Lancashire Genealogical Records

Lancashire Birth & Baptism Records

England & Wales Birth Index (1837-2006)

An index to births registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of birth certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Lancashire Baptism Index with Images (1813-1911)

A name index connected to original images of Lancashire baptism registers for over 175 parishes.

Lancashire Baptisms (1538-1812)

Digital images of baptism registers that can be searched by name. They record baptisms, which typically occur shortly after birth, and list the baptised's name, date of birth and/or baptism and parents' names. They may also list where the parents lived, their occupations and occasionally other details.

Lancashire Baptisms (1538-1812)

Digital images of baptism registers that can be searched by name. They record baptisms, which typically occur shortly after birth, and list the baptised's name, date of birth and/or baptism and parents' names. They may also list where the parents lived, their occupations and occasionally other details.

Lancashire Birth Index (1837-1975)

An index to births registered in Lancashire. This index lists sub-registration district, which helps to narrow down your search.

Lancashire Marriage & Divorce Records

England & Wales Marriage Index (1837-2008)

An index to marriages registered throughout England & Wales. This is the only national marriage index that allows you to search by both spouse's names. Provides a reference to order copies of marriage certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Lancashire Marriage Index with Images (1754-1936)

A name index connected to original images of Lancashire marriage registers for over 175 parishes.

Lancashire Marriages (1538-1812)

Digital images of marriage registers that can be searched by name. They contain written records of marriages and typically record the name of the bride and groom and date of marriage. They may also record occupations, residences, fathers' names, witnesses and other information about the marriage.

Lancashire Marriages (1538-1812)

Digital images of marriage registers that can be searched by name. They contain written records of marriages and typically record the name of the bride and groom and date of marriage. They may also record occupations, residences, fathers' names, witnesses and other information about the marriage.

Lancashire Marriage Index (1837-2011)

An index to Marriages registered in Lancashire. This index lists sub-registration district, which helps to narrow down your search.

Lancashire Death & Burial Records

England & Wales Death Index (1837-2006)

An index to deaths registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of death certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

Lancashire Burial Index with Images (1813-1986)

A name index connected to original images of Lancashire burial registers for over 100 parishes.

Lancashire Burials (1538-1812)

Digital images of burial registers that can be searched by name. They contain records of burials, which typically occur a few days after death, and record the name of the deceased and date of death and/or burial. They may also list where the deceased lived, their age, names of relations, occupation and occasionally other details.

Lancashire Burials (1538-1812)

Digital images of burial registers that can be searched by name. They contain records of burials, which typically occur a few days after death, and record the name of the deceased and date of death and/or burial. They may also list where the deceased lived, their age, names of relations, occupation and occasionally other details.

Lancashire Death Index (1837-1975)

An index to deaths registered in Lancashire. This index lists sub-registration district, which helps to narrow down your search.

Lancashire Church Records

Lancashire Parish Register Index with Images (1538-1812)

A name index connected to original images of Lancashire parish registers for over 60 parishes.

Lancashire Parish Register Transcripts (1537-1934)

Transcriptions of registers that record baptisms, which typically occur shortly after birth; marriages and burials. They can help establish links between individuals back to the 16th century.

Lancashire CoE Confirmation Records (1856-1922)

Confirmations are Church of England ceremonies conducted by Bishops that affirm one's commitment to the doctrines of the church. These records contain the names of those confirmed, their age, date of baptism & confirmation, address and sometimes other details. The records are indexed by name and connected to images of the original registers.

Register of Lancashire Papists (1717-1788)

Registers of those in Lancashire known to be loyal to the church in Rome. Contains genealogical information.

England Parish Registers (1914-2013)

Documentation for those baptised, married and buried at England. Parish registers can assist tracing a family back numerous generations.

Lancashire Census & Population Lists

England, Wales, IoM & Channel Islands 1911 Census (1911)

The 1911 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Lancashire Lay Subsidy (1332)

A tax list of wealthier Lancashire residents.

Lancashire Lay Subsidies (1216-1307)

Two lay subsidies from the reigns of Henry III and Edward I.

Lancashire Chartist Land Plan (1842-1848)

A history of the Chartist Cooperative Land Society, which aimed to settle chartists on smallholdings. Also includes a list of over 5,000 chartist sympathizers in Lancashire.

1901 British Census (1901)

The 1901 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Lancashire Wills & Probate Records

England & Wales National Probate Calendar (1858-1966)

Searchable index and original images of over 12.5 million probates and administrations granted by civil registries. Entries usually include the testator's name, date of death, date of probate and registry. Names of relations may be given.

York Prerogative & Exchequer Court Probate Index (1688-1858)

An index to 263,822 wills, administrations and other probate documents proved by an ecclesiastical court in York. The index included the testor's name, residence, year of probate, type of document and reference to order copies of the referenced document(s.).

Lancashire Wills Proved At Richmond (1457-1812)

An index to 38,107 wills, searchable by name and including the testor's residence and occupation. The wills are from the records of Amounderness, Furness, Kendal and Lonsdale deaneries, within the Archdeaconry of Richmond.

York Prerogative & Exchequer Court Probate Index (1267-1500)

An index to 10,195 wills, administrations and other probate documents proved by an ecclesiastical court in York. The index included the testor's name, residence, occupation, will & probate year, language, type of document and reference to order copies of the referenced document(s.).

Derbyshire Will Index (1858-1928)

An index to wills, proved by the Derby Probate Registry. Index includes name, residence and year of probate. Contains entries for Yorkshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, Staffordshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and other counties.

Newspapers Covering Lancashire

Lancashire Evening Post (1886-1947)

A record of births, marriages, deaths, legal, political, organisation and other news from the Lancashire area. Original pages of the newspaper can be viewed and located by a full text search.

Northern Echo (1870-1900)

Britain's most popular provincial newspaper, covering local & national news, family announcements, government & local proceedings and more.

Manchester Courier and Lancashire Advertiser (1825-1916)

A searchable newspaper providing a rich variety of information about the people and places of the Lancashire district. Includes obituaries and family announcements.

Northern Star (1838-1852)

A chartist newspaper published in Leeds that focused on affairs in Northumberland, Yorkshire and Lancashire. The paper focuses on politics, but does contain a limited number of family announcements

The Daily Herald (1926)

A London newspaper that later became The Sun.

Lancashire Obituaries

iAnnounce Obituaries (2006-Present)

The UKs largest repository of obituaries, containing millions of searchable notices.

United Kingdom and Ireland Obituary Collection (1882-Present)

A growing collection currently containing over 425,000 abstracts of obituaries with reference to the location of the full obituary.

Quakers Annual Monitor (1847-1848)

A collection of 364 obituaries of Quakers from the British Isles. The volume was published in 1849 and includes obituaries of those who died in late 1847 through 1848.

Musgrave's Obituaries (1421-1800)

This transcribed and searchable work by Sir William Musgrave contains 10,000s of brief obituaries. The work is a reference point for other works containing information on an individual.

British Medical Journal (1849-Present)

A text index and digital images of all editions of a journal containing medical articles and obituaries of medical practitioners.

Lancashire Cemeteries

Lancashire Church Monuments (1300-1900)

Photographs and descriptions of Lancashire's most illustrious church monuments, often featuring effigies, medieval inscriptions and heraldic devices.

Deceased Online (1629-Present)

Images of millions of pages from cemetery and crematoria registers, photographs of memorials, cemetery plans and more. Records can be search by a name index.

Billion Graves (1200-Present)

Photographs and transcriptions of millions of gravestones from cemeteries around the world.

Mausolea and Monuments (1500-Present)

Profiles of several hundred mausolea found in the British Isles.

Maritime Memorials (1588-1950)

Several thousand transcribed memorials remembering those connected with the nautical occupations.

Lancashire Directories & Gazetteers

Kelly's Directory of Lancashire (1924)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Bulmer's Lancashire and District Directory (1912)

Historical & topographical descriptions of Lancashire, supplemented with lists of the area's leading private, commercial and official persons.

Kelly's Directory of Lancashire (1905)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key historical and contemporary facts. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions. Also contains a list of residents and businesses for each place.

Kelly's Directory of Lancashire (1895)

A directory of residents and businesses; with a description of each settlement, containing details on its history, public institutions, churches, postal services, governance and more.

Slater's Directory of Lancashire (1869)

Historical and contemporary descriptions of settlements, detailing their governance, churches, schools etc.; to which is appended lists of residents, with their occupations.

Manchester Prison Registers (1847-1881)

A name index linked to original images of over 250,000 Manchester prison records. Records contain details on the convict's birth, appearance, crime and more.

Lancashire Final Concords (1189-1558)

Abstracts of records that detail land conveyances.

Lancashire Assize Rolls (1176-1268)

Early legal records, largely covering serious cases refereed by lower courts. Many entries record transfers and disputes relating to land.

Lancashire Inquisitions post Mortem (1606-1625)

Transcripts of records created on the death of a direct tenant of the monarch to asses their Lancashire land-holdings. Contains much useful genealogical information.

Duchy Court of Lancaster Pleadings & Depositions (1547-1558)

Pleas heard before the Duchy Court of Lancaster relating to a number of matters, including criminal and land disputes. Contains depositions, which list the age and residence of many people.

Lancashire Taxation Records

Lancashire Lay Subsidy (1332)

A tax list of wealthier Lancashire residents.

Lancashire Lay Subsidies (1216-1307)

Two lay subsidies from the reigns of Henry III and Edward I.

Tithe Apportionments (1836-1856)

An index to 11,000,000 parcels of land and property, connected to digital images of registers that record their owner, occupier, description, agricultural use, size and rateable value.

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

Duties Paid for Apprentices' Indentures (1710-1811)

An index linked to original images of registers recording apprenticeship indentures. Details are given on the trade and nature of apprenticeship. Many records list the parents of the apprentice.

Lancashire Land & Property Records

Lancashire Final Concords (1189-1558)

Abstracts of records that detail land conveyances.

Lancashire Assize Rolls (1176-1268)

Early legal records, largely covering serious cases refereed by lower courts. Many entries record transfers and disputes relating to land.

Lancashire Inquisitions post Mortem (1606-1625)

Transcripts of records created on the death of a direct tenant of the monarch to asses their Lancashire land-holdings. Contains much useful genealogical information.

Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates (1600-1678)

Transcripts of records that detail the lives and lands of Cheshire and Lancashire landholders.

A Calendar of the Norris Deeds (1100-1499)

Deeds from the Norris family of Speak.

Lancashire Occupation & Business Records

Prestwich Asylum Admissions (1851-1901)

Abstracts of over 20,000 admissions to an insane asylum.

Smuggling on the West Coast (1690-1867)

An introduction to smuggling on the west coast of Britain & the Isle of Man, with details of the act in various regions.

Lancashire Coal Mining (1853-1968)

Articles on coal mining in Lancashire, including details of disasters and a list of mines.

Lancashire Police Officers (1840-1925)

An index to police officers mentioned in records held by Lancashire record Office.

History of Policing in Lancashire (600-1990)

A brief history of policing in the county from Saxon times. Includes extensive details on police uniforms.

Lancashire School & Education Records

Teacher's Registration Council Registers (1870-1948)

A name index linked to original images of registers recording the education and careers of teachers in England & Wales.

National School Admission & Log Books (1870-1914)

A name index connected to digital images of registers recording millions of children educated in schools operated by the National Society for Promoting Religious Education. Records contain a variety of information including genealogical details, education history, illnesses, exam result, fathers occupation and more.

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge Alumni Database (1198-1910)

A searchable database containing over 90,000 note-form biographies for students of Cambridge University.

Pedigrees & Family Trees Covering Lancashire

Victoria County History: Lancashire (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Visitation of England and Wales (1700-1899)

Over 600 pedigrees for English and Welsh families who had a right to bear a coat of arms.

Ancestry Member Family Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A compilation of lineage-linked family trees submitted by Ancestry users. The database contains over 2 billion individuals and is searchable by numerous metrics.

Lancashire Royalty, Nobility & Heraldry Records

Victoria County History: Lancashire (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates (1600-1678)

Transcripts of records that detail the lives and lands of Cheshire and Lancashire landholders.

Lancashire Church Monuments (1300-1900)

Photographs and descriptions of Lancashire's most illustrious church monuments, often featuring effigies, medieval inscriptions and heraldic devices.

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Lancashire Military Records

The Story of the 55th (West Lancashire) Division (1914-1918)

A history of a Lancashire division's WWI campaigns.

The 42nd (East Lancashire) Division (1914-1918)

A record of the division's movements in WWI.

Roll of Officers of the York and Lancaster Regiment (1756-1884)

Lists of officers by rank, regiment and name.

Old County Regiment of Lancashire Militia History (1689-1888)

A general history of the militia, including lists of officers from various periods.

Lancashire Militia Roll of Officers (1642-1889)

Brief biographies of Officers of the Lancashire Militia, includes date of birth, appointments, promotions and other details.

Lancashire Immigration & Travel Records

Lancashire Vagrant Passes (1801-1835)

Records of around 40,000 people and their families who were forcibly moved from one parish to another. Contains many Irish individuals.

Passenger Lists Leaving UK (1890-1960)

A name index connected to original images of passenger lists recording people travelling from Britain to destinations outside Europe. Records may detail a passenger's age or date of birth, residence, occupation, destination and more.

UK Incoming Passenger Lists (1878-1960)

A full index of passenger lists for vessels arriving in the UK linked to original images. Does not include lists from vessels sailing from European ports. Early entries can be brief, but later entries may include dates of births, occupations, home addresses and more. Useful for documenting immigration.

Alien Arrivals in England (1810-1869)

Details on over 600,000 non-British citizens arriving in England. Often includes age and professions. Useful for discerning the origin of immigrants.

17th Century British Emigrants to the U.S. (1600-1700)

Details on thousands of 17th century British immigrants to the U.S., detailing their origins and nature of their immigration.

Lancashire Histories & Books

Lancashire & Cheshire History and Genealogy (1110-1879)

Extracts from a vast array of historical documents giving details on thousands of individuals connected to the history of Lancashire.

Victoria County History: Lancashire (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

Lancashire and Cheshire, Past and Present (370-1867)

A history of two Northern counties from the Germanic invasion to the Victorian period.

Lancashire Church Photographs (1890-Present)

Photographs and images of churches in Lancashire.

Lancashire Chartist Land Plan (1842-1848)

A history of the Chartist Cooperative Land Society, which aimed to settle chartists on smallholdings. Also includes a list of over 5,000 chartist sympathizers in Lancashire.

Biographical Directories Covering Lancashire

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Crockford's Clerical Directories (1868-1914)

Brief biographies of Anglican clergy in the UK.

The Concise Dictionary of National Biography (1654-1930)

A directory containing lengthy biographies of noted British figures. The work took over two decades to compile. Biographies can be searched by name and are linked to images of the original publication.

Church of England Clergy Database (1500-1835)

A database of CoE clergy, giving details of their education of service. Contains references to source documents. Also contains profiles of various church institutions.

Lancashire Maps

Maps of Lancashire (1579-1922)

Digital images of maps covering the county.

Ordnance Survey 1:10 Maps (1840-1890)

Maps showing settlements, features and some buildings in mainland Britain.

Tithe Apportionments (1836-1856)

An index to 11,000,000 parcels of land and property, connected to digital images of registers that record their owner, occupier, description, agricultural use, size and rateable value.

Parish Maps of Britain (1832)

Maps of parishes in England, Scotland and Wales. They are useful in determining which parish records may be relevant to your research.

A Vision of Britain (1190-Present)

A sprawling website setting out and describing the historical divisions of Britain. Also contains countless maps of various sorts. Covers the UK, Ireland, Isle of Man & has fleeting details of other localities.

Lancashire Reference Works

England Research Guide (1538-Present)

A beginner’s guide to researching ancestry in England.

Parish Register Abstract (1538-1812)

Compiled in 1831, this book details the coverage and condition of parish registers in England & Wales.

Building History Research Guide (1066-Present)

A comprehensive guide to researching the history of buildings in the British Isles.

Surname Origins (1790-1911)

A service that provides advanced and custom surname maps for the British Isles and the US.

British Family Mottoes (1189-Present)

A dictionary of around 9,000 mottoes for British families who had right to bear arms.

Lancashire Information

Historical Description

North Furness district and at its entrance into the sea lit broadens into a large bay: the Alt, rising near Knowsley, enters the sea in the south-west.

The railways supplying the comity are the London and North Western, the Lancashire and Yorkshire, and a combination of the Great Central, Midland and Great Northern, under the name of the Cheshire Lines Committee. The first mentioned divides at Crewe, one line running direct to Manchester via Altrincham, and the other branch running via Hartford, where it divides again, the one line going through Warrington & Newton to Wigan, and the other enters Lancashire at Widnes (over the fine bridge constructed by the company across the Mersey), and runs direct to Liverpool, where it joins the old Liverpool and Manchester line: from Huyton a branch line runs through St. Helens to Wigan, where it is joined to the other main line, while another branch runs from Manchester via Tyldesley to Wigan; here the three lines-Huyton, Warrington and Manchester-are combined into the line known in its several sections (going north) as the Wigan and Preston, Preston and Lancaster, and Lancaster and Carlisle, the latter leaving the county 3 ¾ miles north of Carnforth Junction; while from Victoria station, Manchester, a line, via Mossley and Saddleworth, reaches Halifax and other Yorkshire centres and completes the connections of the London and North-Western company in this county.

The Lancashire and Yorkshire railway, which is next in importance, taking Manchester for its centre, sends out branches to the large number of towns lying in the eastern portion of the county, and, via Wigan, to Liverpool and Southport, and also to Preston and the district about Blackpool and Lytham.

The Midland railway also works a portion of the county, running a branch from Marple to Manchester, and also entering it at Wennington, north-east of Lancaster, and running to Morecambe and Heysham and to Barrow and the Lake district, in connection with the Furness railway.

The Cheshire Lines Committee’s system enters the county at Woodley Junction, near Stockport, runs to Manchester and sends branches through the south-western portion to Stockport and the Cheshire towns, and a line along the Mersey to Warrington and Liverpool.

The Great Central railway, in 1900, opened a line from Lowton St. Mary’s station, on the Cheshire Lines Committee’s system, to St. Helens, passing through Ashton-in-Makerfield.

There are several local lines (including the Furness railway), chiefly worked by the large companies.

The Mersey Tunnel connects the county at Liverpool with the West Cheshire and Welsh lines, and as the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway runs fast trains via Rainford, Wigan and Bolton, from Liverpool to Manchester, there are now three express lines of railway between these two cities.

The canals greatly facilitate communication, and it was in this county that the Duke of Bridgewater originated the system of canal navigation.

The Manchester Ship Canal

The Manchester Ship Canal Company was incorporated by the Act 48 and 49 Vict. c. 188, which received the royal assent 6th August, 1885. The capital was originally fixed at £8,000,000, in 800,000 shares of £10 each, with borrowing powers to the extent of £1,812,000, making the total authorized capital £9,812,000, but in 1890 second debentures, to the amount of £600,000, were authorized, and subsequently the Manchester Corporation advanced £5,000,000, being a third charge on the undertaking. The objects for which the company was formed were:-(1) To construct a ship canal from the River Mersey at Eastham, near Liverpool, past Ellesmere Port and Runcorn, to Warrington, Salford and Manchester, available for the largest class of ocean steamers, with docks at Manchester, Salford and Warrington; and (2) To purchase the entire undertakings of the existing Bridgewater Navigation Company Limited, and all that company's property, rent, rights and privileges, as a going concern: the latter consist of:-(a) “The Bridgewater Canal Undertaking,” which includes the canals known as the Bridgewater canals and the Runcorn and Weston canal, also warehouse and wharves, in Manchester, docks and warehouses at Runcorn, and the Duke’s dock and large warehouses in Liverpool; and (b) “The Mersey and Irwell Undertaking,” which includes the Mersey and Irwell Navigation and the Runcorn and Latchford canal, also warehouses at Manchester and Warrington and the Old Quay docks, at Runcorn. The work was begun in November, 1887, under the superintendence: of Mr. Leader Williams, C.E. as engineer, Mr. T. A. Walker being the contractor until his death on the 25th November, 1889, when the work was continued for a short time by the executors, but ultimately taken over by the Company, and completed under contracts. The canal was opened for traffic 1st January, 1894, when 71 vessels passed into the Manchester docks, without mishap of any kind. The formal or official opening ceremony was performed by Her Majesty the Queen, on board the Admiralty yacht “Enchantress,” 21st May, 1894. The total expenditure on capital account to 30th June, 1903, was £15,199,369, including £1,224,451 paid for land and compensation for disturbance, and £1,272,378 for the Bridgewater Canals undertaking and some additions and improvements thereto. The line of the canal passes chiefly through a, flat country, consisting for the most part of marshy meadows, but in some parts of the route, where the ground is higher, there are cuttings 50 feet deep, through sandstone, the removed material being used for the facing of the banks: the operations rendered necessary by the works have effected great changes in the landscape, from the extensive fellings of trees along the line of the canal, and at Moore and Eastham entire woods have been destroyed. The canal itself is 36 miles in length, and virtually consists of four long docks, divided by five sets of locks and 23 miles of the entire length, from Runcorn to Manchester, has been formed by making a direct and deep channel for the united streams of the Mersey and Irwell, which the former enters at Irlam, the latter-by far the most important contributor-passing direct into the Manchester Docks. The Mersey resumes its course towards the sea on the north side of the canal, near Thelwall. The lower section of the canal from Eastham to Runcorn forms a slightly curved line of 12 miles along the Cheshire shore of the estuary of the Mersey, joining at Weston Point the mouth of the navigable river Weaver, which is connected with an extensive system of canals; the depth of the canal is 26 feet, the four locks raising its level to 60 ½ feet above the level of the sea; the minimum width at the bottom is 120 feet, or 48 feet wider than the bottom of the Suez canal; and for a distance of 3 ½ miles, on approaching Manchester, the bottom width is 170 feet, so that ships can lie along the banks without interfering with the fairway. The width is considerably increased at the approach to each of the locks. At Mode Wheel locks, which form the entrance to the docks, it is 330 feet wide. The Dock Estate comprises an urea of 406 ½ acres, including a water space of 104 ½ acres and quays 5 ½ miles in length. The Manchester docks are built on both sides of the Irwell, chiefly in Salford, but also in Manchester, on the site of Pomona Gardens, Cornbrook. They occupy a space of 271 acres. The water area of the Manchester dock basin is 36 ½ acres and the quay frontages 2 ½ miles in length, with an area of 34 ½ acres, to which may be added a mile of open wharves along the wide part of the canal just below; and the increased width of the canal lower down affords ample space, available for discharging cargoes into barges and lighters; each of the four docks here are respectively 700,600, 600, and 560 feet long, each with a waterway 150 feet wide, the intervening quays being 120 feet in width. There is also a square dock on the Ordsal side 980 by 750 feet.

After leaving the Pomona docks, the canal immediately passes under a swing bridge forming a continuation of the Trafford road, connecting Manchester and Salford for vehicular and passenger traffic, to the Salford docks, which have a water space of 68 acres, 3 miles of quays, and a quay area of 276 ½ acres. The three, docks here are respectively 1,350, 1,160 and 850 feet long, by 250 and 235 feet wide. The quays lying between them are 263 feet across. The expanse of water direct across from Trafford wharf to the dock piers measures at its widest part 1,388 feet. No. 9 dock, constructed in 1902 on the site of the old race course, is 2,700 feet in length by 250 feet wide. The Manchester docks are now excellently equipped with transit sheds of the newest design. There are 137 hydraulic and steam cranes, an American-built grain elevator, with a capacity of 40,000 tons, and every modern appliance for giving quick despatch in loading and unloading; thirteen new warehouses of seven storeys each, chiefly for cotton storage, and seven four-storey warehouses for grain and general goods, have been provided. The railways of the Company already completed extend over 105 miles, and convey traffic direct between the various loading and discharging berths at the docks and along the canal, and are connected with all the railway systems of the country. The canal and docks are in direct communication with the whole of the barge canals of the district, which serve upwards of 700 miles of the surrounding country. At Barton, the canal is crossed by the Bridgewater canal, carried over it by an aqueduct, which is constructed as a caisson or trough. The Barton aqueduct moves on a ring of 64 Tollers; the span on each side is 90 feet; full length 235 feet; width 18 feet; depth 6 feet; weight when swinging 1,450 tons. Here is also a swing bridge for vehicular and passenger traffic. Near by are the Barton locks, 600 by 65 feet, and 350 by 45 feet, and 4 sluices, each 30 feet wide, with a descending level of 15 feet; at Irlam, where the Cheshire Lines railway crosses by a viaduct, is another set of locks and sluices of similar dimensions, also affording a, descent of 16 feet; several railway lines also cross the canal, and all the railway bridges have an elevation so as to give a clear headway of 75 feet above the water level. The lines of approach to these bridges extend 1 ¼ miles on each side, and rise 1 in 135. At Partington is a large coal basin-water space 5 ½ acres, quay area 20 acres, with 15 miles of railway sidings and quays extending for half a mile-with coal tips for loading vessels; about 160 tons per hour can be loaded from each tip; at Latchford, south-east of Warrington, is a further set of locks of equal size, with a fall of 16 feet 6 inches, and about a mile and a half below this is Warrington. The next important point is at Buncorn, about 7 miles below Warrington; the docks are now always accessible, instead of at spring tides only, and the Ship canal is connected at this point with the London and North Western railway, the Runcorn and Weston canal, the Runcorn and Latchford canal, and, via the river Mersey, with the town of Widnes and the Sankey Navigation, having on its northern head three locks, respectively 250,400 and 600 feet in length, each being 45 feet wide; beyond this the junction of the river Weaver necessitates sluices, ten in number, forming here the river wall of the canal, and constructed to provide free access of the waters of the Weaver and the Mersey into the estuary. The river wall, which extends from opposite Widnes round to Weston Point, is 2,950 feet, 16 feet wide at the top, rising from a base of 22 feet, and is faced on both sides with 12-inch piles. The canal, from the spot at which it emerges into the estuary of the Mersey, is separated from it by a strongly constructed wall, continued to the terminal locks at Eastham, respectively 600 feet long and 80 wide, 350 feet long and 50 wide, and 150 by 30; the sills of the gates are 2 feet 6 inches lower than the deepest dock sills at Liverpool or Birkenhead and the channel approaching them is dredged three feet deeper than the lock sills. Ellesmere Port, 3 ½ miles from Eastham, is the outlet for the Shropshire Union system of canals which traverse 204 miles of country. Very extensive quay arrangements have been made here by the London and North Western railway to deal with their traffic. The locks on the canal are not single, but are built in pairs, with intermediate gates, to avoid waste of water in the passage of vessels of various tonnage, and besides the principal locks there are subsidiary locks (side entrances) at Weston Marsh, Weston Mersey, Bridgewater and Buncorn (Old Quay), Walton and Twenty-Steps. Vessels can navigate the canal with safety at a speed of six or eight miles an hour, and it is estimated that the passage from the entrance at Eastham to Manchester can be accomplished in eight hours for the largest vessels, and five for average ones, which is much less time than is at present taken to cart goods from ship to rail in Liverpool, and thence by rail to Manchester. The Eastham section of the canal was filled 19th June, 1891, and the first flotilla of traffic from Ellesmere Port passed down into the Mersey on the following 16th July; and on September 15th, 1891, the water was admitted up to Weston Point. On 17th November, 1893, the water was let in up to Latchford, and on 25th November, at 10.30 p.m., the canal was full from end to end-Eastham to Manchester. The Partington coal basin, already referred to, is only 6 miles from the nearest Lancashire colliery, and about 40 miles from the nearest South Yorkshire coal-field, which hitherto had no available outlet on the west coast, and it is thus brought 30 miles nearer the sea. There is direct railway communication, the Cheshire Lines system crossing the canal at this point, At Runcorn, the Ship Canal Company, as the owners of the Bridgewater docks, are connected with the Staffordshire potteries, and the coal and iron industries by the Trent and Mersey and Bridgewater canals. At Partington and Barton, the Wigan and Worsley coal-fields are only a few miles from the canal. The docks at Weston Point are joined to the great Cheshire salt field by the Weaver Navigation, over which a million tons of salt passes per annum for exportation. At Warrington there are iron works on a large scale, and a great weight of wire and other goods is yearly exported. At Widnes and Runcorn. there are large chemical works, and St. Helens, a little to the north, is united by canal to the Mersey. The Smelting Corporation Limited acquired, in 1899, land on the south bank of the Ship canal at Stanlow (near Ellesmere Port) for the erection of smelting works. The district affected by the Manchester Ship canal contains over 150 important towns, 100 of which have a population of more than 10,000, and in eleven of these the population exceeds 100,000; the total population of this area may be taken at 8,000,000, and it is also rich in minerals and great industries.

The offices of the Company are at 41 Spring gardens, Manchester; F. A. Eyre, secretary and accountant.

The Leeds and Liverpool canal extends across the country from south-west to north-east, connecting the towns of Liverpool, Ormskirk, Wigan, Chorley, Blackburn, Burnley and Colne, beyond which it enters Yorkshire, and is continued to Leeds. The Bridgewater canal, which extends from Runcorn to Wigan, on leaving the former place runs through the north-east border of Cheshire until it reaches Stretford, where it enters the county and soon after crosses the Manchester Ship canal at Barton, by a fine iron trough swinging bridge, which by means of shutters at each end is capable of carrying the boats while swinging open; it then passes through several tunnels at Worsley and runs on to Wigan, thus connecting with the Liverpool and Leeds canal, while the Rochdale canal connects Manchester and the Bridgewater navigation (near Stretford) with Yorkshire, terminating in that county at Sowerby Bridge, near Halifax, at a junction with the Calder. Other canals in the south are the Manchester and Ashton, the Ashton and Huddersfield, the Manchester and Stockport and the Manchester, Bolton and Bury canals; and the Sankey canal from St. Helens to the Mersey at Widnes. The north is connected with the south by the Lancaster canal, which extends from Kendal, in Westmorland, to Lancaster, above which town it is carried across the Lune by a splendid viaduct; thence it is continued to Preston and Chorley, near the latter of which it joins the Leeds and Liverpool canal. The Ulverston canal is from that town to the Leven.

Lancashire is an important manufacturing county, mainly in textile fabrics; the cotton industry in Manchester and its neighbourhood makes Lancashire so remarkable in the commercial annals of the world.

Cotton became the staple manufacture in England in (he present century, though previously the trade had been making progress, 1,545,472 lbs. of raw cotton having been imported in 1730; in 1738 the fly shuttle was invented by John Kay, of Bury, and in 1760 his son Robert invented the drop box by which the weaver can use any one of three shuttles: Robert Arkwright, of Bolton, produced the water frame in 1760; in 1767 James Hargreaves, a weaver of Blackburn, invented the spring jenny, and the mule was invented by Samuel Crompton, of Bolton, 1774—9-these inventions with others and the application of steam power gave great impetus to this trade. In 1810 the imports of cotton had reached 132,500,000 lbs. and in 1861 1,256,984,736 lbs. On the outbreak of the civil war in America, by the secession of the Southern States from the union 1860—1, the supply of cotton decreased to 523,973,296 lbs., thus causing mills to be stopped and great distress among the operatives, for whom public subscriptions were raised and public works started, about £2,000,000 was con tributed by subscription, and £1,000,000 expended in works; and in commemoration of the aid afforded by London during the cotton famine 1861—4, a memorial window was subscribed for by the operatives and placed in the Guildhall, London, in 1868. The imports of raw cotton reached in 1903, 14,691,325 cwts., valued at £41,638,222, of which. 11,922,180 cwts. arrived at the port of Liverpool and 8,348,042 in the port of Manchester (including Runcorn). The exports from Liverpool being of cotton yarn, 53,033,300 lbs., value £2,376,504; linen yarn, 4,297,100 lbs., value £214,570, and of manufactured piece goods, 3,539,600 yards, value £36,200,713. The exports from Manchester (including Runcorn) were of cotton yarn 35,083,200 lbs., £1,442,017, and of manufactured piece goods 467,587,400 yards, valued at £4,619,940. Oldham and imported consume about one-fourth of the cotton.

Among other manufactures are woollens, worsted, flannels, gingham, hats, silk, shawls, hosiery, artificial carpets, silk ribbons and linen; connected with these are various industries such as bleaching,calico printing, dyeing and finishing and the preparing of dyes. All kinds of machinery for weaving and spinning are made, besides machinery for various other purposes; gas meters are made at Oldham. Large quantities of bobbins are produced in the north, the woods in that part of the county supplying the material. The chemical trade is of great importance; the manufacture of alkali commenced at Widnes in 1847. In 1903 soda compounds (which includes alkali) was exported from Liverpool to the extent of 3,548,331 cwts., valued at £1,048,707. Copper smelting is carried on both at Widnes and St. Helens. St. Helens and district is the great seat of the manufacture of crown, sheet and plate glass; the latter is cast in plates as large as 180 inches long by 120 wide, and concave and convex mirrors of 36 inches in diameter are made; it is free from that mistiness to which the foreign article is subject. Flint glass and glass bottles are also made. Warrington and its vicinity form the centre of the tanning trade in the north of England for heavy sole leather: within a radius of a few miles there are over 30 heavy sole tanneries, using on an average from 8,000 to 10,000 hides per week: the greater part of the leather used in the boots and shoes which are manufactured for the army and police under government contracts is made in this neighbourhood, besides great quantities of leather suitable for belts for driving machinery. The export trade for salt is centred in Liverpool, and in 1902 out of 1,485,008 tons produced in Cheshire, Lancashire and Staffordshire, 480,187 tons were exported from Liverpool, out of a total export from the United Kingdom of 613,732 tons. Fishing is carried on to a small extent from the ports of Barrow, Fleetwood, Liverpool, Preston and Runcorn. The number of boats registered under Part IV. of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, as belonging to the ports was: Barrow, 45, of 202 tons; Fleetwood, 91, of 2,434 tons; Liverpool. 189, of 2,772 tonnage and Preston, 39, of 219 tons. Ship building is also carried on, and the making of watch movements, and materials and tools connected therewith, is a great staple at Prescot and neighbourhood, as also file cutting and coarse earthenware; cabinet making at Lancaster. For purposes of government inspection of the pits the county is divided into two parts, viz., the north and east, or Manchester district, and the western, or Liverpool district. The mineral productions are coal and iron ore; the county ranks next to Durham and the West Biding of Yorkshire in the amount of coal raised, for, according to the “Mines and Quarries: General Report and Statistics for 1902,” the produce of that valuable mineral was in North and East Lancashire 11,251,590 tons, valued at the mines at £4,940,186; in West Lancashire, 13,189,129 tons, valued at the mines at £5,275,652. The county ranks fifth in the production of pig iron, 676,945 tons having been made in 1902; Yorkshire talcing first place, Staffs second, Cumberland third and Durham fourth. Of iron ore the production was 482,884 tons, value £281,682; the character of the ore is red haematite, and it is procured from the Furness district of fire clay 228,045 tons were raised, valued at £32,321; of brick day from quarries, 1,121,281 tons were raised, valued at £46,164; in 1902, 595,981 tons of limestone were raised in the county, valued at £41,038; 768,603 tons of sandstone, and 57,592 tons of gravel and sand.

Lancashire is in the Northern Circuit; and assizes are held for North Lancashire at Lancaster, and for South Lancashire at Liverpool and Manchester. Quarter Sessions are held at Lancaster, Preston, Salford (Manchester), and Liverpool. The cities of Manchester and Liverpool and the borough of Blackburn, Bolton, Oldham, Salford and Wigan have separate quarter sessions. The county is divided into thirty-three petty sessional divisions. A Court of Chancery is held for the County Palatine of Lancaster. The County Palatine of Lancaster is attached to the Duchy of Lancaster, and so to the Crown: the Court of Chancery is, so far as the shire is concerned, its chief actual distinction. County courts are held in all the great towns. The county contains 15 county boroughs, and 19 other boroughs, and 430 civil parishes.

The county contains 777 complete ecclesiastical parishes and districts, together with portions of 11 parishes, and is in the province of York, and in the dioceses of Manchester, Liverpool, Carlisle, Chester, Ripon and Wakefield, the portion included in these 3 latter being only a few parishes situated on the borders of the county. The diocese of Manchester was formed in 1847; and the hundred of West Derby, with the parish of Wigin, was formed into the diocese of Liverpool in 1880; the diocese of Carlisle retaining the northern portion of Furness. The portion of the county in the Manchester diocese is divided into three archdeaconries, viz. Manchester, sub-divided into the rural deaneries of Ardwick, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bolton, Bury, The Cathedral, Cheetham, Eccles, Hulme, Oldham, Prestwich and Middleton, Rochdale and Salford; Lancaster, sub-divided into the rural deaneries of The Fylde, Garstang, Lancaster, Preston and Tunstal; and Blackburn, sub-divided into the rural deaneries of Blackburn, Burnley, Leyland and Whalley. The Liverpool diocese is divided into the archdeaconries of Liverpool and Warrington; Liverpool archdeaconry is subdivided into the rural deaneries of Bootle, Liverpool North, North Meols, Ormskirk, Walton and Wigan; Warrington is sub-divided into the rural deaneries of Childwall, Liverpool South, Prescot, Toxteth, West Derby and Winwick. The portion in Carlisle diocese is in the Furness archdeaconry and the rural deaneries of Dalton, Cartmel and Ulverston. In Chester diocese, rural deanery of Mottram, are the parishes of Christ Church, Dukinfield, and Holy Trinity, Castle Hall; in Ripon diocese, rural deaneries of Craven West and Clapham, are the parishes of Hurst Green and Thornton-in-Lonsdale; and in Wakefield diocese, rural deanery of Halifax, is the parish of Harley Wood.

Lancashire formerly contained some of the largest parishes in England, but of late years these have been much sub-divided.

The parishes were likewise remarkable for their population, Manchester being, perhaps, the largest parish in the world, having a population of more than half a million, and Liverpool a population of nearly a quarter of a million.

The number of townships in Lancashire is about 470. In Lancashire the township still forms the chief civil territorial distinction, as it once did all over England; they have separate races for their poor and highways. The townships in Lancashire are more considerable than parishes elsewhere, though several have been recently sub-divided. The extent in acres of the largest was as follows: —

Over Wyersdale17,346
Dunnerdale with Seathwaite10,273
Kirkby Ireleth8,730
Upper Holker7,247
West Broughton6,493
Aighton, Chaigley & Bailey6,289

The municipal boroughs, with their population in 1901, are as follows: —

St. Helens84,410
Other towns are: —

The seaport towns are—Liverpool, one of the greatest in the world; Manchester, which now has direct trade through the Ship canal; Barrow-in-Furness, an increasing port; Garston, on the estuary of the Mersey; Preston; Fleetwood-on-Wyre, a rising port; Heysham; Lancaster, with its docks at Glasson and Ulverston, while Blackpool, Southport, Lytham, Morecambe, Fleetwood, Grange, near Lancaster, and St. Anne’s-on-the-Sea are watering places.

The registration districts are thirty in number. Their area and population in 1901 were as follows:

NoNamesAcresPopulation (1901)
454Toxteth Park2,375136,230
455West Derby37,242529,684

Lancashire has, in the colleges at Manchester and Liverpool, complete university institutions, the Victoria University, Manchester, founded by Royal Charter, April 20th, 1880, and the Liverpool University, 1881. The medical schools have good reputation. The Catholics, Baptists, Congregationalists, Primitive Methodist, United Methodist Free Church and Wesleyans have colleges. There are a number of public grammar and collegiate schools in the shire, besides private schools of a like class. The endowments for superior education have largely increased of late years: and literary societies, libraries and museums have been founded.

The County Lunatic Asylum on Lancaster Moor, opened in 1816 and since enlarged, is a stately quadrangular building of stone, with a handsome front, relieved by pillars of the Doric order, and will hold 1,200 patients. The annexe, completed in 1882 at a cost of 125,000, occupies a site comprising an area of about 41 acres. The buildings are constructed of stone; in the centre of the block over the main entrance is a clock tower about 100 feet in height, and there are smaller ones at the front, extremity of each wing: the building also includes a fine dining hall 120 feet long by 60 feet wide and 60 feet high: this annexe provides additional space for about 900 patients: David Mackay Cassidy M.D., D.Sc., L.R.C.P. & F.R.O.S. Edin. Medical superintendent; Thomas Philip Cowen M.D., B.S. Lond., M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond, senior assistant medical officer; David Blair M.A., M.D., C.M. las. William Owen Roberts M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P. Lond. George William Smith M.B., Ch.B.Edin. & Ernest Hall Scholefield M.B., Ch.B.Oxon., M.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond, assistant medical officers; Richard Gurney Rows M.D.Lond., M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond, pathologist; Rev. Edward Parry Marriott B.A. chaplain; James Thomas Cheetham, clerk, steward and treasurer; William Pritchard, clerk of works; Miss Charlotte Stacey and Miss Tweddwell, matron.

The Rainhill County Lunatic Asylum, originally built for 400 patients, and opened 1 Jan. 1851; it is a stone building and was enlarged in 1860, and again in 1886 by the erection of an annexe available for 1,000 patients, at a cost of £200,000, from designs by Mr. G. E. Grayson, architect, of Liverpool: the grounds are extensive and beautifully laid out and there is a detached chapel in which Divine service is regularly performed by the chaplain twice on Sundays and on Wednesday evenings: there were in 1904 2,005 patients, 990 men and 1,015 women: the asylum is managed by a committee of County and Borough Councils; Joseph Wiglesworth M.D., medical superintendent; Francis Odell Simpson M.R.C.S.Eng, and L.R.C.P.Lond, deputy medical superintendent; Robert George Archibald M.B., Ch.B.Edin. James Alfred Giles M.B., B.S.Durh. Andrew Colville Wilson B.Sc., M.D., C.M.Glas. & Harry Egerton Brown M.B., Ch.B.Glas. assistants; Alfred William Campbell M.D. and C.M.Edin. pathologist; Rev. Edward Eustus Chamberlain, chaplain; Rev. Thomas Unsworth, Catholic priest; James Gornall, clerk and steward; Miss Mary Valentine and Mrs. Caroline E. Robinson, matrons.

The County Lunatic Asylum at Prestwich, erected in 1851, has since been enlarged, and consists of two ranges of brick buildings, three-quarters of a mile apart and connected by a road running through the asylum grounds. The main building is available for 1,580 patients and the new building for 1,020. The administrative block in each building is in the centre, with ready means of access to and from the different wards and dining halls: there are extensive grounds, partly leased, 122 acres of which are devoted to the farm and garden: adjoining the farm buildings are the gas works, and there are also extensive workshops. Frank Perceval M.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond, superintendent; Thomas Robert Hood Clunn M.R.C.S.Eng. John Palphryman Clowes L.R.C.P.Lond. Thomas Farrar Smith M.D., Bac.Surg. William Starkey M.B., Ch.B. Harold James Crompton M.D., B.Ch. Hugh Le Fann M.B., C.M. and David Orr M.D., C.M. (and pathologist), assistant medical officers; Rev. John Greenway Deighton B.A. and Rev. Joseph Hayes (R. C.), chaplains; H. T. Crofton, clerk to the visitors; Robert Coates, treasurer and clerk; Richard T. Redman, steward; Mrs. A. E. Norbury and Mrs. Elizabeth Gooding, chief female officers.

The fourth County Lunatic Asylum, at Whittingham, standing on an eminence, erected in 1869, from designs by Mr. Henry Littler, architect, of Manchester, at a cost of £338,300, is of red brick, forming a quadrangle of detached blocks of buildings with corridors radiating from the centre and is available for 1,079 male and 1,035 female patients; the building, which has been enlarged since its first erection, includes a hospital for infectious diseases; additional buildings were erected between the years 1897—1900; within the grounds, which cover a site of 60 acres, is a church, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and a tower. There is a private railway in connection with Grimsargh station, for the conveyance of visitors to the asylum. Francis Gemmel M.B., C.M. Glas. superintendent; Ronald Murray Clark M.B. and C.M.Edin. John Killeen Bresland B.A., M.B., B.Ch, and B.A.O.Dub. John Guthrie Blandford M.B., C.M.Glas. Robert Fenton Manifold B.A., M.B., B.Ch., B.A.O.Dub. Walter Richard Hugh Smith M.D., C.M.Dub. and John Leeming Stephenson L.R.C.P.Lond., M.R.C.S.Eng, assistant medical officers; Rev. Walter Thomas Palmour B.A. chaplain; J.P. Muspratt, clerk to the committee of visitors; Thomas Dilworth, clerk and steward.

A fifth County Asylum was opened at Winwick in January, 1902; it will hold 2,000 patients, which are received only from the other asylums; it stands in 206 acres of land and has a recreation hall 120 feet by 60 feet and lighted throughout with electricity. Alexander Simpson M.A., M.D., C.M.Aberd. medical superintendent; Albert Irwin Eades L.R.C.P. & S.Irel. Joseph William Rodgers L.R.C.P. & S.Irel. Frederick Millar Rodgers M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H.Vict. and James Shearer M.B., Oh.B.Glas. assistant medical officers; Rev. Frederic William Evans Chadwick B.A. chaplain; Henry Ellis, clerk and steward.

The Royal Albert Asylum, Lancaster, standing on a commanding site 150 feet above the sea level, about half a mile to the south of that town, was erected in 1868—73, at a cost of £80,000, and is a building of local freestone, in the Geometrical Gothic style: the form of the building is that of the letter E, fronting westward to the Cockerham road: facing the entrance is the handsome dining hall: on the south side of this hall are five memorial windows to munificent benefactors: a detached infirmary has been erected by the munificence of the late Edward Rodgett esq. of Darwen Bank, Preston, and a fine recreation hall, called the “Winmarleigh Hall,” has been added. A new wing, named the “Ashton wing,” the cost of which was defrayed by Lord Ashton, was opened Sept. 26, 1901, for 100 additional patients, and on June 24, 1904, “The Herbert Storey Industrial Schools and Workshops” were presented to the trustees of the institution by Herbert L. Storey esq. high sheriff of Lancashire (1904). Brunton House, near the asylum, has extensive private grounds, and is a home for private pupils attending the schools. The institution received its name by sanction of H.M. the late Queen Victoria, in the year 1866, and is intended for the care and training of feeble-minded children and young persons belonging to the seven northern counties: the boys’ wing was formally opened 14 Sept. 1870, and in honour of the munificent donor of £30,000 to the funds of the asylum, has been called “The Brooke wing,” and on the 8th October, 1873, the completion of the asylum was celebrated. The Storey Home, for 40 feeble-minded girls, was built and furnished by Sir Thomas Storey, and opened by the Countess of Bective, in September, 1898. A sustentation fund of about £4,000 yearly has been formed from special donations and legacies, but the institution is largely dependent for support upon annual subscriptions. The views from the asylum estate (which consists of about 185 acres) are fine, and include the course of the Lune for many miles, Morecambe bay, and the principal Cumberland and Westmoreland mountains. In 1904 the asylum contained 620 patients, of two classes-(1) those admitted for seven years by the votes of subscribers; (2) paying patients. The institution is not intended for epileptic, paralytic, tuberculous, or insane persons, nor for those who are incurably hydrocephalic; imbecility which is complicated with blindness or deafness is also a disqualification. Application forms may be had from the secretary, James Diggens. The medical superintendent is Archibald Robertson Douglas L.R.C.P, and S.Edin., L.F.P. and S.Glas.

The Preston and County of Lancaster Royal Infirmary, near Deepdale road, Preston, erected ip 1869, at a cost of £18,000, is a building in the Italian style, and includes a pavilion of red brick in two stories, each floor being arranged for 24 beds; there are wards for special cases, two on each floor, besides others, the whole affording space for 136 beds, including detached wards with 32 beds for infectious cases: the hospital was enlarged in 1902 at a cost of £32,500, and a new operating theatre added, the latter being the gift of R. C. Brown M.R.C.S.Eng, and costing about £2,600: the number of in-patients in 1903 was 1,063 and of outpatients, 5,520, and the income of the Infirmary for that year £5,919. In connection with the Infirmary is a home for trained nurses, monthly, medical and surgical; Edwin Moore M.D. Robert Trimble M.D. John Edward Garner M.D., C.M. Frederick William Collinson M.B., C.M. James Arthur Rigby M.D. and W. H. Irvin Sellers M.B., C.M.Edin., M.R.C.S.Eng. J. E. Dunn M.R.C.S. Eng. & J. S. Anderson M.B., C.M.Aberd. honorary medical officers; R. O. Brown M.R.C.P.Lond., F.R.C.S. Eng. consulting medical officer; J. Winkley Langdon M.R.C.S.Eng, hon. ophthalmic and aural surgeon; George Cooksey L.D.S.Eng. and Irel. hon. dental surgeon; Henry Herbert Rayner M.B., Ch.B.Vict, senior house surgeon; James Spence Geddie M.B., Ch.Aberd. junior house surgeon; Francis Hugh Salisbury M.B. and Ch.B.Vict, assistant house surgeon; Walter Davies, sec.; Miss Louise C. Holden, dispenser; Miss Grace Goffin, matron; Joseph C. Archer, collector.

The Blackburn and East Lancashire Infirmary, at Hollin bank, Bolton road, Blackburn, and erected at a cost of about £25,000, is a building in the Italian style, surrounded by about 8 acres of land: there are beds for 90 in-patients. In 1884 a new wing was erected at a cost of £5,000, giving 20 additional beds, and in 1895—6 further improvements and additions were made at a cost of £5,000. The “Victoria” wing, completed in 1900, was erected at a cost of over £11,000, in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria. The Infirmary contains about 110 bods. During the year 1903, 6,306 persons were treated, namely, 1,602 in-patients and 6,306 out-patients. J. S. Watson M.D., C.M. consulting physician; R. A. Gray M.D., C.M. & M. Bannister M.B. physicians; J. M. H. Martin M.D., B.Ch, and R. Hunt L.R.C.P.Lond., M.R.C.S.Eng, surgeons; G. H. Davies L.R.C.P, and S. Edin. ophthalmic surgeons; Walter Briggs M.B., Ch.B. Vict, house surgeons; Miss H. C. Poole, matron; John W. Oddie, hon. sec.; Nathan A. Smith, sec. and collector.

His Majesty's Prison, Preston, is a spacious building, at the end of Church street, and erected in 1789; it covers an area of about 8 acres, and has since been extensively altered at a cost of about £40,000, and now comprises several blocks of buildings containing 550 cells. 400 for males, and 150 for females, and a chapel to contain 500 persons. The governor’s house, forming the principal front, and rebuilt in 1834, is of undressed stone in the Castellated style, decorated with the arms of the Duchy of Lancaster. In 1891 the entrance was removed to Church street; Capt. Herbert Joseph Guyon, governor; Rev. St. George Henry Wanderford Caulfield M.A. and Rev. J. North (Catholic), chaplains; Walter Francis Moore, M.B., L.R.C.P.Lond., M.R.O.S. Eng. surgeon.

His Majesty’s Prison, Castle hill, Lancaster; George Joseph Arnold, governor; Arthur Stanley Barling L.R.C.P.Lond, surgeon; Rev. William Bonsey M.A. chaplain; James Lancaster, clerk to visiting justices.

Fairs & Markets

Accrington, first thursdays in April & August & two following days; market days, Tuesday & Saturday.

Ashton-under-Lyne, cattle & pig fair the second thursday in every, month, but the four largest occur on March 23, April 29, July 25 & November 21; market day, Saturday; & an annual wake on the first Sunday after August 15.

Atherton, third Monday in September for pleasure .

Bacup, market days, Wednesday & Saturday.

Barrow-in-Furness, market days, Wed. Fri. & Saturday.

Blackburn, market day, Wednesday.

Blackrod, first Friday after July 12, for pleasure, toys & pedlery.

Bolton, second Wednesday in January (Rug Hill fair), February 5, Easter Monday, last Wednesday in July, & next day; second Wednesday & thursday in October; pleasure fairs at the New Year & Whitsuntide; chief market, days, Monday, Friday & Saturday .

Broughton-in-Furness, April 27, August 1 & October 6, principally for homed Cattle & mountain sheep; on Wednesday in Whit week & first, Wednesday after November 11, for the hiring of servants; market day, Wednesday.

Burnley, market days, Monday & Saturday.

Bury, March 5, May 3, & Sept, 18; market day, sat.

Carnforth, market on Mondays for sheep & cattle.

Cartmel, Whit Monday & November 5.

Chipping, first Wednesday in October & April 23 for cattle & sheep.

Chorley, fairs, October 21 for cattle, on Easter Saturday until the following Tuesday & on the first Saturday in September to the Tuesday for pleasure; market days, Tuesday & Saturday.

Clitheroe, March 24 & 25, third thursday in May, Aug. 1 & 2, third thursday after Michaelmas & December 7; market day, Saturday, for meat & vegetables & every alternate Monday for cattle.

Colne, second Wednesday, March, May & October; market days, Wednesday & Saturday & cattle markets the last Wednesday in every month.

Coniston, third Saturday in September for cattle.

Croston, Monday before Shrove Tuesday for cattle & first Monday after October 12; a wake, which lasts three days, commences on the first Monday after the Feast of St. Michael.

Dalton-in-Furness, April 28, June 6, October 23.

Darwen, third Monday in July; market days, Mon. & sat.

Earlstown, market day, Friday.

Eccles, wakes commencing the first Sunday after August 25, and lasting several days.

Famworth, near Bolton, third Monday in September; market days, Monday & Saturday.

Great Eccleston, March 14, April 14 & Nov. 4 for cattle.

Garstang, November 22 for cattle & 23 for horses Great Harwood, August 21.

Haslingden, fairs on the first Tuesday in each month, for cattle, horses, pigs & toys; market days, Tuesday & Saturday.

Hawkshead, October 2 & Easter Monday.

Heywood, first Friday in April, August & October; market day, Friday.

Hindley, first thursday in August.

Inglewhite (Goosnargh), April 25 for sheep, Tuesday before Holy Thursday for cattle & sheep, & October 5 for cattle & sheep.

Kirkham, for cattle, February 4 & 5, April 28 & 29 & October 18 & 19.

Lancaster, market day, daily.

Leigh, April 24 for cattle & the following Saturday & Monday for pleasure; December 7 for cattle & the following sat. & Mon. for pleasure; market day, sat.

Leyland. March 24 & October 26.

Longridge, February 16, March 16, April 16, Monday in Holy week & November 5 for cattle &c.

Lowgill (Tatham), March 10 for cattle Lytham, market day, daily.

Middleton, market day, Friday; wakes on the last Saturday but one in August Newchurch-in-Rossendale, fair for cattle, April 29.

Newton-le-Willows, May 17 & August 11 & 12, principally for horses, horned cattle, sheep & pigs.

Oldham, thursdays after February 2, May 2, July 8, Wednesday— after October 11 & the second Monday in every month, except the months on which the quarterly fairs are held for cattle, horses & pigs.Stolen from Fore bears

Ormskirk, Whit Monday & Tuesday (for horses) & second Tuesday & Wednesday in September for cattle; market day, thurs .

Padiham, second thursday in August for pedlery.

Poulton-Te-Fylde, February 3, April 13 & November 3, for sheep & cattle.

Prescot, on the festival of Corpus Christi until the following Saturday & for cattle on Shrove Tuesday & continuing fortnightly until the first Tuesday in May; market day, Saturday.

Preston, on the Tuesday, Wednesday & thursday in the first full week of the year, for horses; March 27, Aug. 25 &. November 7 for cattle & earthenware; the last Friday in the months of March, June &, November for cheese; market days, Wednesday & Saturday, the latter being the corn market.

Radcliffe, market day, Friday.

Ramsbottom, first Monday after 27 August.

Rawtenstall, June.

Rochdale, market day, Monday.

Rufford, fair, May 13, for cattle.

Southport, market days, Wednesday & Saturday.

Stalybridge, last Monday in each month, annual prize fair first Saturday in September; wakes first sunday after July 17; market day, Saturday.

Todmorden, thursday before Easter & the last thursday in September, each continuing for three days each; market days, Wednesday & Saturday, & first thursday in each month for cattle.

Turton, first Monday in September for cattle.

Ulverston, Whit thursday & first thursday after November 11, both for hiring servants, & Tuesday preceding the first full week in Jan. for horses; market day, thursday.

Warrington, July 18 & November 30, for horses & cattle & sheep on the days respectively preceding; market days, Wednesday & Saturday.

Westhoughton, second Tuesday in October for cattle.

Widnes, last week of April and September, for pleasure.

Wigan, the day before Holy Thursday for cattle, Holy Thursday for horses, last Wednesday in June (at Scholes for cattle & horses); third Wednesday in October, for cattle; market days, Tuesday & Friday.

Wray, Shrove Tuesday for cattle.

Wyersdale (Over), fairs at Marsham on the first thursday in June & September 18, for sheep & cattle.

Parliamentary Representation of Lancashire

Lancashire formerly returned eight members in four divisions, but under the provisions of the “Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885,” it now returns twenty-three members in twenty-three divisions.

North Lancashire.

No. 1, or North Lonsdale division, comprises the sessional division of Barrow-in-Furness, Hawkshead and North Lonsdale (including Cartmel), and the townships of Boltonele-Sands, Rorwick, Carnforth, Dalton, Nether and Over Kellet, Priest, Hutton, Silverdale, Warton-with-Lindeth, Yealand Conyers and Yealand Redmayne in South Lonsdale sessional division.

No. 2, or Lancaster division, comprises the sessional divisions of Garstang and Hornby and South Lonsdale (except so much as is comprised in division No. 1), and the municipal borough of Lancaster.

No. 3, the Blackpool division, comprises the sessional divisions of Amoundemess, Kirfham and Leyland (except so much as is comprised in division No. 4), and the municipal borough of Preston.

No. 4, or Chorley division; comprises the sessional division of Leyland Hundred and the townships of Clayton-le-Woods, Cuerden and Leyland in Leyland sessional division.

No. 5, or Darwen division, comprises the sessional divisions of Blackburn (except such as is included in division No; 7), Darwen and Walton-le-Dale, the municipal boroughs of Blackburn and Over Darwen, and the townships of Aighton, Bailey and Chaigley, Little Bowland, Chipping and Leagram and Thornley with Wheatley in the sessional division of Clitheroe.

No. 6, or Clitheroe division, comprises the sessional divisions of Burnley (except the parish of Hapton), Clitheroe (except so much as is comprised in division No. 5), and Colne and the municipal boroughs of Burnley, and Clitheroe.

No. 7, or Accrington division, comprises the municipal borough of Accrington, and the townships of Altham, Church, Clayton-le-Moors, Hapton, Huncoat, Qswald-twistle and Rishton.

No. 8, or Rossendale division comprises the sessional division of Rossendale, and so much of the municipal borough of Bacup as is not included in the sessional division of Rossendale.

South-East Lancashire.

No. 9, or West Houghton division, comprises the sessional division of Bolton (except so much as is comprised in division No. 12), and the municipal borough of Bolton.

No. 10, or Heywood division, comprises the sessional division of Bury (except so much as is comprised in divisions Nos. 10 and 11), the municipal borough of Bury and Hoywood, and so much of the parish of Spotland as is not included in the Local Government district of Whitworth or in the municipal boroughs of Bacup and Rochdale.

No. 11, or Middleton division, comprises the sessional division of Middleton (except so much of the parish of Spotland as is included in division No. 10 or in the municipal borough of Bacup), the municipal borough of Rochdale, and the parishes of Alkington and Tonge, and in the sessional division of Bury so much of the parish of Hopwood as is not included in Heywood municipal borough.

No. 12, or Radcliffe-cuna-Farnworth division, comprises the townships of Farnworth, Karsley and Little Hulton in Bolton sessional division, and the township of Pakington, and so much of the parish of Radcliffe as is not in Bury, municipal borough but to Bury sessional division.

No. 13, or Eccles division, comprises the township of Barton-upon-Irwell, Clifton, Flixton and Urmston, and so much of the township of Pendlebury as is not within the municipal borough of Salford.

No. 14, or Stretford division, comprises the municipal boroughs of Manchester and Salford, and so much of the municipal borough “of Stockport as is situated in the county of Lancaster, the townships of Bradford, Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Harpurhey, Levenshulme, Moss Side, Newton, Reddish, Ruskolme, Stretford and Withington, and so much of the township of Heaton Norris as is not included in the municipal borough of Stockport.

No. 15, or Gorton division, comprises the townships, of Denton, Haughton and Openshaw, and so much of the township of Gorton as is not included in the municipal borough of Manchester.

No. 16, or Prestwich division, comprises the municipal boroughs of Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham and the townships of Blackley, Chadderton, Crompton, Crumpsall, Droylsden, Failsworth, Great and Little Heaton, Moston, Prestwich and Royton, and so much of the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne as is not included in the municipal borough.

South-West Lancashire.

No. 17, or Southport division, comprises the sessional division of Southport, the muncipal borough of Southport, and the townships of Great Crosby, Ince Blundell, Little Crosby and Thornton.

No. 18, or Ormskirk division, comprises the sessional division of Ormskirk, the townships of Aintree, Dalton, Sefton and Unholland and Croxteth Park and Knowsley Kirkby, Litherland, Lunt, Netherton, Orrell and Ford, townships and Prescot parish in Prescot sessional division.

No. 19, or Bootle division, comprises the municipal boroughs of Liverpool, and Bootle-cum-Linacre, the townships, of Childwall, Fazakerley, Walton-on-the-Hill and Wavertree, and so much of the parishes of Toxteth Park and West Derby as is not included in Liverpool municipal borough.

No. 20, or Widnes division, comprises the sessional division of Prescot (except so much as is comprised in divisions No. 18 and 21), and the townships of Allerton, Garston, Hale, Halewood, Little Wooltoh, Much Woolton and Speke.

No. 21, or Newton division, comprises the sessional division of St. Helens and Warrington, the municipal borough of St. Helens, and so much of the municipal borough of Warrington as in the county of Lancaster and the townships of Ashton-in-Makerfield, Billinge Chapel End, Billinge Higher End, Rainhill and Winstanley, and so much of the township of Eccleston as is comprised in the sessional division of Prescot.

No. 22, or Ince division, comprises the municipal borough of Wigan, and the townships of Abram, Haigh, Hindley, Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell and Pemberton.

No. 23, or Leigh division, comprises the sessional division of Leigh.

By the above mentioned Act, the borough of Barrow-in-Furness was formed to return one member, and the representation of Wigan reduced from two to one. By the same Act the boundaries of the boroughs of Ashton-under-Lyne, Blackburn, Bolton, Bury, Oldham and Preston were extended.


The troops in this county are comprised in the north-western District Command.

Major-General Sir Francis Howard K.C.B., C.M.G. in command.

Head quarters, Chester.

Regimental Districts

Ashton-under-Lyne is the depot of Regimental District No. 63, the Manchester Regiment, 1st battalion (63rd Foot), 2nd battalion (96th Foot, 3rd and 4th battalions), and the head quarters of the 6th Royal Lancashire Militia, from which are formed its 6th and 7th battalions. Bury is the depot of Regimental District No. 20, Lancashire Fusiliers, comprising four battalions of regulars, two battalions (the 20th Foot) and the head quarters of the 7th Royal Lancashire Militia, from which are formed its 5th and 6th battalions. Lancaster is the depot of No. 4 Regimental District, the King’s Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment) 4th Foot (two battalions), and the head quarters of the 1st Royal Lancashire Militia, which forms the 3rd and 4th battalions of the regiment. Preston is the depot of the 30th and 47th Regimental District. Regimental District No. 30 comprises the East Lancashire Regiment, 30th and 50th Foot, and the head quarters of the 5th Royal Lancashire Militia, which forms its 3rd battalion. Regimental District No. 47 comprises the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, 47th and 81st Foot, and the head quarters of the 3rd Royal Lancashire Militia, forming the 3rd battalion of the regiment. Warrington is the depot of the 8th and 40th Regimental Districts. Regimental District No. 8 comprises the King’s (Liverpool Regiment) 8th Foot (two battalions) and the head quarters of the 2nd Royal Lancashire Militia, which forms the 3rd and 4th battalions. Regimental District No. 40 comprises the Prince of Wales’s Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment), 40th and 82nd regiments of Foot, and the head quarters of the 4th Royal Lancashire Militia, which forms the 3rd battalion.

At Seaforth Barracks is No. 4 depot of the North Western Group of the Royal Garrison Artillery.

No. 8 (Mersey) Section Coast Battalion (Submarine Miners) Royal Engineers is stationed at Liverpool.

Imperial Yeomanry

Duke of Lacaster’s Own, head quarters, Lancaster house, Whalley road, Whalley Range, Manchester: Lieut.

Royal Garrison Artillery (Militia).

The Lancashire Artillery Militia has its head quarters at Seaforth Barracks.


See also Manchester and Liverpool.

Royal Garrison Artillery (Volunteers). Lancashire (3rd) (Heavy Artillery), Lieut.-Col. & Hon. Morris M.A. acting chaplain; head quarters, 50 King street, Blackburn.

Lancashire (5th) (Heavy Artillery); head quarters, Woodcock’s court, 26 Fisher-gate, Preston

Lancashire (6th) (Heavy Artillery), head quarters, Admiral street, Liverpool. No. 5 Battery, Capt. J. P. Reynolds, Widnes Lancashire (9th) (Heavy Artillery). Lt.-Col. & Hon. Col. Silverwell street, Bolton

Royal Engineers Lancashire (2nd) (The St. Helens).


The Corps in Lancashire (independent of those having head quarters in Liverpool & Manchester) are distributed to the following Brigades:

Lancashire Fusilier Brigade.

Head quarters, Bury.

The Brigade comprises the: —

1st Volunteer Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, Bury.

2nd Volunteer Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, Rochdale.

3rd Volunteer Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, Salford.

The Lancaster and Border Brigade.

The Brigade comprises the: —

1st Volunteer Battalion, King’s Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment), Ulverston.

2nd Volunteer Battalion, King’s Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment), Lancaster.

1st (Cumberland Volunteer Battalion, The Border Regiment, Carlisle.

2nd (Westmoreland Volunteer Battalion, The Bonier Regiment, Kendal.

3rd (Cumberland Volunteer Battalion, The Border Regiment, Workington.

The Manchester Brigade.

The Brigade comprises the: —

1st Volunteer Battalion, Manchester Regiment, Drill hall, Patricroft, Manchester.

2nd Volunteer Battalion, Manchester Regiment, 3 Stretford road, Hulme, Manchester.

3rd Volunteer Battalion, Manchester Regiment, Ashton-under-Lyne.

4th Volunteer Battalion, Manchester Regiment, Burlington street, Manchester.

5th (Ardwick) Volunteer Battalion, Manchester Regiment, Ardwick, Manchester.

6th Volunteer Battalion, Manchester Regiment, Oldham.

North-East Lancashire Brigade.

The Brigade comprises:-

1st Volunteer Battalion East Lancashire Regt. Blackburn.

2nd Volunteer Batalion East Lancashire Regt. Burnley.

1st Volunteer Battalion Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, Preston.

2nd Volunteer Battalion Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, Bolton.

South Lancashire Brigade.

The Brigade comprises:-

1st Volunteer Battalion Prince of Wales’s Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment), Warrington.

2nd Volunteer Battalion Prince of Wales’s Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment), St. Helens.

3rd Volunteer Battalion The King’s (Liverpool Regiment), Southport.

6th Volunteer Battalion The King’s (Liverpool Regiment), 59 & 61 Everton road, Liverpool.

8th (Scottish) Volunteer Battalion The King's (Liverpool Regiment), Fraser street, Liverpool.

King's (Liverpool Regiment) 2nd Cadet Battalion, 21 Windsor road, Southport, J. C. Underwood (commanding) & C. Law-Green, captains.

Cheshire Brigade; Head quarters, Chester.

Commanding Brigade, The Officer commanding 22nd Regimental District

4th Volunteer Battalion Cheshire Regiment,

Capt. W. Merrison, quartermaster; head quarters, Shaw Heath, Stockport.

Roots, artificial grasses, cabbage and rape58,712
Clover-and grasses83,051
Permanent pasture574,410
Bare fallow1,324
Small fruit1,876
Woods and plantations (1895)41,906
Live StockNumber
Horses for agriculture and brood mares33,943
Unbroken horses, 1 year and above8,308
Ditto, under 1 year3,385
Cows in milk or calf137,851
other cattle, 2 years and above25,858
Ditto, 1 year and under 2 years32,900
Ditto, under 1 year39,197
Ewes kept for breeding126,313
Sheep, 1 year old and above59,983
Ditto, under 1 year147,069
Sows kept for breeding7,807
Lancashire contained in 1901, inhabited houses882,753
Parishes Civil, Entire430
In 1874, owners of land below 1 acre76,177
Owners of land of 1 acre and upwards12,558
Total owners of land88,735
Rateable value (excluding Liverpool & Manchester)£17,002,626
Mountain and heath land, used for grazing, acres92,436
Total acreage of the county1,196,753

County Council of the County Palatine of Lancaster

Local Government Act, 1888, 51 & 52 Vict. c. 41.

Under the above Act, Lancashire, after the 1st April, 1889, except certain boroughs, see below (a), for the purposes of the Act, became a separate and distinct administrative county (sec. 461-b) governed by a County Council, consisting of chairman, aldermen and councillors, elected in manner prescribed by the Act (sec. 2).

The chairman of the Council, by virtue of his office, is a justice of the peace for the county, without qualification (sec. 46).

The police of the county is under the control of a standing joint committee of the Quarter Sessions and the County Council, appointed as therein mentioned (sec. 9).

The coroners for the county are elected by the County Council, and the clerk of the peace is appointed by such joint committee, and may be removed by them (sec. 83—2).

The clerk of the peace for the county is also the clerk of the County Council (sec. 83—1).

The administrative business of the county (which would, if this Act had not been passed, have been transacted by the justices), is now transacted by the County Council.

(a) The following large boroughs each became, for the purposes of this Act, an administrative county of itself, called a County Borough (sec. 30), of which the municipal authority has the power of a County Council (sec. 31)-Barrow, Blackburn, Bolton, Bootle, Burnley, Bury, Liverpool, Manchester, Oldham, Preston, Rochdale, St. Helens, Salford, Stockport, Warrington, Wigan.

Meet at the County hall, Preston, on the 16th day of March, or the thursday next before the 16th March, and on the first thursday in each of the months of February, May, August and November at 11.30 a.m.

Kelly's Directory of Lancashire (1905)


LANCASHIRE is a maritime county; bounded on its whole southern side by Cheshire, on the east by Yorkshire, on the north by Westmoreland, and on the west by the Irish Sea. According to Mr. Yates’s survey, its greatest length is 74 miles; its breadth 44 ½ miles. Its circumference (crossing the Ribble, at Hesketh Bank) 342 miles, containing 1765 square miles, and 1,129,600 acres; sixty-two parishes, twenty-seven market towns, and 894 villages.


The present name of the county is an abridgment of the ancient Saxon name Lancasterscyre, which was immediately derived from Loncaster, the name of the county town, which in the time of the Romans was denominated Alauna, from its situation upon the river Lan.

On the conquest of Britain by the Romans, Lancashire was included in the division Maxima Cæsariensis: and during their stay in this region they fixed their stations Ad Alaunam and Bremetonacæ in the north of the county, Patus Sistantiorium in the west, Rerigonium and Coccium about the centre, Colania on the east, and Veratunum and Mancunium on the south.

Alter the establishment of the Saxons, who succeeded the Romans in their possession of the country, this county formed a part of the kingdom of Northumberland during the Heptarchy, and so continued until the union of all the Saxon states under Egbert.

Not long alter the Norman Conquest it obtained the privileges of a county palatine, and afterwards the honours of dukedom annexed to the Royal Family.


The ridge of mountains which bounds this county on the eastern side next Yorkshire, and which runs through not only Yorkshire, but Cheshire, Derbyshire, and Staffordshire, &c. and is called not improperly the backbone of the kingdom, being the most elevated ground on the island, screens Lancashire more particularly from the severe eastern blasts, the frosts, blights, and insects, which infest the counties bordering upon the German Ocean, and though the high mountains may cause a greater quantity of rain to fall in this district, as appears by rain-gauges that have been kept for that purpose, than in the interior parts of the kingdom, yet this county, fanned by the western gales, or north-west breezes, has a salubrity of air or atmosphere to which may be attributed the vigour and activity of the inhabitants, who are, if temperate, generally long-lived. The saline particles with which the westerly winds are loaded may also not a little contribute to the verdure of the fields. Snow continues but a short space of time here upon the ground, and the winters are in general much less severe than might be expected from the northerly situation of the country. The soil is various, and strongly' marked.


The principal rivers of this county, are the Irwell, the Mersey, the Douglas, the Ribble, the Calder, the Wyer, and the Loyne, or Lune.

“The Irwell and Mersey wind through the southern parts of the county, dividing it from Cheshire. The Irwell rises in the moors which divide Yorkshire from Lancashire, and passes through the district of the manufacturing towns in the latter county, flowing westward through Rosendale Forest somewhat below Haslingden, and then deseending in a southward direction to Bury; meeting the Roch, a little lower, it makes a great curve to the west, but turns suddenly to the south-east, on being joined by a small stream from Bolton, till it reaches Manchester, where it is incorporated with the Irk and the Medlock. From thence its course is nearly westward till its junction with the Mersey, which flows in inconsiderable curves towards the south-west from the northern boundaries of Cheshire and Lancashire, composed of the Tame and several smaller streams, and passing by Stockport. The union of these rivers takes place near the village of Glazebrook, and they are soon afterwards increased still more by the Bollin from Macclesfield, bearing now the single name of Mersey, The course of this river is still westward by Warrington, somewhat below which town it forms that great arm of the sea, which turning abruptly to the north-west, grows a little narrower as it passes the port of Liverpool, near its exit.“

“There is little of the mountainous character attending these rivers, except just about their source, as they very soon reach a country, abundant in population and manufacture, though not distinguished for beauty. Manchester alone, from which the Irwell is navigable, supplies it with incessant commerce; and near that busy place it meets the Duke, of Bridgewater’s Canal, which issuing from its tunnel at Worsley, soon after crosses the river on Barton Bridge; after the junction of the rivers, the title of Mersey alone prevails, when Warrington supplies it with fresh burdens of trade by canals from the north, and the Wever brings its tribute from the southern and eastern parts of Cheshire, communicating with the numerous navigations of Staffordshire. The great bason of the Mersey then expands itself, crowded with sails from various quarters, pursuing their destination to the splendid port of Liverpool and the Irish Sea.“

The Douglas rises in the neighbourhood of Rivington-Pike, and pursues a southward course to Wigan, where it receives several other streams from the south, and becomes navigable. It now takes a north-westerly direction, and after being increased by the Ellerbrook from Ormskirk, and the waters of the Yarrow and Lostock rivulets, from Chorley and Cuerdon, empties itself into the broad estuary of the Ribble, at Much-pool.

The Ribble is one of the largest rivers in the north of England. It rises in the high moors of Craven, in the west riding of Yorkshire, considerably to the north of Settle. Its course is southward till long after it has passed that town; it at length turns to the south-west by Clithero, just above which it enters the county; in its way from Colne, Burnley, and Whalley, it receives the West Calder, before it reaches Ribchester, from whence it flows through Ribblesdale, in a direction more and more westward, a little on the east and south of Preston, till it falls into the Irish Sea. The whole course of the Ribble is through a highly commercial and well cultivated country, and the many towns on its banks enjoy a most flourishing trade; that part of Ribblesdale where it encompasses the town of Preston, is remarkably grand and picturesque. It is here crossed by two handsome bridges, soon after which its estuary forms a noble arm of the sea, spreading over a great level, after it issues from its dale.

The Calder rises from the moors on the borders of the county near Colne, and pursuing a westerly course joins the Ribble near Whalley.

The Wyer is composed of several small streams rising in the moors which divide Lancashire from Yorkshire, and runs south-west to Garstang, from whence it turns to the west, and afterwards falls into its estuary called Wyer Water, near Poulton. It enters the sea by a narrow channel; which, however, has depth of water sufficient to afford safe harbour to ships of considerable burden.

The Loyne, or Lune, rises in the moors of Westmoreland, near Kirkby Stephen, not far from the source of the river Eden. Its course is westward to Tebay, and then directly south by Sedbergh, to Kirkby Lonsdale, after which it inclines a little eastward, as it forms the beautiful district of Lonsdale, through which it flows alter receiving the Greta, and the Wenning, out of Yorkshire. It at length reaches Lancaster, where it becomes navigable for ships of moderate burden, and at two miles before the town, for ships of considerable burden. Below Lancaster it expands into a bason, and after making some great curves, enters the sea at Sunderland Point “Few streams can equal the Lune in beauty, from Sedbergh, where it enters a cultivated and inhabited district, to its conflux with the sea; nor can many of the vales in England vie with the Lonsdale. Gray’s celebrated view of it is taken from an eminence above this river, near the third mile from Lancaster, from whence almost the whole of this delightful district is visible, abounding in villages, with the town and castle of Hornby in the centre, finely intersected by the Lune, winding between hills clothed with wood, and banked by the high mountain of Ingleborough in Yorkshire. The approach to Lancaster is indescribably striking, where the river, becoming wider, and winding in several bolder sweeps, opens to the view of that singular town, descending from a high hill, whose summit is proudly crowned by the bastions of its castle and the lofty tower of its church. It then advances towards a magnificent modern stone bridge, resting on eight parallel elliptic arches, and making a curve beneath the cliff, from which the town hangs descending, forms below the semilunar port of Lancaster, finely built and crowded with vessels, after which it disports itself in similar portions of circles before it reaches the Irish Sea.“


Winander Meer, or Winder Meer, in Furness, is the most beautiful, as well as the most extensive, piece of water in England. It is about ten miles in length, and about one at its greatest breadth. Its general depth, in the middle, is 90 feet, but opposite to Ecclefrig Crag, it is 222 feet, with a smooth flat bottom of slate. All the southern part of this lake is in Lancashire. Its islands, or holms, belong to Westmoreland. Windermere abounds in pike, trout, char, eels, and perch.

Conistone Water is about six miles in length, and one in breadth. It is situated in Furness, parallel to Windermere, and only a few miles distant from it. This beautiful sheet of water is surrounded by rich meadows, and the hills which gradually rise from its banks, are well clothed with wood. This lake has certainly great beauties, but they are by no means so striking as those of Windermere.



Which was the first inland navigation in the kingdom, was begun in the year 1755, and opened in the following year. It leads from the coal-pits at St. Helen’s, near Prescot, to connect with Liverpool by the river Mersey, and was cut to convey coal for the accommodation of the latter place. Near this canal are the large copper works belonging to the Anglesea Company, and also the glass works, commonly called the Lancashire Plate Glass Works. The length of the canal, from Fiddler’s Bridge, to where it separates into three branches, is 9 ¼ miles; from thence it is carried to Penny bridge, and Gerrard’s bridge, without going further. There are eight single and double locks upon this canal, and the fall of water is about sixty feet. Besides coal, slate is brought down, and corn, deal, balk, paving, and lime-stone, carried up this canal.


Between the years 1751, and 1759, his Grace the late Duke of Bridgewater, after obtaining two acts of parliament for that purpose, executed, under the direction of his engineer, Mr. Brindley, the first canal, which was designed for conveying coals from a mine on his grace’s estate to Manchester, but has since been applied to many other useful purposes of inland navigation. This canal begins at a place called Worsley Mill, about seven miles from Manchester, where the duke cut a bason capable of holding, not only all his boats, but a great body of water which serves as a reservoir, or head of his navigation. The canal runs through a hill, by a subterraneous passage, big enough tor the admission of long flat bottomed boats, which are towed by hand-rails on each side, near three quartets of a mile under ground to the coal works; and in the course of nine miles (a circuit of two miles being made in seeking a level) the canal reaches Manchester.-The navigation is continued over public roads by means of arches; and where not sufficiently high for a carriage to go under, the road is lowered with a gentle descent, and ascends on the other side.

At Barton Bridge, three miles from the bason, is an aqueduct, which, for upwards of two hundred yards, conveys the canal across the Irwell, and along a valley forty feet above the bed of the river: there are also stops at each end, that may occasionally be drawn up, and the whole intervening body of water let off, which is easily done by drawing a plug, and discharging the water into the Irwell through a wooden tube. There are many of these stops or flood-gates so constructed, that should any of the banks give way, and thereby occasion a current, they will rise by that motion, and prevent, as well the great loss of water, as the damage that would otherwise happen by overflowing the country.

This bridge, which is built of stone, unites the Lancashire and Cheshire parts of the Duke’s navigation; it is carried over the meadow on each side the river Mersey, and quite across Sale-moor, at incredible labour and expence; and it is observable that, throughout the whole of this canal, the depth never varies more than from four feet, to four feet six inches. At Combreke there is a circular weir to raise the water of the canal to its proper height. The surplus flows over the nave of a circle in the middle of the weir, built of stone, into a well, and by a subterraneous tunnel is conveyed to its usual channel.

In order to feed that end of the navigation which is near Manchester, Mr. Brindley raised the river Medlock, by a large weir, composed of six segments of a circle; the whole circumference being three hundred and sixty-six yards, with a circular nave of stone in the middle. The water, when more than sufficient to supply the navigation, flows over the nave, and down the well, as at Combroke. At Langford bridge the canal turns away to the right, and crossing the river Mersey, passes near Altringham, Dunham, Grapenhall, and Haulton, into the tide way of the river Mersey, at Runcorn Gap, where barges can come into the canal from Liverpool at low water.

The grand trunk navigation, or Staffordshire Canal, joins the Bridgewater Canal, at Preston Brook, and unites the ports of Liverpool, Bristol, and Hull.


A navigation between the east and west seas, by the rivers Air and Ribble, was for many years deemed a practicable and desirable work by several gentlemen of speculation and public spirit; and some endeavours were used by them, at various periods, though without effect, to draw the public attention towards the scheme. An act, however, was at length obtained, for carrying the canal into execution, in the beginning of the year 1770, and at the latter end of the year the canal was begun; and such was the expedition made in the work, that at a meeting held at Liverpool by the proprietors, the 27th of September 1771, an account was delivered in by the engineer, that there were upwards of twenty miles of it not only cut, but also nearly finished.

This canal commences at the north-east extremity of Liverpool, where spacious wharfs and warehouses are erected. It has no communication with the river Mersey, the bason being fifty feet above low water mark in that river. It passes northward by Bootle, Linacre, and Litherland; then turning eastward, it crosses the river Alt, and again bends its course northward past Maghull; it then takes a semi-circular sweep round the town of Ormskirk, and crosses Toad-Brook, near Newborough, whence it proceeds by the Douglas Navigation to Wigan; from thence in a circular course through Red Moss, by Blackrod, north for some way, parallel with the Lancaster canal, near Chorley, and by Heapy to Blackburn; from whence, with a bend round Church, it passes Burnley, and Colne, to Foulbridge, where a bason is cut to supply the canal, of which it is the head. The canal here begins to fall to Leeds, and goes from Foulbridge, by Salterford, East Morton, and cross the river Air near Gargrave, by Thorlby Sturton, and the town of Shipton, by Bradey, Kildwick, Silsden, near the town of Keighley, and by Bingley; a little below which it crosses the river Air again, passes Shipley, and takes a semi-circular course round the Idle, near Appertin-Bridge, Horsforth, Kirkstall Abbey, by Burley and Holbeck, to the town of Leeds, making on the whole, a course of 130 miles, viz.: From the summit near Coln, to Leeds, forty-five miles; fall 409 feet: from the summit there to Wigan, fifty miles; with 399 feet fall. From thence to Liverpool, thirty-five miles; fall, thirty feet; making in distance 130 miles, with 838 feet fall. There is also a collateral cut, from near Shipley to Bradford.

The company are authorized to take the following rates, viz. For clay, brick, or stones, one half-penny per ton, per mile. For coal, or lime, one jenny per ton, per mile. For timber, goods, wares, &c. three halfpence per ton, per mile. For soap ashes, salt scrow, foul-salt, and grey-salt, pigeons'-dung, rape, or cole seed, or dust, rags, or tanner’s bark, to be used in manuring the lands of any person whose lands shall be cut through by the canal, such lands lying in any township through which the canal passes, no more than one farthing per ton, per mile, shall be paid.

It is difficult to form an adequate idea of the advantages which accrue from this junction of the east and west seas. Besides the saving in the enormous expence of land carriage, the whole country through which the canal passes is supplied with wool, corn, hides, tallow, &c. from Ireland, with the produce of America, and whatever else is imported at Liverpool. The same countries can also obtain linen, tin-plate, timber, iron, hemp, flax, Russia linen, potash, and all the eastern commodities brought to the port of Hull; and in like manner all the exports are benefited and encouraged. Without the advantage of this internal navigation from east to west, vessels would be obliged to go many leagnes round the island, to establish an intercourse between our manufactures, unless the merchants chose to submit to the heavy expence of land conveyance.


This canal is not only of advantage to the lands and estates in the neighbourhood ot its course, by making communications from the extensive mines of coal, at the southern extremity of the canal, to the inexhaustible quantities of lime-stone at its northern end, of both which articles all the intermediate country is greatly in want; but also by uniting the port of Lancaster with so large a tract of inland country (wherein very extensive cotton and other manufactories are carried on), very considerable advantages are derived. Its course is nearly due north. It begins at West Houghton, from thence to near Wigan, along the course of the Douglas river, by Chorley, Whittle, and near the road from Wigan to Preston, intersects the Leeds and Liverpool canal; from thence crosses the river Ribble to Preston; from whence by Spital Moss it makes a bend to Salwich, by Barton to Garstang, where it crosses the river Wyer, and thence to Lancaster; thence running by the side of the town, it crosses the Loyne above Skerton, to Hest, Bolton, Carnforth, by Capanway-hall, and passes Burton; from thence by Hang-bridge, through a tunnel near Leven’s Park, to Kendal. There is a collateral cut from Gale Moss, by Chorley, to near Duxbury: and another from near Berwick, by Warton, to Warton Crag. The feeder is one mile from the bason at Kendal, and is supplied by the river Mint. The total length of this canal is near 76 miles, with a rise of 222 feet, and a fall of 65 feet. The collateral cuts together make five miles and a half length, and are level.

Manchester canal, to Bolton and Bury.

This canal commences on the north side of Manchester, and joins the river Irwell, with which it runs nearly parallel, in its northerly course, and crosses it above Clifton-Hall, running by its side up to Bolton, in its way crossing the river Roach, where also the branch goes for Bury, making the total length 15 miles one furlong, with 187 feet rise.

There is a Cut, twelve miles in length, called the Haslingdon, or Bury Extension, which unites this canal with the Leeds and Liverpool, between Blackburn and Burnley, about four miles from the former place.


This canal commences on the east side of Manchester, near a street called Piccadilly; crosses the main road to Ashton, and the river Medlock; passes Fairfield; and terminates at Ashton-under-Lyne.-At Fairfield the branch goes off to the New Mill, near Oldham: from this branch there is a cut to Park Colliery. The total length is eleven miles, with 152 feet rise.

An act has been obtained to make a canal from the Manchester and Oldham Canal, at Clayton Demesne, in the parish of Manchester, to opposite the Three Boar’s Heads, at Heaton Norris, near Stockport, which distance is about six miles, and parallel with the high road. Also to continue this canal northward, from a place called Taylor’s Barn, to Denton, a distance of about three miles. Also from the aqueduct, near the Water-houses, on the Oldham branch, to make a canal to Stake-Leach Hollinwood, a distance of about two miles.


This canal joins the river Calder Navigation, at Sowerby-bridge-wharf, just without the town of Halifax, and pursues a westerly course alongside to Hebden-bridge, and thence to Todmarton; after which its course is to the south, and passes a tunnel near one mile and three quarters long; after which it passes Littleborough, Rochdale on the south side, Middleton, Failsworth, and through the town of Manchester, to the Castle-field, where it joins the Duke of Bridgewater’s Canal; there is a short branch of less than half a mile to Rochdale; and another branch of rather more than half a mile from Fails-worth to Hollinwood Chapel. The length of this canal is thirty-one miles and a half, with 613 feet lockage.

The union, by inland navigation, of the German Ocean with the Irish Channel, the advantages which it promises to Manchester, are loo obvious to need enumeration. Large vessels from Hull and Liverpool now sail over that lofty ridge of mountains, which is not improperly denominated the Backbone of England. Little more than a century ago, goods and merchandise were conveyed over Blackstone Edge only by gangs of pack-horses, and it was considered as absolutely impassable for carriages of any description.


The length of this canal, or cut, is about one mile and a half, and it is intended altogether for the convenience of the trade of the town of Ulverstone, by having an immediate communication with the Irish Sea, with proper basons, wharfs, &c. necessary for the uses of shipping and merchandise.


The numerous bridges in this county are chiefly of three kinds, county, hundred, and parish, or township bridges. The first sort are kept in proper repair, particularly those of Lancaster, Ribble, Ribchester, Barton and Crossford. The hundred bridges, which are of an inferior kind, amount upon the whole to nearly 600. The parochial bridges are scarcely in such good repair as those of the hundreds, as they are generally suffered to remain a long time before any thing is done to them: this, Mr. Stevenson observes, is one of the worst and least economical practices that can possibly exist. From the number of carriages and great quantity of heavy materials necessarily passing in the vicinity of the great manufacturing towns of this county, from a wet climate, soft soil, &c. the public roads are generally much damaged. Near Manchester, Liverpool, and some other towns, most of the roads are paved or pitched like the London streets. Copper scoria or slag, has been successfully employed; but most of the paving stones are imported from the Welsh coasts, and cost about 6s. per ton; some of the turnpike roads paved with these stones cost from 1500 to 2000l. per mile. The extent of public and other roads is very considerable; not less than 18d. in the pound, for their improvement, was levied on the county for some time; these, which of course are kept in tolerable good order, have frequently narrow paved causeways on one or both sides; the roads in the middle, or more southern parts, are in general paved with Welsh or Scotch stone. In the coal tracts about Manchester, Bolton, and Wigan, the roads are all paved, as no other would bear the heavy weight that passes over them. Great improvements have also been made in the other roads lately formed, principally by the exertions of public-spirited individuals.

About a century ago it was deemed a most arduous task to make a high road for carriages over the hills and moors between Yorkshire and Lancashire, but now this country is pierced and rendered passable for merchandise and travellers, both by roads and canals. The rocky mountains are also perforated, and their steepness subdued by the tunnels which are cut through their rugged sides.

The following bridges belong to and are repaired by the county of Lancaster: Barton over the Irwell; Cross Ford over the Mersey; Lancaster over the Lune; Ribble over the Ribble; Ribchester over the same. The following are become county bridges, by indictment: Colne, Lansbeck, Higher Constable, Lee, Rake Foot, Rushbed, and Barley Green; in fact there are 481 public bridges repaired by the different hundreds within the county, besides township bridges..Stolen from Fore-bears


Wherever coals are raised in any large quantities, iron railways are sure to be found. Several manufacturing concerns are also provided with them. It is generally found that a single horse on these railways will draw as much as three or four on the road, a ton and a half, and sometimes two and a half, are drawn by one horse. In making these railways the cast iron parts are laid upon sleepers, of strong pieces of oak or other timber, or stone, fixed firmly in the ground, and in some cases they are made double for their whole length. The waggons used upon them are narrow, with low cast iron wheels, which exactly fitting the iron railways, move with ease and steadiness.


The ancient residences of the noblemen and gentlemen are in general spacious and convenient, partaking of that massy grandeur of style that prevailed when they were erected. The modern villas occupied by the gentry are numerous, and possess most of the elegant comforts derived from superior architecture and improved construction; not with standing the number of these, a feeling of regret is frequently excited by the dilapidation and decay produced by time and neglect in many of those halls and mansions formerly inhabited by the great landed proprietors, but which now only accommodate the farming tenantry in an indifferent manner. Among the oldest farm houses of this county there is no utility in the plan or parts: every thing seems to have been made at random. Seldom any thing like a regular farm yard is to be seen, or any contrivance for raising or preserving manure. It is needless to state that the newest farm houses and offices are exactly the reverse of the old, and that these exhibit all the varieties of modern improvement. The cottages of the county of Lancaster, are principally of two kinds, those for the poor farming peasant, and others for the artificer and mechanical labourer. Many of the peasants’ cottages are roomy and built of stone, and covered either with slate or thatch; but the most ancient way is that of forming them on wattled stud-work, with a composition of well wrought loamy clay and cut straw, or what is locally called clat and clay; the latter are almost all invariably covered with thatch prepared from wheaten straw: these cottages have seldom more than a divided ground floor, which, with their brown sombre colour, gives them but a mean appearance. The cottages formed of post and plaster, or rough stone bedded in mortar, were the original ones of the county, and a few of these still remain; these are mostly floored with clay, and covered with thatch. In that part of the county, north of the sands, there are a great number of cottages with small gardens annexed to them, and in many places the liberty of getting peat, an advantage, which used nearly to equal the rent; this is particularly the case about Hawkshead. F. B. Hesketh, Esq. some time since set the laudable example of building cottages, with small gardens annexed, and let them at about 3l. per annum. Cottages of brick have been built by gentlemen, and afford them an interest of from 15 to 20 per cent, for their money, and a kind of building society, formed by a weekly contribution among labourers, has produced others. These sorts of cottage houses, it was feared, would burthen the parishes by the number of artificers’ families that were induced to occupy them; however, the decrease of trade since the peace of 1815 has completely allayed that apprehension.


These consist of hedges, dykes, open ditches, and walls; the three former are chiefly predominant in the south and south-western parts, while the latter are mostly found towards the more eastern and northern boundaries of the county. Wall fences come under three descriptions: viz. dry sod walls, dashed walls, and mortar made walls; sod walls are likewise met with in several places on the banks of the sea, but they properly belong to embankments; the dry walls are constructed chiefly with free stone, being raised in a battering manner from the foundation, in the lines in which they are to run, so as to be brought to a narrow ridge at the top, which is coped or covered with turfs, or broad stones, and sometimes left without any thing being put upon them. Walls dashed with mortar are only met with in a few instances; in this case the crevices and joints of the walls are filled up, by having a liquid sort of mortar dashed with force into them; walls built with mortar are only built in particular cases. Of Gates, in this as in most other counties, there is much variety in the forms and methods of construction; but for the use of the farmer they are commonly of the swing, folding, and slip bar kinds.


Along the sea coast, about North Mails, and still further to the south, a great deal of low sod, or earth embankment, has been done by Mr. F. B. Hesketh, and other land proprietors. Below Clifton, the embankment of earth is to the height of six or eight feet, with a good slope towards the water, which prevents it from being easily thrown down.

Mr. Hesketh, it is understood, has done more at Rossall Hall, in defending the banks of the coast from the sea, than any other gentleman. Here, for nearly two miles, a paved sea-fence has been made: large pieces of limestone are, for this purpose, laid in stiff clay to the depth of nine inches, and where the foundation is not perfectly sound, it is rendered so by driving piles. The sea sod fence, made in this neighbourhood by Mr. Hesketh, is at least two miles in length, and has a base of forty feet, which slopes in both directions in a gentle manner.

Another embankment, something less than a mile farther out towards the sea, was effected by Mr. Stockdale, of Cark, by which means he secured a fine tract of marsh land. Great advantages would arise from embanking the many portions of waste marsh land between Lancaster and Cartmel, and between that place and Ulverston, long since proposed by Mr. Wilkinson, as well as others on the side of the river Duddon, and on the Walney Channel.


In this county, as in most others, the rent of land varies according to circumstances, but in general has been considered as rather high. In the higher part of the Furness district, about Broughton, &c. rents are generally from 2l. to 3l. the customary acre. Grass lands, nearer the towns, much higher. The average for the Low Furness district, exclusive of waste lands, may be about 38s. the customary acre, that is about 27s. the statute acre. Rents, however, since the late peace, are not considered as altogether stable, not even in those parts where the extension of trade had previously increased them. In a very few instances, a little team work is required for drawing of fuel. With respect to the size of farms, in most townships, there is one farm still distinguished by the name of the Old Hall, or Manor House, the residence, formerly, of the great proprietor of the district, which is of larger extent than any of the neighbouring farms. Few of these exceed 600 statute acres; many do not amount to 200. About the manufacturing towns, the sizes of farms are in general pretty much the same, few rising to any considerable extent. At Stony hurst, the farm for the use of the Catholic Seminary there is 400 acres.


Leases in this county have seldom been granted for any length of time; in some cases they do not exceed five years. “The time of entering upon the lands is generally Candlemas, and on the buildings May day.” The most usual covenants are for the landlord to repair the buildings, the tenants carting the materials. They are severally to discharge all taxes, serve all offices, and pay all the duties charged upon their farms. In fact, the provisions in the different covenants are so numerous and various in their kind, as to exceed any room for detail in a work of this mature. The old custom of granting leases on three lives, has long been on the decline.


Nearly two-thirds of the tenures in this county are supposed to be freehold. There is a sort of customary land, held sometimes of the king, and sometimes of the lords of manors, under certain fines, rents, suits, and services of a trifling nature. Some lords of manors impose fines and quit-rents upon copyhold land; but these are generally very moderate. Some remains of the old feudal system exist about Conistone, where the lord has “his boon days,” and is strict in requiring the tenants to perform suit and service. The lord is bound to keep a good bull and boar for the use of his tenants; but as the latter is seldom kept, the tenants avoid the performance of such services. Crown land prevails in some places, where leases are granted for thirty years; but there are very few leases for lives.


The extent of land exonerated from tithes in this county, is not very considerable. In some late acts of enclosure certain proportions, according to circumstances, are given in lieu of tithes, while in others, they are only rendered tithe-free for a few years, in the extensive parish of Lancaster, the tithes are only due in a very small part indeed. The forest lands are tithe-free, and several town-ships belong to lay impropriators. Some few of the small tithes are paid in kind, or compounded for. Others are answered by a modus. There is a considerable variation in articles tithed in different places. In many places herbage pays nothing at all, and the same is the case in respect to potatoes, turnips, and other similar crops, in a great number of places.


This county is said to have made but little progress in the introduction of new implements, or in the improving of others long in use. There is not much variety in the ploughs; the old plough was almost a load of itself for a draught horse. Both the Rotherham and the Northumberland plough, have been introduced, as also the French plough, the Miner or deep-stirring plough, the moss plough, hand floating ploughs, &c. Thrashing machines, and others, for a great variety of purposes, are also used, though of many of the former, it has been asserted, “not one of them would do as much as the information given of them stated; and that from all the inquiries that had been made, there was little or no benefit arising therefrom, beyond thrashing with flails.“


It has been stated, that there is a greater variety of carts in this county than in the same given space in any other part of the kingdom. In the neighbourhood of Liverpool they are of very large size; and those in the town are “gauged to thirty-six bushels.” The same is the case in most of the large manufacturing towns in the southern parts, large, awkward, and unwieldy carts, having been chiefly in use for conveying different sorts of goods. In the neighbourhood of large towns the country dung carts are of a very large make, and have six-inch wheels; but in the interior parts of the county the carts greatly diminish in size, and have variety of forms, though they are in general well constructed in respect to convenience and utility. The clog wheel, too, has now yielded to the spoke wheel. The moss cart used in some districts brought into cultivation, is a particular kind of vehicle for applying marl and other consolidating substances to their surfaces. Single horse carts, and what are called coup carts, are also used; the latter in the work of marling.


There can be no doubt, from the name of “Lancashire long horns,” that this county was once famous for its neat stock. As a proof of their high estimation, Mr. Bakewell made them the basis of his improvements. They have a firm, strong hide, which admirably fits them for the climate, and are in general pretty much inclined to fatten; and though this breed do not yield the same quantity of milk as others less adapted for speedy fattening, they are still the most prevailing stock in the county. There is no particular breed here for working, as both the long-horned and the Devonshire are used for this purpose.


Lancashire is by no means a sheep district, and the only breed peculiar to it, is a neat, compact kind found on the crags near Warton and Silverdale, having small horns and white spotted faces, and these are held in high estimation, on account of the flavour of their mutton.


Lancashire has long since produced many good horses of different kinds, and almost every farmer who has any breadth of pasture land, breeds and rears one or two annually.

In the tract to the north and east of Liverpool, for more than 30 miles, improvements in horses have been gradually taking place for more than half a century. Those held most valuable at present are, the strong team kind, the stout, close, compact, saddle horses, and the light breed, of middling size and bone, for the stage and mail coaches.

The number of horses which usually constitute the teams are two or three; but sometimes four are employed: however, with good ploughs, two or three are sufficient in most parts. Horses throughout the whole county are at present preferred for all sorts of husbandry employment, though oxen were formerly a little used. The tender feet of the latter are by no means capable of bearing the paved roads of Lancashire.


In both extremities of the Isle of Walney there are rabbit warrens of considerable extent, but wholly of the grey kind. The expence of managing them here, is by no means trifling, independent of the first stocking of the lands. There are two miles of dyke-fence of sod and stones, which when first made cost five shillings the rod of seven yards. A person to look after the rabbits, and keep up the fences, has sixty pounds per annum; the traps and types for taking the rabbits in, cost five pounds the pair, and the expenses of stocking are considerable. The annual charges of dogs and nets are about ten pounds, and the expenses of taking the rabbits to Ulverstone twice a week for ten weeks, about five shillings each time. The sale of rabbits annually is from two to three hundred couple at 2s. 7d. each.

The warren at the south end of the island of Walney, is under much the same sort of management; but the rabbits breed earlier by a month, and Being better in the fur, they sell at a higher price.


The only breed peculiar to this county is a middling sized white sort, with large slouched ears, often found in the tract north of Lancaster, and are mostly bought in from what are called herdsmen, who travel the country, and bring them from Berkshire, Shropshire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, Wales, and Ireland.

In the southern parts, many persons have breeds betwixt the wild boar and the Chinese, and the wild boar and the Berkshire sort, that answer very well. The want of proper pig-sties has been complained of here, as excepting the vicinity of good farm and gentlemen’s houses, the hogs have been usually kept in miserable hovels.


These are principally moory, heathy, rocky, and mountainous; or mossy, boggy, fenny, or marshy, and many portions are such as cannot be brought into an improved state, particularly the high mountain and moor lands on the east side of the county, and towards the northern borders; these being worth little, except as inferior sheep walks, or planting with forest trees, where there is sufficient shelter. However there are still several large tracts to the amount of many thousand acres, and some of these, near large towns, that seem to wait for cultivation till a General Enclosure Act shall have been passed.

Lancashire abounds with those bogs or morasses, which bear the provincial name of mosses. The principal of these are called, from the chief places of their vicinity, Chat; Pilling; Trafford; Risley; Ashton; Road; Bickerstaff; Rainford; Marton; St. Michael’s, and Catforth. The component parts of these, chiefly consists of a spongy soil, containing roots of decayed vegetables, intermixed with a sort of rotten mould. These mosses are always found near spring heads, and in such hollows as prevent a regular and constant discharge of the stagnant waters. Among the common vegetables in these situations, are the erica vulgaris, the ornithogalium luteum, and the different species of eriphorum, or cotton-grass; also bilberry, cranberry, crowberry, andromeda polifolia; Lancashire asphodel, sun dew, and the fragrant myrica gale, or bog myrtle. As these plants decay and deposit their substances, a considerable addition is annually made to the moss.


Towards the coast it is with great difficulty that wood of any kind can be raised; the tops of the trees, hedges, and even the corn in the fields, (in general) bend towards the east, as if shrinking from the cold western gales brought over the Atlantic Ocean. In the northern part there are many acres of coppices cut down every fifteen years, and burnt into charcoal. Towards the central part of the county there are some good woods; the timber healthy: there is also a considerable quantity grown in hedge-rows; but sunshine is generally preferred to shade. Timber wood seems on the decline. There are many excellent plantations about gentlemen’s seats, and pleasure-grounds, well attended to, secured, and in a thriving state.

The alder has of late years become an article of great consequence, from the demand both of its wood, (which makes the best poles whereon to hang cotton yarn to dry, this wood acquiring a fine polish by frequent use, nor does it split by exposure to the weather), and its bark, which sells at nearly one penny per lb. as an article for dye.

The alders, planted on the side of the Duke of Bridgewater’s Canal, upon the loose grounds, for a considerable distance, by way of security to the banks, not only answered the original purpose, but have proved a profitable plantation; the alder admitting of being cut down every fourth or fifth year. There are many acres of land, at present of little value, which, if planted with this wood, might probably turn to a good account.

The osier willow is at present in such demand for hampers, &c. and there is such a scarcity of that article, that more than twenty pounds a year have been made out of a single acre of land planted with osiers.


The most valuable mineral production of this county, is Coal, which lies in immense beds towards the southern and central part. It is the great abundance of this useful article that has rendered Lancashire so famous lor its manufactures. It is said that coals have not been found farther north in the county than Chorley and Colne. In the southern hundreds of West Derby, and Salford, and the adjacent eastern one of Blackburn, they are found in the greatest plenty. There is a curious species of this article called the Cannel, or Kennel coal (probably meaning candle coal), very much resembling in appearance pure bitumen. By putting a lighted candle to these coals they are presently in a flame, and yet maintain as strong and lasting a heat as any coals whatever; burning more or less as they are placed in a grate flat or edgeways. They split into pieces with a fine polished surface, and are made into many curious articles, as snuff-boxes, candlesticks, &c.

It is said, that the late Queen Charlotte was presented with a toilette table, composed of hexagonal pieces of this coal, each piece set in, and the whole bordered with silver, which made a very elegant appearance.

A lady may take these coals up in a cambric handkerchief, and they will not soil it in the least, though they are as black as jet.

In the lower parts of the district of Furness great quantities of iron stone are got, which is partly smelted on the spot, partly exported. In the hilly parts of this district there are some mines of copper and lead. At Anglezark, a little to the east of Chorley, there is a lead mine, where that curious mineral, the Aerated Barytes, is found, of which a particular account is given in a paper by Mr. James Watt, jun. printed in the third volume of The Manchester Transactions.

Lancashire produces stone of various denominations. Near Lancaster (upon the common), is an extensive quarry of excellent free-stone, which admits of a fine polish. The county town (Lancaster) is wholly built of this stone.

Flags and grey slates are dug up at Holland, near Wigan. Blue slates are got, in large quantities, in the mountains called Coniston and Tiberthwaite fells, near Kawkshead, for home and foreign consumption. They are chiefly divided into three classes, distinguished by the names of the London, Country, and Tom slate, which are valued in proportion, London best, &c.

The northern and north-east districts produce lime-stone in great abundance, but no calcareous earth besides marl is found towards the south, a small quantity of lime-stone pebbles upon the banks of the river Mersey excepted. Near Leigh is found lime of a peculiar quality, which resists the effects of water, and is therefore applied to the construction of cisterns to hold water, and mortar for building under water.

At Rainsford excellent scythe stones are got, and also fine pipe clay.


This county has great plenty and variety of fish. Upon the sea coasts are found codfish, flounders, plaice, and turbots; the sea dog, inkle fish, and sheath fish, are taken upon the sands near Liverpool. Sturgeon is caught near Warrington, and along the whole coast are found greenbacks, mullets, soles, sand eels, oysters, lobsters, shrimps, prawns, the best and largest cockles in England, the echin, torcular, wilks, and perriwinkles; rabbit fish, and pap fish; and such abundance of muscles, that they are sometimes put on land near the sea coasts as manure.

Almost all the rivers of the county abound with fish; the Mersey in particular with sparlings and smelts; the Ribble with flounders and plaice; the Lon or Loyne with the finest salmon, and the Wyer is famous for a large sort of muscle, called Hambleton Hookings; because they are dragged with hooks from their beds, in which pearls of a considerable size are frequently found. The Irk, a small river that falls into the Mersey, is remarkable for eels so fat that few people can eat them; the fatness of these eels is imputed to their feeding upon the grease and oil which is pressed by a number of water-mills upon this stream out of the woollen cloths that are milled in them.

In the lakes of Windermere and Coniston Water, that beautiful fish the char, (umbla) is found in great abundance. Mr. Pennant mentions that the largest and most beautiful specimens of this fish he ever saw were taken in Windermere, and sent to him under the names of the case char, gelt char, and red char, which he considers as varieties of the same species. The case char spawns about Michaelmas, chiefly in the river Brathy, and are supposed to be in perfection in May, and to continue so all the summer: they are however rarely taken after April. The red char spawns from the beginning of January to the end of March; they are chiefly taken from the end of September to the end of November, and esteemed a finer fish than the former. The Coniston char are also reckoned remarkably fine; they are taken later than those of Windermere, and continue longer in the spring.


Several of this kind have been established and have had the best effects. That at Manchester was instituted in 1767, and has since that period extended its influence about thirty miles round that town. Its meetings are held at Manchester twice a year, and at Altringham in Cheshire. The Earl of Stamford acted as President for several years; and a number of premiums and rewards have been annually offered for improved methods of management, as well as for the laudable purpose of encouraging cottage and other labourers, who support large families without parochial relief, and honest faithful servants who have remained any considerable length of time in their places.

The “West Derby Agricultural Society” is in a great measure confined to the same objects as the above.

The “Whalley Agricultural Society,” so called, in consequence of its being established in that town, holds two general meetings in the course of the year. Five classes of premiums are awarded to different degrees of merit.

Lancaster has long had an Agricultural Society which bears its name, and from which very great advantages have been derived. At Ulverstone, in 1805, the “North Lonsdale Agricultural Society” was instituted. This has also been of great advantage to this district.

Some of the members of the Manchester Society have been among the most eminent persons in Europe. The premiums offered are generally gold and silver medals, or silver cups; but the rewards to cottagers and servants for good conduct are in money.


The King is Duke of Lancaster; Manchester confers the title of Duke on the Montague family, and Liverpool that of Earl upon the Jenkinsons; Bury gives the title of Viscount to the Keppels; Holland, that of Baron to the Percivals; and Latham the same to the Stanley family.


Robert Ainsworth, lexicographer, born at Clifton, in 1660, died 1745. —Isaac Ambrose, a divine, died 1674. —The ingenious Richard Arkwright was born at Preston, in 1732, and died in 1790. —Jeremiah Horrox, an astronomer, was born in 1619, and died in 1641; he was the first who observed the transit of Venus over the Sun’s disk. —George Romney, a celebrated painter, born at Dalton, in Furness, in 1734, died at Kendal, in 1802. —Dr. John Taylor, author of the Hebrew and English Concordance, born at Lancaster, 1694. —Rev. John Whitaker, the celebrated historian of Manchester, the place of his birth, died 1802. —John Weever, author of the work on Funeral Monuments, born in 1576. —John Collier, commonly called Tim Bobbin, Esq. author of the “View of the Lancashire Dialect, &c.“

The Newspapers printed in the county, are as follow: Blackburn Mail, on Wednesday. —Billinge’s Liverpool Advertiser, on Monday. —Liverpool Courier and Commercial Advertiser, on Wednesday. —Gore’s General Advertiser, on Thursday.-The Liverpool Mercury, or Commercial, Literary, and Political Herald, on Friday. —The Liverpool Saturday’s Advertiser. —At Manchester, the Manchester Mercury, on Tuesday. —Manchester Herald, same day. —Manchester Chronicle, on Saturday. —Gazette, same day, and the Manchester Volunteer.


Lancashire is divided into six hundreds, viz. those of Salford, West Derby, Leyland, Blackburne, Amounderness, and Lonsdale. These are subdivided into numerous townships.

Lancashire is in the province of York, is part of the diocese of Chester, and is divided into two archdeaconries, viz.

The Archdeaconry of Chester

Comprising the Deaneries of Manchester, Warrington, Blackburne, and Leyland, containing together thirty-seven parishes.

The Archdeaconry of Richmond

Comprising the Deaneries of Amounderness, Furness, and Cartmel, Kirkby Lonsdale, and Richmond, containing together twenty-five parishes.

The patent for advancing Lancashire to the dignity of a county palatine, grants to the Duke of Lancaster “his court of Chancery, to be held within the county, his justices for holding the pleas of the crown, and all other pleas relating to common law, and finally all other liberties and royalties relating to a county palatine, as freely and fully, as the Earl of Chester is known to enjoy them within the county of Chester.” This patent was issued upon the creation of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by his father Edward III. The law offices for the county palatine, are held at Preston.

Lancashire contains 29 market towns: Blackburn, Bolton, Burnley, Bury, Cartmel, Chorley, Clithero, Colne, Dalton, Ecclestone, Garstang, Haslingden, Hawkshead, Hornby, Kirkham, Lancaster, Leigh, Liverpool, Manchester, Middleton, Newton, Oldham, Ormskirk, Poulton, Prescot, Preston, Rochdale, Ulverstone, Warrington, and Wigan; and sends 14 members to Parliament, viz. two for the county, and two for each of the following boroughs, viz. Lancaster, Preston, Newton, Wigan, Clithero, and Liverpool.


For the County of Lancaster, are as follow:

The First Week after Epiphany.

The First Week after the Close of Easter.

The First Week after the Translation of Thomas-a-Becket, or July 7.

And the First Week after Michaelmas-Day.

The Assizes for the County, are held twice a year, at Lancaster, the county town.


This, according to the statement made in 1811, was as follows; 144,283 inhabited houses; males, 394,104, females, 434,205, making a total population of 828,309 persons; but the increase since that period, has been very considerable.

Topography of Great Britain, written: 1802-29 by George Alexander Cooke

Most Common Surnames in Lancashire

1Smith45,6681: 76
2Taylor38,4791: 90
3Jones34,8511: 100
4Jackson18,3211: 189
5Williams18,2991: 190
6Brown17,4461: 199
7Robinson16,4471: 211
8Wilson15,7291: 220
9Johnson15,1521: 229
10Roberts14,4861: 239
11Harrison13,4131: 259
12Davies13,3611: 260
13Thompson13,1841: 263
14Wood13,0931: 265
15Hughes12,5151: 277
16Walker12,0641: 287
17Hall11,8441: 293
18Shaw11,6661: 297
19Turner11,6511: 298
20Howarth11,4551: 303
21Holt10,6091: 327
22Wright10,5371: 329
23Green10,4901: 331
24Wilkinson10,3281: 336
25Ashworth9,5651: 363
26Evans9,2641: 374
27Yates9,2111: 377
28Holden9,1121: 381
29Morris8,7691: 396
30Riley8,7041: 398
31Kelly8,6091: 403
32Walsh8,4421: 411
33Booth8,4371: 411
34Lord8,3081: 417
35Whittaker8,0871: 429
36Schofield8,0201: 432
37Butterworth7,9691: 435
38Hargreaves7,9471: 436
39Parkinson7,7591: 447
40Chadwick7,7271: 449
41Hill7,5691: 458
42Hartley7,5621: 459
43Lee7,5391: 460
44Whitehead7,3211: 474
45Greenwood7,3121: 474
46Kay7,2981: 475
47Ward7,2751: 477
48Fletcher7,2371: 479
49Edwards7,1311: 486
50Barnes7,0181: 494
51Barlow6,9811: 497
52Parker6,9371: 500
53Thomas6,8751: 504
54Buckley6,8081: 509
55Murphy6,7771: 512
56Cooper6,7461: 514
57Ashton6,6871: 519
58Howard6,6841: 519
59Mills6,5301: 531
60Berry6,4821: 535
61Dawson6,4471: 538
62Simpson6,3871: 543
63Hilton6,3361: 547
64Clegg6,1411: 565
65Rigby6,1381: 565
66Clarke5,9731: 581
67Lowe5,9621: 582
68Watson5,9291: 585
69Nuttall5,9091: 587
70Haworth5,8221: 596
71Kershaw5,8081: 597
72Moore5,7541: 603
73Greenhalgh5,6381: 615
74Spencer5,6111: 618
75Atkinson5,4651: 635
76Marsden5,4571: 636
77Martin5,4451: 637
78White5,4231: 640
79Richardson5,4201: 640
80Ogden5,3601: 647
81Bennett5,3341: 650
82Wild5,1791: 670
83Allen5,1761: 670
84Knowles5,1621: 672
85Stott5,1401: 675
86Woods5,1071: 679
87Foster5,0691: 684
88Carter5,0571: 686
89Miller5,0251: 690
90Bell5,0071: 693
91Pearson4,9691: 698
92Clark4,9581: 700
93Dixon4,9551: 700
94Barker4,9311: 703
95Burns4,9201: 705
96Bailey4,8491: 715
97Slater4,8091: 721
98Brooks4,8051: 722
99Owen4,8021: 722
100Lees4,7841: 725
101Sharples4,7671: 728
102Entwistle4,7311: 733
103Kenyon4,7061: 737
104Bradshaw4,6881: 740
105Walmsley4,6581: 745
106Hardman4,6451: 747
107Mason4,6431: 747
108Scott4,6161: 751
109Griffiths4,5941: 755
110Mitchell4,5541: 762
111Duckworth4,5431: 763
112Rothwell4,4971: 771
113Lewis4,4901: 772
114Holland4,4831: 774
115Ball4,4711: 776
116Dean4,4151: 786
117Warburton4,4141: 786
118Rimmer4,4131: 786
119Hayes4,3851: 791
120Marsh4,3451: 798
121Houghton4,2921: 808
122Moss4,2531: 815
123Bradley4,2231: 821
124Seddon4,1591: 834
125Pilkington4,1391: 838
126Cook4,0611: 854
127Sutcliffe4,0581: 855
128Marshall4,0531: 856
129Williamson3,9921: 869
130Brierley3,9911: 869
131Bolton3,9651: 875
132Leach3,9641: 875
133Atherton3,9531: 877
134Webster3,9361: 881
135Lloyd3,9101: 887
136Newton3,8991: 890
137Murray3,8981: 890
138McDonald3,8911: 891
139Dickinson3,8651: 897
140Holmes3,8551: 900
141Hunt3,8241: 907
142Tomlinson3,8161: 909
143Gregory3,7971: 913
144Walton3,7841: 917
145Boardman3,7591: 923
146Whittle3,7581: 923
147Ainsworth3,7381: 928
148Crompton3,7241: 931
149Mather3,6941: 939
150Price3,6871: 941
151Fielding3,6821: 942
152Ellis3,6811: 942
153Mellor3,6681: 946
154Heaton3,6671: 946
155Shepherd3,6471: 951
156Grundy3,6421: 952
157Barton3,6411: 953
158Hurst3,6241: 957
159King3,6091: 961
160Davis3,5991: 964
161Young3,5901: 966
162Graham3,5741: 970
163Clayton3,5561: 975
164Morgan3,5421: 979
165Grimshaw3,5081: 989
166Platt3,5071: 989
167Hampson3,5061: 989
168Collins3,5031: 990
169Fisher3,4971: 992
170Gibson3,4931: 993
171Ratcliffe3,4761: 998
172Campbell3,4381: 1,009
172Crossley3,4381: 1,009
174Partington3,4371: 1,009
175Ingham3,4281: 1,012
176Worthington3,4101: 1,017
177Heywood3,4011: 1,020
178Parry3,3851: 1,025
179Lomax3,3751: 1,028
180Whalley3,3521: 1,035
181Banks3,3341: 1,040
182Anderson3,3171: 1,046
183Crook3,3121: 1,047
184Pickup3,2911: 1,054
185Horrocks3,2671: 1,062
186Heap3,2461: 1,068
187Cross3,2451: 1,069
187Hamer3,2451: 1,069
189Hindle3,2281: 1,074
190Hoyle3,1961: 1,085
191Tattersall3,1861: 1,089
192Hodgson3,1831: 1,090
193Ashcroft3,1711: 1,094
194Porter3,1541: 1,100
195Hulme3,1431: 1,103
196Harris3,1231: 1,111
197Cunliffe3,1221: 1,111
198Carr3,1171: 1,113
199Hart3,0651: 1,132
200Blackburn3,0581: 1,134