appearance will necessarily fill the spectator who enters it for the first time, with sensations of awe and pleasure. The rich foreground of carved work, and the grand opening above the communion table, enriched by the large east window before described, imperceptibly draw the eye from the minutiae to the whole, and form one of the most beautiful architectural views of which the county can boast.

Trinity Church. Salford, is a handsome stone edifice, erected on the site of the old chapel. St. Anne’s, is situated at the end of the square to which it gave the name, and is an elegant structure of the Corinthian order. Here hang the colours of the late 104th regiment of foot. St. Mary’s, is situate between Dean’s Gate and the river Irwell, and has a spire steeple 186 feet high. St. Paul’s, at the end of Turner’s-street, is closed in by the surrounding houses, in a most disagreeable manner. St. John’s, is a handsome modern Gothic pile, between Higher and Lower Byrom-street, the interior and exterior of which are richly ornamented; and the tower contains a musical peel of eight bells.

St. James’s church, is situated in George-street, and is a large brick building, consecrated in August 1788. St. Michael's, is situated at the bottom of Angel-street, and is also a brick building. St. Peter’s, is a singularly elegant piece of architecture of the Doric order, and terminates the prospect down Mosley-street. St. Clement’s, is situated in Lever-street, and is a handsome structure of brick and stone. St. Stephen’s, is near the Bank Parade, Salford. St. George’s, is a large brick building between Great-Newton-street and St. George’s road. St. Thomas’s Chapel, Ardwick, is a plain neat building of brick, remarkably commodious. St. Luke’s Chapel is in the suburb of Chorlton Row; and St. Thomas’s Chapel, Pendleton, is a plain brick building, with a turret and bell.

The Old Dissenters’ Chapel, stands on the site of that originally built in 1693, and is situated in Cross-street. The Roman Catholics have two chapels, the newest built in 1794, by Subscription. The Independents have also two chapels, one in Cannon-street, and the newest in Mosley-street. The Scotch Calvinists have a chapel in Lloyd-street, commonly called St. Andrew’s, and there is another Calvinist chapel near New Windsor, Salford. The Methodist Chapels are the most numerous; the first in point of size, and priority of date, is in Oldham-street, where the New Connexion of Methodists also have a small neat chapel. The Welsh Methodists use the Welsh language, exclusively, in their chapel, in Green-street. The Unitarian Chapel is a small neat brick building in Mosley-street. The Quaker’s Meeting is situated in Dickenson-street, and the Baptist Chapels are three in number.

New Jerusalem, Church, is a large handsome building of brick and stone, situated in Peter-street; it was opened for public worship on the 11th of August, 1793, and is vested in trustees, for the sole use and purpose of the members of the New Jerusalem Church. The inside of this building is spacious, handsome, and neatly pewed. There is a gallery on three sides; (he pews on the north side of the gallery are neatly curved, so as to unite with the other two sides, in a semi-circular form. At the extremity of the middle aisle below, there is a handsome stone font, which contains a gilded bason of cut glass. Over the font, and on each side, there are suitable ornaments, and appropriate inscriptions. In a recess, on the south side of the building, is the pulpit, with two reading desks, one on each side; the altar part forms a semi-circle in front of the desks and pulpit in the centre of the recess there is a large Venetian window, the middle part of which is ornamented with a transparency, representing the Holy Supper; in the upper part there is the figure of a dove, encircled with rays, representing the descent of the Holy Spirit; and, on each side, the figure of a lamb, denoting innocence. The wall of the recess surrounding the window, is ornamented with paintings representing the clouds, with bright and dark shades varied in a beautiful manner. On the right side of the window, in the recess, the Lord’s Prayer, and several quotations from the Holy Word, are written in black letters; and on the left side is the Decalogue, with the laws written across the two tables. Adjoining this place of worship there is a large school, consisting of two stories.

New Jerusalem Temple, situated in Bolton-street, Salford, was built partly by subscription, but chiefly at the expence of two gentlemen, whose intention is to vest it in trustees for the use of the members of the New Church, called the New Jerusalem, for ever. It was consecrated and opened, on the 19th of September, 1813, by Mr. Robert Hindmarsh. The internal plan of the building is plain, yet elegantly neat, particularly the dome rising in the centre, the pulpit, and communion place, which have been much admired.

Christ Church, Salford, is not, as its name imports, one of the established churches, nor exactly reducible to any of the foregoing denominations of Dissenters. It was built by subscription, for the use of the officiating minister, the late Rev. William Cowherd, formerly a minister of the Establishment, and afterwards of the "New Jerusalem Church," in Peter-street, but afterwards a professor of doctrines peculiar to himself. The service in this place, consists chiefly in reading a portion of the scriptures, which are elucidated, by the reader bringing forward the phenomena of nature, in support of the truth of them. The preacher particularly enforced abstinence from animal food, and the use of fermented liquors. This church was opened, September 28, 1800. It is a small plain brick building, with small windows in imitation of St. Peter’s church.

Christ Church, situated in Christ Church Square, Hulme, was built by the congregation attending the above place of worship, of which it is a perfect model, except in the external form, which is rather singular.

The Jews have a small synagogue in Ainsworth’s court, Long Millgate, and a burial ground near St. Thomas’s Chapel, Pendleton.

Among the charitable institutions, the Blue-Coat Hospital, and the Chetham Library in the College, claim the first attention, being founded by Humphrey Chetham, of Clayton Hall, near Manchester, in the middle of the seventeenth century, of whom a good account is given in Dr. Fuller’s History of the Worthies of England. Eighty boys are educated and boarded in the Blue-Coat School, and at about 14 years of age bound apprentices to different employments. The library is open eight or more hours every day. The College is so called, having been originally built for the residence of the ecclesiastics belonging to the collegiate church in Manchester. It is probably of the same date as the church, which was founded by Thomas West, Lord De la Warr, in the reign of King Henry VI., he having obtained a licence from King Henry the Vth, in the last year of his reign, for making the church of Manchester collegiate. The college was built upon the site of the old manor-house, called Baron’s Hall, which had been for many centuries the chief residence of the Gresleys and De la Warrs, lords of the manor of Manchester. The college continued to be the residence of the warden and fellows until the first year of King Edward the VIth, when at the dissolution of the collegiate body, the house was sold to Edward, Earl of Derby, and last of all to Mr. Chetham's executors, by the celebrated Charlotte de Tremouille, Countess of Derby, who so bravely defended Latham House. What alterations it may have undergone, either in its internal or external appearance, since its original foundation, it would be difficult at this period precisely to ascertain. It still, however, presents very considerable marks of antiquity, and exhibits all the characteristics of the architecture of collegiate buildings of the age to which it belongs. The principal entrance is under an ancient gateway, in Long Millgate, near the Free Grammar School, which leads into a spacious court-yard; but the usual approach, except for carriages, is along a passage which commences at the top of Hunt’s Bank. The College stands upon the edge of a rock which overlooks the river Irk, near the point of its junction with the Irwell, and must, at the period of its foundation, have been most romantically situated. The lower apartments of the building, and all the adjoining offices, are appropriated to the use of the Blue-Coat Hospital: the upper rooms contain the library, and the apartments of the librarian and the governor.

On the right hand of the entrance into the house is a large and lofty kitchen, open to the roof; and on the left hand is the ancient hall or refectory, where the boys usually dine. Adjoining the hall is a room in which the schoolmaster now resides, and which in former days was probably the apartment of the warden, as the ceiling is distinguished by some curious ornamental carving. One of the knots of the ceiling represents the head of Sir Tarquin, a celebrated giant in the fabulous times of King Arthur, who is said to have been lord of the castle of Manchester; and he is here exhibited in the act of swallowing an infant, which vulgar tradition affirms to have been no unusual meal to this tremendous personage. But the most perfect and most characteristic remains of the original building are the cloisters, which surround a small court, and which give an air of monastic antiquity to the whole.

The library extends through a long gallery, divided into numerous classes, which are enclosed with rails, and form separate compartments for the convenience of those who come to read the library. There is also a very large room adjoining the library, which, during the proper hours, is used as a reading room. It is curiously adorned with fine carvings of the escutcheon of the founder, and various emblematical devices. Here is also an original portrait of Humphrey Chetham, the founder, &c. &c.

The buildings in whichthe infirmary, dispensary, lunatic hospital and asylum are dispensed to the afflicted, are situated on the highest point of the town, in the front of Piccadilly, and are enclosed by the same palisades and walls, which insulate the public baths, the public walks, and the Infirmary pool. They are built of brick—are plain, handsome, and substantial; and contain large wards for the reception of patients, and other apartments.

In the year 1765 the Lunatic Hospital and Asylum was founded, and the building for the purpose erected. In the spring of the following year, 1766, it was opened for the reception of patients suffering under the greatest of all human maladies.

In the year 1781, the public Baths were erected, and in the year 1792, a Dispensary was added to the charity, and a large additional building, suitable for the purpose, was erected, adjoining the Infirmary.

The public Baths are situated at the entrance of the Infirmary Walks, and consist of hot, tepid, vapour, and cold baths, which are inclosed in a neat low building, are kept in a very clean and neat manner, and have comfortable dressing rooms attached to each.

The Lying-in Hospital, is situated in Stanley-street, Salford. This charity not only provides professional assistance, and domestic accommodation, for those pregnant women who are taken into the hospital, but also for the delivery of poor married women at their own habitations, giving them advice, and supplying them with medicines.

The House of Recovery in Aytoun-street; it is a large brick building, respectable in its outward appearance, very commodious and well-adapted within, and in every respect suitable to the end of the institution. It is intended principally to receive persons afflicted with fevers, which often, for want of proper attention, cleanliness, and an open situation, become fatal to the individual, and infectious to the neighbourhood. Here every possible care is taken of the patient, and while the lenient hand of benevolence is employed in restoring him to health and vigour, the public good is essentially promoted by preventing the spreading of those epidemical disorders to which large towns are peculiarly subject.

The Strangers' Friend Society, a charitable and highly beneficial institution, which extends relief to strangers, and other distressed individuals and families. It originated with the Methodists of this town, in the year 1791, and is chiefly, though not exclusively, supported by them. The poor members of that religious body are not, however, relieved from this institution, which extends its benefits to persons of all other professions indiscriminately, distress being the only recommendation required.

The Boroughreeve's Charity, as it is commonly called, arises from lands and money left by various persons to be distributed to the poor, aged, needy, and impotent inhabitants of the town of Manchester, by the Boroughreeve for the time being.

The charitable donations to the poor of Salford are also very liberal.

The Jubilee, or Ladies’ Female Charity School; the Royal Lancastrian, the National, and Sunday Schools, are all supported with credit to their patrons.

Among the Literary Institutions, the Free Grammar School, the Grammar School, in Leaf Square, and the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, claim the first attention. Circulating Libraries also abound in Manchester. The New Library and News Room, in Mosley-street, is an elegant edifice of the Ionic order.

The New Exchange Building. The first stone of this building was laid on the 1st of July, 1806, by George Philips, Esq. M. P. The work was erected from the plans of Mr. Harrison, architect, of Chester; and the masonry executed by Messrs. Buxton and Cape, in less than three years.

It is built of Runcorn stone, the north front being in the form of a semicircle. The columns are of pure Grecian Doric, and fluted, and are 27 feet long. There are two grand entrances into the exchange room: one from the Market-place, and the other from Exchange-street. The news-room occupies the whole of the north front, or circular part, and is singularly elegant, being lighted by large sash windows to the front, and by a semi-dome light in the centre, the glass alone of which cost 150l. Over the exergue of the circle, to the breadth of 15 feet, and at the height of 17 feet, are offices and warehouses, which are supported by handsome fluted Ionic pillars, of which four are hollow tubes of iron, for the purpose of heating the room by steam, in the winter. These, like the rest, are cased with wood, and give an air of grandeur to the room. From the pillars, the room rises into a very handsome semi-dome, which is richly panelled in stucco work.

The tables are daily furnished with an incredible number of newspapers; these are not only accessible to subscribers, but also to strangers introduced by them. The Exchange is open from seven in the morning till ten at night.

The area of this beautiful room is 4060 feet: and if it should ever be found too small, the ingenious architect has provided for its enlargement, by an opening through the centre fire-place, into a square room, which may be made by taking away a part of the post-office.

Besides the Exchange Room, there are also, on the ground floor, two shops to the front of Exchange-street, a tavern on the east side of the building (at present occupied as warehouses), and the post-office on the south. Nothing could have been more appropriately situated than the post-office, which is admirably fitted up, and adapted for the dispatch of the vast quantity of business, which so large a commercial town as Manchester every day creates.

The principal places of amusement include the Assembly Rooms in Mosley-street; the Billiard Room in the same building; the Gentlemen’s Concert Room in Fountain-street; and the Theatre, which was finished and opened in the year 1807, at an expence of about 15, 000l. This has a good appearance, and is ranked among the best of the country theatres. The Amphitheatre in York street and Spring Gardens is appropriated to the performance of pantomimic, and other exhibitions. Horse races take place at Whitsuntide; beginning on the Wednesday of that week, and continuing the two following days. The race ground is upon Kersall-moor, about three miles north-west of the town. The course is about a mile round, and is corded all the way, on both sides. Every possible attention is paid by the stewards and their assistants, to prevent accidents; and, considering the very great body of men, women, and children, of every description, that assemble to partake of the pleasures of this diversion, fewer accidents happen here than at any other races in England. The numerous stands on the ground are remarkably well-built, and afford perfect security to the crowds who assemble upon them.

Whitsuntide, in Manchester, is the annual Jubilee. Beside the fair and the races, plays, balls, concerts, assemblies, and cock-fighting, make out the amusements of the week. Business is nearly at a stand; and pleasure reigns with almost Parisian despotism.

Markets are held every day in the week, Sunday excepted, when provisions of all kinds may be purchased; Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, are the principal flesh-market days. The last exhibits an abundance of provisions of every description, which never fails to surprise strangers, not only as to its collection, but its probable sale. The quantity of butcher’s meat sold every Saturday, is almost beyond belief; and for quality it is universally allowed to be equal, at least, to that exposed for sale in any market in the United Kingdoms. The quantity of oatmeal, butter, cheese, potatoes, and other vegetables brought into town on that day, is no less matter for surprise, especially when it is considered, that the country to the east and the north of Manchester, contributes nothing to the market, but is almost wholly supplied with many articles from it.

The fish sold here are chiefly salmon, from Coleraine and the Ribble; sparlings, herrings, soals, flukes, &c. from the north-west coast; and haddock, cod, and lobsters, from the Yorkshire coast.

The New Bailey Prison is in Stanley-street, Salford, and serves as a place of confinement for suspected, convicted, and committed felons. The outside walls, which form a square, whose sides are each 120 yards, are guarded by iron palisades, which present a point every way, and which on any weight being hung from the inside fall down immediately. The entrance to the prison is a handsome rusticated stone building. Many of the prisoners here work at trades, as weavers, shoemakers, tailors, hatters, cleaners of cotton, &c. &c., and the whole is kept very clean.

The environs of Manchester abound with old mansions, respectable villas, and handsome modern seats. In the first class of these is Ancoats Hall, the great windows of which project before the face of the building. —Of a similar style and age is Hulme Hall, a little west of Manchester, on the banks of the river Irwell; but its exterior is more romantic and picturesque than fine or beautiful. — Having been let out in tenements, to poor tenants, it has long been in a state of dilapidation.

Alkington, the seat of John Lever, Esq. was the property of Sir Ashton Lever, who commenced his grand and interesting collection of natural and artificial curiosities at this place, merely from the circumstance of having shot a white sparrow.

Smedley Hall is about one mile north of Manchester, and near this is Broughton Hall, formerly the property of the Stanleys. The new Hall was built by the late Samuel Clowes, Esq.

Heaton House is four miles north-east of Manchester. The mansion here is a handsome modern structure, built of stone, from the designs of the late Samuel Wyatt, Esq.; it stands on a commanding situation, in the midst of a fine park. In the centre of the south front is a semi-circular piece of architecture of the Ionic order, surmounted with a dome; and branching from the former, are two spacious colonnades, connected and terminated with two octangular pavilions. The elevation of this front is at once simple and elegant, and commands some interesting prospects of home scenery and the distant country. At a short distance from the house, on a high spot of ground in the park, is a circular temple, having many extensive views into Yorkshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, and Staffordshire. — The park, ornamented with a fine Doric lodge, includes an area of about five miles in circumference.

There are commodious canal packets from Manchester to Runcorn every day, when passengers may proceed thence in the steam packet to Liverpool: also from Manchester to Preston Brook, where a coach from Chester meets it every morning at eleven o’clock. There is also a regular packet between Manchester and Bolton.

Before we quit Manchester, it may be necessary to remark, that the antiquity of this place is very- remote.

According to Mr. Whitaker, the site of the present town was occupied by the ancient Britons 500 years before Christ; but it was not until after the invasion of Britain by the Romans, that any thing like a town is supposed to have been here; at that time the Britons drew together for mutual defence, in places which had some natural fortification, and here established their Mancenion, or place of tents. Mr. Whitaker describes the situation and boundaries of the British Manchester in the following words:

"The dimensions of this original Manchester are still very discernible, and it filled the whole extent of Castle Field, except the low swampy part of it on the west, terminated by the Medlock on the southeast and south-west: it was bounded on the east by a fosse, on the west by the present lofty bank, and on the north by a long and broad ditch. The natural advantages of the river and the bank were great inducements with the Britons to choose this particular situation. But the principal was one of which they could not readily be suspected, though they appear to have frequently acted upon it: most of the British towns had such an area selected for them as the ground of the Castle Field presented, and the coldness of our climate required; one that, by its position on the northern bank of the river, and its gentle declivity to the south, or its collateral points, would give the Britons the whole reflected warmth of our sun. And this is the case with numbers of the British fortresses mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoninus. Surrounded as they were with the damps of the neighbouring woods, such a position was directed by prudence. And for this reason only could the Castle Field have been preferred by the Britons to the site of the present church and college; the latter being superior to the former in all the common requisites of a fortress, but greatly inferior to it in this.

"On the east and north were the advantages of situation lost: the ground within being even with that without. Here, therefore, the Britons would sink a ditch and raise a rampart. And at the south-eastern angle of the field, and on the lower margin of the Medlock, was a deep and narrow gully, that was cut through the solid rock, and existed to the year 1765. This originally formed, in all probability, at the formation of the British fortress, a part of its eastern boundary; and from this point the ditch seems pretty plainly to have mounted up the little garden, that now lies along the eastern side of the field; the rocks on the right having been cut away sloping towards the west, and the earth appearing from the rubbishy, that to the depth of several feet is mingled with it, to We merely adventitious; and as I shall immediately shew, terminated a little farther above. The northern ditch continues for the greater part of its original course, being carefully preserved in general by the Romans afterwards; and the extraordinary aspect of its western end, so much more formidable than Roman fosses, of itself bespeaks the whole to be British. The eastern part of it, which was closed by the ridge that runs along the side of the present road, has been long filled up by the Romans; and no traces are to be found at present. But where the preservation of it became afterwards necessary to the defence of the Roman station, there the course still plainly appears; the ground gently sloping away in most places for fourteen or fifteen yards to the north, and then rising up more sharply as many. Along the greatest part of the line, the ditch has been considerably levelled, the earth of the banks having been long thrown down into the hollow; and at present, the concluding slope on the east commences about forty or fifty yards from the road, and the large hollow spreads about thirty-four in breadth, and sinks gradually about one and a half in depth, falling gently away to the west. For the next twenty yards, it is only about thirty broad, and one deep; the southern bank gradually growing all the way. For sixty more, it is about thirty-four broad, and one and a half deep; and for the following sixty is less deep, but about forty in breadth, and the southern bank is scarcely visible. The fosse now begins to assume its formidable aspect, and gradually rises in grandeur as it proceeds towards the west. The southern bank all at once falls away in a long slope towards the north, and becomes what the northern had hitherto been, the striking signature of the fosse. At the end of forty yards, the latter has no perceptible fall, but the former carries a sharp de-

scent of about twenty to the foot of it; and at the end of ten more, where the latter slightly slopes away for eighteen, the former descends as many, much sharper than before, to meet it. When we have advanced about ten farther, the northern presents to us a gentle shelve of twenty, and the southern a steep one of eighteen. And both mount with a very quick ascent of twenty for the remaining twelve, as the channel, cutting the thick bank in two, descends with a lively fall to the west.

"On that side was a lofty bank, forming a sharp slope of fifty yards to the swampy ground below it. This is the southern point of the ridge which extends along the ground immediately to the north of the British city. And when it turned in an obtuse angle to the south-east, the line of the British fortification not turning with it, was continued directly to the river, and the rampart still appears along the descent, and carries a large appearance and elevated crest. Under these, spread out an impracticable morass, about an hundred yards in breadth, and three hundred in length, beginning at the margin of the Medlock on the south, extending betwixt the foot of the bank, and the channel of a rill, to the north-west of the British city, and giving it a full security on that quarter, only, just upon the margin, the edge of the morass remained to the present period sufficiently practicable and hard. And this, I suppose, obliged the Britons to continue the bank to the river.

"These were the barriers of the British Manchester on the east, the north, and the west. And on the south was the natural fosse of the channel, and the natural rampart of the bank of the river Medlock. But for greater safety on this side, the rampart was improved as the bank was scarped by the Britons. And the strokes of their large pick-axes appeared in 1764 along the whole margin of the channel, and on the face of the rocks, which are below the present edge of the water; and descended nearly to the original surface of it, within a yard and a half of the bed of the river. This continuance and extent of the scarping seems plainly to prove it British, as it was evidently performed at a period when the whole area of the field was a fortification; and not merely a temporary one, used occasionally for a few weeks till a regular station could be constructed within it, which was the case in the time of the Romans; but when it was a fixed and stated fortification, which was the fact in that of the Britons only. And, accordingly, deep in the artificial soil, with which the face of the bank has since been covered, were found in 1765 and 1766, a Roman clasp for the clothes, a Roman urn, a Roman coin, which had 'REDVCI' on one side, and 'AN AVG COS' upon the other, and a Roman lachrymatory of black glass, deposited in a little hollow on the rock, and half filled with tears.

"Along a part of the slope, from the eastern boundary of the field beyond the mouth of the New Tunnel, the only one in which the upper point of the bank has been hitherto laid open, the same marks of the British economy in war have regularly appeared, on the front both of the rocks and soil, which are above the present edge of the water, wherever the adventitious earth has been accidentally removed from the face of either, both have then been found to have formerly been cut down into a very sharp descent, or an absolute perpendicular. Both, therefore, as we have every reason to conclude, must have been so cut, not only for this particular extent, but along the whole semicircular verge of the Medlock. And about twenty yards to the east of the tunnel, upon the point of a projecting rock, and under the same artificial soil, appeared in 1766, a flight of large rude stairs, leading down to the water, being seven steps, about three yards in length, from three quarters of a yard to a foot in breadth, and from ten to four inches in depth, and very visible, worn away near the middle. —Formed as these were, because of the steepness of the scarped, and for an easier descent to the current, and pretty certainly formed betwixt the construction of the fortress and the advance of the Romans into Lancashire, they would naturally, upon the first alarm of the latter, be thought to afford too ready a passage into the town, and the lower part of them had been cut down into a deep perpendicular.

"The principal entrance into this British city seems to have been near the north-eastern angle of the field, and in the large vacancy betwixt the commencement of the eastern, and conclusion of the northern ditch. This ground was opened in 1765, and the soil appeared to have been never shifted. And the area of the whole, being twelve acres, three roods, and ten acres in extent, the Britons filled with houses for themselves, and hovels for their cattle. Both of them would be habitations more strongly built than their temporary huts of reeds and turf. And the former particularly were designed to be the regular barracks of the garrison and would therefore be constructed in the most durable style of Saxon architecture. They were as we have every reason to suppose, what the general houses of the Gauls and Britons were, great round cabins, built principally of timber, on foundations of stone, and roofed with a sloping covering of skins or reeds. But the latter seem to have been constructed in a somewhat different form; to have been not round, but nearly squared, and to have contained about sixteen yards by twelve within. Such, at least, was the ground-work of a building which was discovered within Castle Field in 1766 and laid in a manner that bespoke it to be British. About half a yard below the surface of the ground was a line of large irregular blocks, some hewn from the quarry of Colly burst, and others collected from the channel of the river. And under it were three layers of common paving stones, not compacted together with mortar, but with the rude and primitive cement of clay.

"So formed was this secret foundation, which was about two yards in breadth, and one in depth. —And as such it appears to have been very ancient. It was plainly laid before the use of lime had been introduced among us, and consequently before the Sistuntii had been subdued by the Romans. For the knowledge of that preparation was first communicated to us by the latter; as is clear from the present remains of British buildings in the Isle of Anglesey and Wiltshire, which are all, like the more regular structures of the free Peruvians, raised entirely without the assistance of lime. The houses in the western isles of Scotland, to this day, are built of stone, and cemented with earth. And the same sort of foundations has been equally discovered about those huge obelisks of the Britons near Aldborough, in Yorkshire, which are so similar to the stones erected frequently without their circular temples, a foot below the surface of the ground; a course chiefly of boulders has been found, at one of them, laid upon a bed of clay; four or five courses of clay, and boulders, spreading successively beneath it, and the whole rude groundwork forming a buttress about the basis of the stone.

"And the British foundation at Manchester, upon which a strong wall of timber, I suppose, was originally raised, could not have been the remains of a cabin for the warriors, because it was modelled in a square form. It was, therefore, the ground-work of an hovel for cattle: and this opinion is confirmed by the nature of its situation. It was placed upon the slope of the bank, and about midway betwixt the tunnel and the road; as the floor of it had a strong inclination to the south, and what seemed to have been the door-way, took up one whole side of it, and was opposed to the north. And the same sort of foundations was discovered in 1765 and 1770, a little lower in the field, and running for thirty or forty yards together; a single layer of small paving stones, bedded equally in clay, resting on the plane of the rock, and covered with rubbish to the depth of a couple of yards. The cabins, perhaps, were disposed into two or three rows, coursed in right lines from east to west, and possessed the whole of the higher grounds. This the gracefulness of a regular arrangement, and the necessity of regular walks, would naturally occasion. And the conveniency of the water, and the requisite attention to neatness, would place the hovels, perhaps, in two or three lines behind the most southerly of the rows, and along the inclining bank of the river. But the discovery of many blocks of Collyhurst stone in the foundation, shews the Britons of Mancenion to have skirted along the site of the present town with their cars, and to have repaired to the rocks of Collyhurst. —The whole woody hollow there appears, upon a survey, to be nothing more than the cavity of a great mine, which first began on the south-east, and had its first road of entrance from it; and the Britons were, therefore, the original openers of our Collyhurst quarry; and borrowed from it the ground-work of their cabins, and the foundations of their hovels in Castle Field.

"During this application of this remarkable spot, the country around it was one large wood, which began immediately on the outside of the barriers, and diffused itself on every side. And the popular denomination of it among the Britons was Arden. — This was the common name of forests among the Celtae in general, from the wildly-extensive one, which ranged for five hundred miles in length, across the country of Gaul, or covered more than half the county of Warwick in Britain, and the sites of which still retain the appellation of Arden, to the much smaller one that surrounded Mancenion: written Arduen by Caesar and Tacitus, in speaking of the forest in Gaul, and Ardven, by Ossian, in mentioning the woods of Caledonia: it cannot be compounded of Ar, the prepositive article in Celtic, and the substantive Den, as the oracular interpreter of the Roman-British appellations asserts it to be; (Baxter's Glossar. ) but is formed of Ard an adjective, and Ven the same as Den. The meaning of the name, therefore, is not, as Mr. Baxter renders it, simply the hills, or even as the ingenious translator of Ossian interprets, the high hill. Ard signifies either high or great, and Den or Ven either an hill or wood. —Arduen, Ardven, or Aden, then means a considerable wood. Hence, only, the name became applicable to such very different sites as the plains of Scotland and the hills of Scotland. And it was given, not only to the most extensive forests, to that which was the greatest in Gaul, or so considerable in Britain, but to many that were important only within their own contracted districts, to the wood of Mancenion, and others. That particularly covered the whole site of the present Manchester. And all along the streets, which now resound with the voice of industry, and are now covered with the retainers of commerce, then existed the gloom of a forest, and the silence of solitude. And a mind tolerably romantic, might long amuse itself with the reflection, that this gloom was never invaded, or this silence interrupted, but by the resort of soldiers to the fortress in war, the visits of hunters in peace, or the distant sounds of the garrison conversing in the Castle Field; and that the boar and wolf, then the inhabitants of this woodland, were, for the most part, the only possessors of it, slumbering, perhaps, in security, by day, on the bank of the present church-yard, and roaming in companies by night, over the area of the present market-place."

In the year of the Christian era 79, it was conquered by Agricola, who changed its name to Mancunium. It appears, also, to have been called Manduessedum, and by the Saxons, Manchester, from which last its present name is evidently derived.

The Romans formed their camp upon the site of what has since been called Castle Field, near the conflux of the Medlock with the Irwell. The protection afforded by the station, gave rise to a town, which, in all probability, extended as low down as St. John’s Street, since Aldport town formed part of it, and now retains the name given to it on the building of the new town, about 920, when Edward the elder, king of the Mercians, gave orders for fortifying the city (as it was then called) of Mancestre.

The foundations of the castle walls are still very visible, and are to be traced as an enclosure of about twelve acres. Within this area, many very curious pieces of antiquity have been discovered at various times. Mr. Whitaker describes the Roman station in the following words:

"The whole station was an irregular parallelogram. The parallel sides were equally right lines, and equally long: but the corners were rounded. — The Romans particularly affected this figure in the formation of their camps. And they esteemed those as the most beautiful of the sort, which were just one third longer than they were broad. But they seldom rounded their angles; and Ivelchester, Dorchester, Chesterford near Cambridge, Little Chester near Derby, and our own at Manchester, are some of the few fortresses in the kingdom where they have. The area of the last was much smaller than that of the British town. And while this contained thirteen acres of our statute measure, that included only about five acres and ten perches, or 24, 500 square yards.

"The eastern side, like the western, is an hundred and forty yards in length. And for eighty from the northern termination, the nearly perpendicular rampart still carries a crest of more than two in height. It is then lowered to form the great entrance, the parta praetoria of the camp; the earth then running in a ridge, and mounting up to the top of the bank about ten in breadth. Then rising gradually, as the ground falls away, it carries an height of more than three for as many at the southeastern angle. And the whole of this wall bears a broken line of thorns above, shews the mortar peeping here and there under the coat of turf, and near the south-eastern corner, has a large buttress of earth continued for several yards along it.

"The southern side, like the northern, is one hundred and seventy-five yards in length. And the ramparts sinking immediately from its elevation at the eastern end, successively declines till about fifty yards off, it is reduced to the inconsiderable height of less than one. And about seventeen farther, there appears to have been a second gateway, the ground rising up to the crest of the bank for four or five at a point. The Roman camps had constantly, about the age of Agricola, a gateway on the south and north, as well as on the east and west. And one on the south was particular requisite in this, in order to afford a ready passage from the station to the river. But about fifty-three yards beyond the gate, the ground betwixt both falling briskly away to the west, the rampart, which continues in a right line along the ridge, necessarily rises till it has a large slope of twenty in length at the south-western angle. And all this side of the wall, which was from the beginning probably not much higher than it is at present, as it was sufficiently secured by the river and its banks before it, appears crested at first, with a hedge of thorns or young oak, rising from the ridge, and rearing its Lead considerably over the rest; and runs afterwards on a smooth line, nearly level, for several yards, with the ground about it, and just perceptible to the eye in a rounded eminence of turf.

"At the south-western point of the camp, the ground slopes away on the west, towards the south, as well as on the south towards the west. And the third side still runs from it nearly as at first, having an even crest of about seven feet in height, an even slope of turf for its whole extent, and the wall in all its original condition below. About an hundred yards beyond the angle, was the Porta Decumana of the station, the ground visibly rising up the ascent of the bank in a large shelve of gravel, and running in a slight, but perceivable, ridge from it. And beyond a level of forty-five yards, that still stretches on for the whole length of the side, it was bounded by the western boundary of the British city, the sharp slope of fifty to the morass below it.

"On the northern and remaining side are several chasms in the original course of the rampart. And in one of them, about one hundred and twenty-seven yards from its commencement, was another gateway opening into the station, directly from the road to Ribchester. The rest of the wall still rises about five and four feet in height, planted all the way with thorn above, and exhibiting a curious view of the rampart below. Various parts of it have been fleeced of their facing of turf and stone, and now shew the inner structure of the whole; presenting to the eye the undressed stones of the quarry, the angular pieces of rock, and the round boulders of the river, all bedded on the mortar, and compacted by it into one. And the white and brown patches of mortar and stone, on a general view of the wall, stand strikingly contrasted with the green turf that entirely conceals the level line, and with the green moss that half reveals the projecting points of the rampart.

"The open ground of the Castle Field, which lay on three sides, about the barriers of the station, would naturally be applied to a variety of purposes. And all around them many of the Roman officers and soldiers appear to have been interred. In the beginning of the seventeenth century was discovered a stone, which was the sepulchral monument of one of the former, Candidus Fidesius, a centurion of the garrison, who died here in his 21st year.

It is thus delineated by Camden:

"About nineteen years ago, a labourer collecting gravel, near the eastern boundary of the field, on the higher edge of the slope, found an urn, containing a quantity of bones. It was composed of fine clay, was neatly glazed within and without, and under a slight moulding, which encompassed the upper part of it, had some unmeaning circles and ill-wrought figures, embossed upon it. And it had no inscription. But from the appearance of the bones, which were extremely small, and even as little as those of a chicken, the contents of the urn could not have belonged to any human being, and were only the remains of some favourite animal.

"In the spring of 1765, was found, another sepulchral vessel at the same extremity of the field, though on the lower part of the declivity, and among the artificial soil that had been heaped upon the perpendicular face of the ground. It was discovered about seven feet below the surface, at the bottom of a narrow hole, which was little more than the vessel in diameter, and had been filled up again with the shifted earth. And it rested on the rock, covered with a lid of the same, and placed in two vessels of much coarser materials; and enclosed a quantity of ashes. All the urns were fractured before they were discerned; but nearly the whole of the former was preserved, and is still kept at Worsley, the seat of the late Duke of Bridgewater. This is a small one, not quite equal in capacity to a quart, and containing only fifty-four solid inches and a half within. It, therefore, enclosed, most probably, the ashes of a child. But the circumstances of attentive care, mentioned above, intimate them to have been that of a considerable officer in the garrison. And I have previously observed, that the Romans in general, the common soldiers, as well as the officers, had their wives and children along with them. It is not formed, however, in the usual figure of an urn, but in that of a modern bason. And urns of such a model, though a little uncommon, equally in London, Cornwall, and other places, and is composed of very fine clay, and is similar to the brown china of Staffordshire, but more brightly coloured, and of a strong coral hue, and ornamented with fanciful figures and devices; it has the name of the maker embossed upon it thus, in small Roman capitals, — Advocisi."

Mr. Whitaker also mentions a curious monumental stone, found in the beginning of the seventeenth century, near the western side of the station, the inscription on which has been preserved in the archives of the Collegiate Church, and is inserted in Camden’s Britannia, as follows:

"COHO. I. FRISIN

O MASAVONIS

P. XXIII

It was an honorary monument, erected over the grave of Marcuro Savo, who was a young Frisian officer in the first Frisian cohort, and died here in his twenty-fourth year.

The large projection of the bank of the Medlock, which commences near the south-eastern and south-western points of the station, appears to have been applied to the most capital uses; lying within the two angles of the camp, and forming an agreeable addition to it, it was naturally the site of all the offices. And in 1771 were found here, some remains of buildings, which the nature of the construction, and the discovery of coins, equally marked to be Roman.

"A little to the west of the south-eastern angle, and directly opposite to the small bridge on the other side of the river, as the workmen were levelling the bank for a wharf, and proceeding to the east, they came to a large stone, like the pedestal of a pillar, but all plain on the surface. It was about two feet nine inches across at the base, and gradually decreased upwards, by four stages, as it were, of eight inches; three and a half, one and three quarters, and one and a half in length, to two feet, and one foot nine. It was placed on a flooring seven or eight inches thick, which was made with pieces of soft red rock, and bedded in clay. And it was nearly twenty-five yards distant from the present edge of the water.

"Eight feet immediately to the east of this was a building, equally with the stone about two feet below the surface of the ground, and floored with a Roman cement of mortar and pounded brick. This was nine inches in thickness, and rested on a body of marl about as many in depth. And the whole building was about twenty feet long, and ten broad. —Nine to the east of this was another flooring, two or three feet lower in the ground, and a cake of the same cement and thickness. It lay upon loose earth, but was covered with flags, and the whole was about ten feet broad, and thirty long. The exterior wall of both buildings was discovered on the northern side, running parallel with the river. That of the former was about two feet three inches in thickness, and that of the latter about four. This rose about three high, and was formed of stones regularly drest, the upper shallow, and the lower deep. And having extended nearly in a right line about thirty feet, it then turned in a fair angle, and pointed towards the river. In the former building was dug up only one flooring; but in the latter three. Below the pavement described above, and on the loose earth on which it lay, were formed, as the pillars of it, square large blocks of a mill-stone grit, and tubes of strong tile. And the first flooring lay on all these; the intervals between the tubes and the blocks being entirely filled up with earth. The latter were such as we have noticed before in the British foundation, at another end of the field, and like them, brought down by the floods of Medlock; and the former were about sixteen inches in height, and five in diameter, and filled up with mortar that had once been fluid. Three of these were found together, standing erect and two of them so formed with projections, as to make a third by their union. And these, and the earth, all rested upon a second flooring, another cake of the same cement, near two feet in thickness, and lying upon a second bed of rubbish about three in depth. In the body of this earth, which was covered with the second flooring, all unbroken and entire, were discovered three or four regular pillars of flag and tile. The first was placed six feet to the south of the northerly wall; and the second about seventeen inches to the south of that. Six feet eastward was another; and about seventeen inches north of this were some remains of a fourth. They were composed of a square flag, then two layers of tile, each tile being about two inches thick, and eight square, and afterwards of flag and tile, in four layers alternately, all laid in mortar and pounded brick. And they rose from twenty-two to thirty-two inches in height, closely surrounded on every side with the loose earth; and lay as it were upon a third flooring made of pure unmixed mortar, three inches in thickness, and having a layer of red sand below, on the natural ground.

"About a yard to the east of the more easterly building, was discovered a third, but all a mere mass of confusion. And in the broken ruins of it were dug up a couple of Roman coins, and three round tubes of tile. These were found in the ground, with their mortar adhering to the outside of them, and each about sixteen inches in length. They had plainly been formed in moulds, were hooped as it were with circles on the outside, and narrowed from a diameter of about four inches at one end, to two at the other. And by this means, they were calculated to be, as they were found, each inserted into the other, and forming one long pipe."

Mr. Whitaker conjectures that the second building was in all probability the slaughter-house of the Roman station; and the accompanying structures on the west and east, which would naturally bear an affinity to it, the larder and the cow-stall. In the more easterly of them, the three long tubes of tile, inserted into one another, and laid in the ground with mortar, were evidently placed as a channel. And there were also found, in the second building, several fragments of coarse tiles formed into hollows, and calculated for the same purpose. These were the drains probably for all the fluid filth of the cow-stall, and the cattle that were slaughtered for the use of the garrison were probably kept here after they were taken from the pasture, and properly prepared for the knife. In the ruins of the second edifice was found a large knife of iron, with an handle of stag’s horn. And in those of the more westerly was picked up the beam of a balance, all of brass, and fitted with a hook at one end. That, perhaps, was the carving-knife of the butcher, and this the balance of the larderer, with which he measured every soldier his portion; the beam being very slight, and capable of weighing about half-a-pound. The second and third buildings, as the slaughter-house and cow-stall, would consist only of one large room each; and no partitions were found in either. But they were in the first, and as a larder they would be wanted in it. As a larder also it needed only what it had, a single flooring of Roman cement, because the drainings of the slaughter-house would effectually divert the rats of the river from it. It had nothing, therefore, but the dampness of the position to guard against. And placed as it was, so much higher than the slaughter-house, one flooring would be fully sufficient for this purpose. —Whitaker's History of Manchester.

The chief part of the old town was on the ground used a few years ago for military exercise, and recently made into a market for the sale of potatoes, by the lord of the manor, upon the garden in the front of Alport-street, and the land upon which the present Tickle-street now stands. The whole of the land, which there is good reason to suppose the ancient town of Mancunium occupied, has been, in the memory of people now living, in appearance, a plot which had never served for any other than agricultural purposes; not a trace of the Romans, excepting the foundation of the castle, being visible to any eye except that of the antiquary, who will be gratified by Mr. Whitaker’s inquiries after the site of the Roman town. According to him:

" The town of Manchester was erected, not as the old and central parts of it are now placed, at the distance nearly of a mile from the Castle Field, but in the nearer and more immediate vicinity of the station. No tradition, however, ascertains the particular site; and in the neighbourhood of a great town, and a multiplicity of commercial avocations, little attention is paid to the remains of antiquity, or the whispers of tradition concerning them. But there is a small region which encompasses the Castle Field on every side, very frequently mentioned in cur records, and denominated Ald Port, or Old Borough. Somewhere therefore within the compass of this district did the town originally stand. — And a little fold of houses remains in it to the present period, which in all the deeds of the place carries the actual appellation of Aldporton, or Old Borough Town. The town, therefore, was settled on the ground immediately contiguous to these buildings; and betwixt them and the Castle Field, is an area of sixteen or seventeen acres, now converted chiefly into gardens, and the genuine ground plot of the ancient Manchester. This lies immediately to the north of the station, and extends up to the new church in the Camp Field. Being in the immediate skirts of the town, the plough must have long and frequently ransacked the ground; and the many antiquities which it called into light, would either be never attended to at all, or be seen, admired, and forgotten. But the soil of the southern part is merely a body of adventitious earth, fragments of bricks, pieces of hewn stones, and remnants of urns. Huge blocks of millstone grit, such as I have previously noticed in the Roman foundations of Castle Field, and had, I suppose, been brought down with them by the floods of the Medlock, have been recently dug up there with their mortar adhering to them. And the whole level appears to have been traversed with the streets of regular pavement in a variety of directions across it.

"Upon that particular site then which is terminated by a high bank, and a morass below it on the west, by the great fosse of the station on the south, the present highway, or Old Port Lane, on the east, and Tickle-street, or Camp-Field on the north, was the town of Manchester originally erected. And upon this plat, then in the depth of the wood of Arden, were the Sistuntii of this region induced by Agricola to erect a town. They felled the trees, which from the first habitation of the island had been the only occupants of the soil; they laid open the area, then first laid open, to the influence of the sun and winds, and they constructed their houses with the timber. The town would naturally be erected along the course of the way to Ribchester; commencing at first, near the trench of the station, extending in one direct street along the road, and afterwards forking off into others. And the ways of towns originally received the Roman appellation of streets, because our houses were constructed along the line, and the passages between them were carried upon the ridge of the Roman highways or streets.

"Such was the spot which Agricola selected for the position of the town of Manchester; and such was the commencement of a city, that was to become so conspicuous afterwards: to lengthen into fair streets, and open into graceful squares; to contain assembled thousands within her circuit, and extend her commerce beyond the bounds of the ocean. It was founded very early in the reign of Titus, about the time of the first famous eruption from Vesuvius, and the destruction of Herculaneum, and the months of September and October, in the ever-memorable year of 79."

During the time the Romans kept possession, they formed a summer camp, upon the high ground which overlooks the junction of the rivers Irk and Irwell. For their further security, they conducted a fosse from the river Irk, along the street now called Hanging-ditch, throwing a draw-bridge over it towards the castle. The name of the bridge is still preserved, though it has long been permanent, on which houses have been built and rebuilt for ages. — A small part of the old ditch is still visible on the south side, where the sunk yards and the roofs of the buildings below distinctly mark it.

Mr. Whitaker determines the site of this camp to have been pretty near the regular station, and about a mile to the north of it; and is now the site of the old church, the college, and several other buildings. "And this is, indeed, the only position in the vicinity of the town and station, that could pretend to attract the notice of the examining Romans. In the earliest period of the Saxon history of Manchester, this situation was selected for the seat of its lord, and accordingly denominated Baron’s Hull, and Baron’s Yard. It is banked on two sides by rocks, that are either very steep, or absolutely perpendicular; and look down from a lofty summit upon the waters of the Irk, passing along it on one side, and upon the stream of the Irwell breaking against it on the other. It spreads its area of compacted sand, gently leaning to the north and west; and from the lowness of the ground about it on the south-west, north-west, and north-east, and from the constant ventilations of the air by the briskness of the current below, peculiarly feels in the summer a succession of refreshing breezes. It had a Roman road to Ribchester, stretching across the western side of it; it still shews the striking remains of an ancient ditch along the south and east, and just contains, within its limits, the requisite number of acres for a summer camp. The area, surrounded by the ditch and rivers, is exactly twelve statute acres and a half in compass.

"Commencing from the lofty margin of the Irk, and from that point of it where the common-sewer now discharges itself into the river, the fosse was not carried into a right line through the ridge that directly opposed its course, but curved along the ground, which, therefore, was somewhat lower than the rest, and now forms the streets of Toad-lane and Hanging-ditch. And the names of the streets point out the general direction, as the aspect of them shews the particular nature of the fosse. The line of both still curves as both curved; and the level of both exhibits the hollow of a channel, bounded on each side by a ridge. In the narrow street of Toad-lane, the breadth of the fosse, commensurate nearly with that of the street, appears to have been only four or five yards at the margin. — In the larger of Hanging-ditch, it appears to have opened into eight or ten. And at the western termination of the latter, making a considerable curve on the right, in order to avoid the knoll at the end of Caleaton-street, and to sweep along the lower ground to the right of it, it runs very deep and broad to the Irwell. The northern line of the houses in this street, and all the buildings of the Hanging- bridge, are seated within the channel. And the road to the church is carried over it, upon a lofty bridge of two arches. For the greater security of the camp, the Romans naturally trenched through the whole width of the ground, from the Irk to the Irwell: and for its greater coolness they as naturally diverted the waters of the Irk into the trench. — An opening was made in the bank of the river, which remains very visible to the present period, the angles of the rock appearing rounded away, the chasm extending four or five yards in width, and a sewer of the town being now laid in the cavity. And three or four yards lower in the channel, the marks of the dam remain equally visible. The rock appears cut away for five or six in breadth, and three quarters in depth, in order to receive one end of the frame into it, and to fix the whole secure against the violence of the obstructed current. And the channel of the fosse was sunk considerably below its present level, even in its deepest part, about the western termination; the ground a little to the west of the Hanging-bridge having been recently found to be mere adventitious for no less than nine or ten yards; and the plane of the rock below appearing furrowed with the wheels of the carts that, in some later ages, have passed by this ditch from Salford to the Hanging-ditch.

"This was the pleasing and impregnable site of the summer camp of the Romans, guarded with impracticable precipices behind, covered with a fosse enormously deep and broad before, and insulated by three lively currents of water. And the two great gateways of it would naturally be along the road from Castle Field to Ribchester, where it entered, and where it deserted the area, and at the foot of the Dean’s-gate and Hunt’s-bank. The road must have entered the summer station, as it communicated before with the winter, by the useful intervention of a bridge; because it crossed the deepest part of the fosse. But just at the north-westerly extremity of the area, and taking in a good compass of ground about it, appears to have been the citadel of the fortress, the fortified site of the Praetorium. This is the part which has been more recently denominated Baron’s Yard, and Baron’s Hull. It is necessarily, from its situation, being at the angle of the two precipices, and overhanging the concurrent point of the two streams, by much the coolest and most defensible part of the station. And it has actually been secured by an interior fosse. On opening the ground of the new burying-place, and of the adjoining land on the east, in the months of August, 1766, and of July and August, 1767, appeared evidently the hollow of a broad ditch filled up with rubbish; the northern border ranging nearly in a line with the southern wall of the burying ground, and the southern extending, I suppose, up to the church-yard. And the black earth reached above three yards in depth below the level of the street, and lay upon the natural sand. Commencing at the edge of the Roman road to Ribchester, and near the beginning descent of the Hunt’s-bank, it ranged along the Half-street to the end, and descending the Long Mill-gate to the school. There, under the second house to the east of the school, was it likewise discovered in the year 1765, on sinking the cellar; and appeared a channel cut through the solid rock, two yards in depth, about three in breadth, and four or five in length, terminating at one end upon the edge of the precipice, and pointing at the other up the line of the Mill-gate. And in this part of its course it is expressly mentioned as a channel, even in a late record of 1422, and expressly carried up the Mill-gate to the top.

Upon the departure of the Romans, their military works became occupied by the Britons, who resided in the neighbourhood of this colony. From them, however, they soon afterwards passed into the possession of the Saxons; who, about the year 627, built a parish church on the banks of the Irwell, dedicated to St. Mary, which drew round it a new town, the origin of the present Manchester. Towards the latter end of the ninth century, this new town, which had, until then, been increasing in population and wealth, shared the fate of this part of the kingdom, and was nearly destroyed by the Danes. It was soon after rebuilt, and about the year 920, fortified and garrisoned by Edward, King of the Mercians, who also granted to the town many feudal privileges. The church of St. Mary abovementioned, and a church of St. Michael, are both mentioned in Doomsday Book to be in the manor or hundred, of Mancestre. The former was built in a field, supposed, by Mr. Whitaker, to have contained six acres, and to have been the site of the present St. Ann’s-square, and Exchange-street. On the erection of this church, a few houses were soon erected on the way to it from the baronial court; and from that road towards the church. These houses were the origin of the street now called Dean’s-gate, and that still called St. Mary’s-gate, which, without doubt, retains its original name. Dean’s-gate, Mr. Whitaker asserts, had its present name about that time, since the title of Rural Dean was that which was borne by the head of the church in Manchester. The Dean lived then in a dwelling which stood nearly upon the spot now occupied by No. 94 in that street, and which was, in later ages, the parsonage-house, the glebe land being attached to it, and included all the land from St. Mary’s-street to the old Bridge, and from Dean’s-gate, for that length, to the river’s edge. A few small plots of this land have been alienated from the church, but the major part still remains to it; and one portion bears the name of the Parsonage.

Topography of Great Britain, written: 1802-29 by George Alexander Cooke

Surnames Found in Manchester

RankSurnameNo. of People% of Population
1Smith6,5021.30
2Jones5,8421.17
3Taylor4,9971.00
4Jackson2,8310.57
5Williams2,7450.55
6Brown2,6100.52
7Wood2,5090.50
8Johnson2,4150.48
9Walker2,3370.47
10Robinson2,3310.47
11Davies2,1410.43
12Hall2,1290.43
13Wilson2,0720.41
14Roberts2,0090.40
15Hughes1,8530.37
16Harrison1,8240.36
17Thompson1,7570.35
18Shaw1,6320.33
19Turner1,5770.31
20Booth1,5480.31
21Wright1,5310.31
22Kelly1,4990.30
23Evans1,3720.27
24Edwards1,2890.26
25Morris1,2840.26
26Cooper1,2790.26
27Wilkinson1,2570.25
28Green1,2220.24
29Ogden1,1970.24
30Barlow1,1720.23
31Ward1,1650.23
32Fletcher1,1300.23
33Lee1,1200.22
34Hill1,1160.22
35White1,1140.22
36Holt1,0870.22
37Whitehead1,0810.22
38Whittaker1,0790.22
39Riley1,0720.21
40Howarth1,0570.21
41Allen1,0520.21
42Thomas1,0440.21
43Clarke1,0430.21
44Bailey1,0140.20
45Burns1,0120.20
46Moore9770.20
47Murphy9680.19
48Williamson9490.19
49Ashton9120.18
50Howard9050.18
51Owen8980.18
52Watson8930.18
53Holland8890.18
54Bennett8550.17
55Dawson8510.17
56Yates8440.17
57Simpson8420.17
58Chadwick8410.17
59Parker8330.17
60Richardson8130.16
61Lowe8100.16
62Carter7930.16
63Schofield7870.16
64Martin7860.16
65Mellor7740.15
66Bell7730.15
67Mitchell7690.15
68Dean7680.15
69Butterworth7530.15
70Barnes7490.15
71Foster7470.15
72Buckley7460.15
73Pearson7390.15
74Clark7310.15
75Mills7200.14
76Lewis7190.14
77Ellis7180.14
78Ashworth7130.14
79Royle7010.14
80Kay6970.14
81Warburton6920.14
82Barker6910.14
83Dixon6890.14
84Lees6770.14
85Hulme6700.13
86Burgess6680.13
87Scott6660.13
88Hayes6600.13
89Newton6570.13
90Heywood6520.13
91Lloyd6510.13
92Hilton6460.13
93Holmes6410.13
94Bradshaw6410.13
95Griffiths6330.13
96Walsh6300.13
97Price6270.13
98Atkinson6260.12
99Bradley6260.12
100Campbell6180.12