Canterbury Genealogical Records

Canterbury Birth & Baptism Records

England & Wales Birth Index (1837-2006)

An index to births registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of birth certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

St Gregory, Canterbury Baptism Records (1852-1912)

Baptism registers are the primary source for birth documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They record the date a child was baptised, their parent's names, occupations, residence and more.

St Mary Bredin, Canterbury Baptism Records (1813-1857)

Baptism registers are the primary source for birth documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They record the date a child was baptised, their parent's names, occupations, residence and more.

St Peter, Canterbury Baptism Records (1682-1890)

Baptisms records for children living in and around St Peter, Canterbury, detail the names of their parents - their occupations and residence from 1682 to 1890.

St Martin, Canterbury Baptism Records (1662-1912)

Baptism registers record the baptism of those born in and around St Martin, Canterbury and were subsequently baptised in an Anglican place of worship. They are the primary source of birth details before 1837, though are useful to the present.

Canterbury Marriage & Divorce Records

England & Wales Marriage Index (1837-2008)

An index to marriages registered throughout England & Wales. This is the only national marriage index that allows you to search by both spouse's names. Provides a reference to order copies of marriage certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

St Mildred, Canterbury Banns Records (1886-1919)

Banns registers list the names of people who intended to marry by the system of calling banns, in which the bride and groom's name were called for three weeks at church. At these callings objections could be made to a marriage. They record the bride and groom's parish of residence.

St Mildred, Canterbury Banns Records (1886-1919)

Banns registers record details of those who wished to marry. They sometimes contain information not listed in marriage registers, notably the bride and groom's parish of residence. Banns also record marriages that were intended that did not go ahead and serve as a filler when a marriage register has been lost or damaged.

All Saints, Canterbury Banns Records (1874-1889)

Banns registers list the names of people who intended to marry by the system of calling banns, in which the bride and groom's name were called for three weeks at church. At these callings objections could be made to a marriage. Thus they record any intended marriages that didn't occur.

All Saints, Canterbury Banns Records (1874-1889)

Banns registers list the names of people who intended to marry by the system of calling banns, in which the bride and groom's name were called for three weeks at church. At these callings objections could be made to a marriage. They record the bride and groom's parish of residence.

Canterbury Death & Burial Records

England & Wales Death Index (1837-2006)

An index to deaths registered throughout England & Wales. Provides a reference to order copies of death certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office.

St Gregory, Canterbury Burial Records (1852-1972)

Burial registers are the primary source for death documentation before 1837, though are relevant to the present. They record the date someone was buried, their age & residence.

St Mary Bredin, Canterbury Burial Records (1813-1863)

Records of burial for people buried at St Mary Bredin, Canterbury between 1813 and 1863. Details include the deceased's name, residence and age.

Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury Burial Records (1687-1798)

Records of burial for people buried at Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury between 1687 and 1798. Details include the deceased's name, residence and age. Some records may contain the names of relations, cause of death and more.

St Martin, Canterbury Burial Records (1662-1934)

Burial records for people buried at St Martin, Canterbury, detail the deceased's name, residence and age from 1662 to 1934. Some records may contain the names of relations, cause of death and more.

Canterbury Church Records

Canterbury Parish Registers (1564-1878)

The parish registers of Canterbury are a collection of books essentially documenting births, marriages and deaths. Their records can assist tracing a family as far back as 1564.

Canterbury Parish Registers (1539-1972)

The primary source of documentation for baptisms, marriages and burials before 1837, though useful to the present also.

Canterbury Parish Registers (1559-1800)

The primary source of documentation for baptisms, marriages and burials before 1837, though extremely useful to the present. Their records can assist tracing a family as far back as 1559.

Kent Parish Register Transcripts (1538-1874)

Over 180,000 extracted entries from the registers of 207 parishes in Kent. The names of those involved can be searched via an index and are connected to images of the transcription notebooks.

Visitations of the Archdeacon of Canterbury (1557-1679)

Extracts relating to the ecclesiastical history of the Archdeaconry of Canterbury.

Canterbury Census & Population Lists

England, Wales, IoM & Channel Islands 1911 Census (1911)

The 1911 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Kent Hearth Tax (1664)

A transcription of records naming those who had taxes levied against them for the privilege of owning a hearth.

Kent Register of Electors (1570-1907)

Browsable images of Kent electoral rolls poll books, which list those eligible to vote as well as lists of freemen, apprentices, burgess records and militia musters.

1901 British Census (1901)

The 1901 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

1891 British Census (1891)

The 1891 census provides details on an individual's age, residence, place of birth, relations and occupation. FindMyPast's index allows searches on for multiple metrics including occupation and residence.

Canterbury Wills & Probate Records

England & Wales National Probate Calendar (1858-1966)

Searchable index and original images of over 12.5 million probates and administrations granted by civil registries. Entries usually include the testator's name, date of death, date of probate and registry. Names of relations may be given.

Archdeaconry of Canterbury Wills and Probate (1450-1857)

Browsable images of account papers, administration bonds, caveats, guardian registers, inventories, court papers, renunciation papers and wills.

Consistory Court of Canterbury Inventories (1642-1699)

A name index of inventories of property of deceased persons in the Archdeaconry of Canterbury.

East Kent Wills and Probate (1396-1858)

An index of wills and other probate documents held by the Consistory and Archdeaconry Courts of Canterbury.

Diocese of Canterbury Wills and Probate (1559-1858)

Browsable images of account papers, administration bonds, affidavits, depositions, interrogations, visitations, caveats, guardian registers, inventories, renunciation papers, testamentary bonds and wills.

Newspapers Covering Canterbury

Whitstable Times and Herne Bay Herald (1867-1904)

Local news; notices of births, marriages and deaths; business notices; details on the proceedings of public institutions; adverts and a rich tapestry of other local information from the Whitstable district. Every line of text from the newspaper can be searched and images of the original pages viewed.

Dover Express (1858-1949)

A database allowing full text searches of a newspaper covering local news, family announcements, obituaries, court proceedings, business notices and more in the Dover area.

Kent & Sussex Courier (1873-1939)

A conservative-oriented newspaper reporting on local news, births, marriages and deaths in the two counties.

Kentish Chronicle (1859-1867)

A regional paper including news from the Kent area, legal & governmental proceedings, family announcements, business notices, advertisements and more.

Maidstone Telegraph (1859-1871)

The county paper of Kent, containing news by locale, adverts and family announcements.

Canterbury Obituaries

iAnnounce Obituaries (2006-Present)

The UKs largest repository of obituaries, containing millions of searchable notices.

United Kingdom and Ireland Obituary Collection (1882-Present)

A growing collection currently containing over 425,000 abstracts of obituaries with reference to the location of the full obituary.

Quakers Annual Monitor (1847-1848)

A collection of 364 obituaries of Quakers from the British Isles. The volume was published in 1849 and includes obituaries of those who died in late 1847 through 1848.

Musgrave's Obituaries (1421-1800)

This transcribed and searchable work by Sir William Musgrave contains 10,000s of brief obituaries. The work is a reference point for other works containing information on an individual.

British Medical Journal (1849-Present)

A text index and digital images of all editions of a journal containing medical articles and obituaries of medical practitioners.

Canterbury Cemeteries

Kent Monumental Inscriptions (1500-1920)

Transcriptions of thousands of memorials and headstones found in Kent.

Kent Church Monuments (1300-1900)

Photographs and descriptions of Kent's most illustrious church monuments, often featuring effigies, medieval inscriptions and heraldic devices.

Deceased Online (1629-Present)

Images of millions of pages from cemetery and crematoria registers, photographs of memorials, cemetery plans and more. Records can be search by a name index.

Billion Graves (1200-Present)

Photographs and transcriptions of millions of gravestones from cemeteries around the world.

Mausolea and Monuments (1500-Present)

Profiles of several hundred mausolea found in the British Isles.

Canterbury Directories & Gazetteers

Canterbury & District Directory (1917-1918)

A court, street, resident, trade and professional directory of Canterbury and its district.

Pike's Weald of Kent & Romney Marsh Directory (1884-1885)

A gazetteer and directory of part of Kent.

Kelly's Directory of Kent (1938)

A directory of settlements in Kent detailing their history, agriculture, topography, economy and leading commercial, professional and private residents.

Kelly's Directory of Kent (1938)

An exhaustive gazetteer, containing details of settlement's history, governance, churches, postal services, public institutions and more. Also contains lists of residents with their occupation and address.

Kelly's Directory of Kent (1934)

A comprehensive place-by-place gazetteer, listing key contemporary and historical facts. Each place has a list of residents and businesses. Contains details on local schools, churches, government and other institutions.

Kentish Prison Hulk Registers (1811-1843)

Registers recording details of around 9,000 prisoners held in ships stationed in Kent. Records describe a convict's name, age, place of birth, physical description, offence, conviction, sentence, discharge and conduct report.

Kent Workhouse Records (1777-1911)

Over 70,000 browsable pages detailing the administration of poor law unions in Kent. Records contain details on births, marriages & deaths; punishments; admissions and discharges and more.

Kent Quarter Sessions Index (1657-1804)

A name index to 1,000s of people mentioned in legal records relating to crime and administration. The records include settlements, removals and bastardy orders.

Kent Quarter Sessions & Court Files (1558-1899)

Legal records covering a variety of issues from land to bastardy.

Act Books of the Archbishops of Canterbury (1663-1859)

An index to names and places mentioned in act books of the Province of Canterbury. It records various licences and conferments, such as marriage and physician licences.

Canterbury Taxation Records

Kent Hearth Tax (1664)

A transcription of records naming those who had taxes levied against them for the privilege of owning a hearth.

Kent Land Tax Assessments (1689-1832)

Browsable images of registers that record owners and occupiers of land. Useful for tracing succession of freehold and tenancies.

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

Duties Paid for Apprentices' Indentures (1710-1811)

An index linked to original images of registers recording apprenticeship indentures. Details are given on the trade and nature of apprenticeship. Many records list the parents of the apprentice.

Red Book of the Exchequer (1066-1230)

A compilation of records from the Court of the Exchequer primarily dealing with taxes and land. These records are in Latin.

Canterbury Land & Property Records

Kent Land Tax Assessments (1689-1832)

Browsable images of registers that record owners and occupiers of land. Useful for tracing succession of freehold and tenancies.

Kent Register of Electors (1570-1907)

Browsable images of Kent electoral rolls poll books, which list those eligible to vote as well as lists of freemen, apprentices, burgess records and militia musters.

Land Tax Redemption (1798-1811)

This vital collection details almost 1.2 million properties eligible for land tax. Records include the name of the landowner, occupier, amount assessed and sometimes the name and/or description of the property. It is a useful starting point for locating relevant estate records and establishing the succession of tenancies and freehold. Most records cover 1798, but some extend up to 1811.

UK Poll Books and Electoral Rolls (1538-1893)

Poll books record the names of voters and the direction of their vote. Until 1872 only landholders could vote, so not everyone will be listed. Useful for discerning an ancestor's political leanings and landholdings. The collection is supplemented with other records relating to the vote.

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem (1236-1291)

Abstracts of records detailing the estates and families of deceased tenants from the reigns of Henry III and Edward I.

Canterbury Occupation & Business Records

Canterbury Teaching and Medical Licences (1568-1646)

A calendar to licences granted by Diocese of Canterbury to teachers, physicians and apothecaries.

Smuggling in Kent (1697-1830)

Articles detailing several smuggling gangs that operated in the county.

Smuggling on the South East Coast (1675-1871)

An introduction to smuggling in on the east coast of England, with details of the act in various regions.

Smuggling on the East Coast (1600-1892)

An introduction to smuggling on the east coast of England, with details of the act in various regions.

Kent Pub Histories (1820-Present)

Histories of Kent pubs, with photographs and lists of owners or operators.

Canterbury School & Education Records

Teacher's Registration Council Registers (1870-1948)

A name index linked to original images of registers recording the education and careers of teachers in England & Wales.

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge Alumni Database (1198-1910)

A searchable database containing over 90,000 note-form biographies for students of Cambridge University.

Dissenting Academy Database (1660-1860)

Histories of schools operated by non-conformist clergy.

Pedigrees & Family Trees Covering Canterbury

Victoria County History: Kent (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

Pedigrees of Kent Families (1066-1840)

Hand-draw genealogical charts covering Kent's gentry. Includes descriptions of coats of arms.

Tyler's Kent Families (1500-1900)

A collection of pedigrees, family notes and historical extracts relating to Kent and its families.

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Canterbury Royalty, Nobility & Heraldry Records

Victoria County History: Kent (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

Pedigrees of Kent Families (1066-1840)

Hand-draw genealogical charts covering Kent's gentry. Includes descriptions of coats of arms.

Kent Church Monuments (1300-1900)

Photographs and descriptions of Kent's most illustrious church monuments, often featuring effigies, medieval inscriptions and heraldic devices.

British & Irish Royal & Noble Genealogies (491-1603)

Extensive and impeccably sourced genealogies for British, Irish & Manx royalty and nobility. Scroll down to 'British Isles' for relevant sections.

FamilySearch Community Trees (6000 BC-Present)

A searchable database of linked genealogies compiled from thousands of reputable and not-so-reputable sources. Contains many details on European gentry & nobility, but covers many countries outside Europe and people from all walks of life.

Canterbury Military Records

The Queens Own Royal West Kent Regiment (1914-1920)

A great deal of information relating to the regiment, including a thorough history, biographical details, photographs, information on honours etc.

West Kent Queen's Own Yeomanry (1794-1909)

A general history of the yeomanry, including extracts from original records

Victoria County History of Kent, Vol. 3 (43-1900)

A volume from the most respected work concerning English history. It covers military history, country houses, industry, roads and a transcription of Domesday entries relating to Kent.

QORWKR Battalion Orders (1914-1916)

A finding aid for records detailing orders relating to ordinary rank men in the Royal West Kent Regiment.

Kent Voluntary Aid Detachments (1914-1918)

Details of voluntary aid workers in Kent during WWI.

Canterbury Immigration & Travel Records

Prisoners Transported from Kent (1851-1852)

A small list of convicts transported to the colonies.

Passenger Lists Leaving UK (1890-1960)

A name index connected to original images of passenger lists recording people travelling from Britain to destinations outside Europe. Records may detail a passenger's age or date of birth, residence, occupation, destination and more.

UK Incoming Passenger Lists (1878-1960)

A full index of passenger lists for vessels arriving in the UK linked to original images. Does not include lists from vessels sailing from European ports. Early entries can be brief, but later entries may include dates of births, occupations, home addresses and more. Useful for documenting immigration.

Alien Arrivals in England (1810-1869)

Details on over 600,000 non-British citizens arriving in England. Often includes age and professions. Useful for discerning the origin of immigrants.

17th Century British Emigrants to the U.S. (1600-1700)

Details on thousands of 17th century British immigrants to the U.S., detailing their origins and nature of their immigration.

Canterbury Histories & Books

History & Topographical Survey of Kent (1189-1801)

A sprawling work containing a detailed history of the county and each parish.

Victoria County History: Kent (1086-1900)

A detailed history of the county's hundreds, parishes and religious houses.

Victoria County History of Kent, Vol. 3 (43-1900)

A volume from the most respected work concerning English history. It covers military history, country houses, industry, roads and a transcription of Domesday entries relating to Kent.

Kent Church Photographs (1890-Present)

Photographs and images of churches in Kent.

Kent Church Photographs (1851-Present)

Photographs of parish churches in Hampshire, with architectural details and extracts from the 1851 ecclesiastical census.

Biographical Directories Covering Canterbury

Oxford University Alumni (1500-1886)

A name index linked to original images of short biographies for over 120,000 Oxford University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Cambridge University Alumni (1261-1900)

A transcript of a vast scholarly work briefly chronicling the heritage, education and careers of over 150,000 Cambridge University students. This is a particularly useful source for tracing the ancestry of the landed gentry.

Crockford's Clerical Directories (1868-1914)

Brief biographies of Anglican clergy in the UK.

The Concise Dictionary of National Biography (1654-1930)

A directory containing lengthy biographies of noted British figures. The work took over two decades to compile. Biographies can be searched by name and are linked to images of the original publication.

Church of England Clergy Database (1500-1835)

A database of CoE clergy, giving details of their education of service. Contains references to source documents. Also contains profiles of various church institutions.

Canterbury Maps

Maps of Kent (1522-1922)

Digital images of maps covering the county.

Ordnance Survey 1:10 Maps (1840-1890)

Maps showing settlements, features and some buildings in mainland Britain.

A Vision of Britain (1190-Present)

A sprawling website setting out and describing the historical divisions of Britain. Also contains countless maps of various sorts. Covers the UK, Ireland, Isle of Man & has fleeting details of other localities.

Ordnance Survey One-inch to the Mile Maps (1945-1947)

High-quality digital reproductions of maps plotting, settlements, roads, natural features and other features in England & Wales.

Speed's Maps of Britain (1612)

County and national maps covering the British Isles, extracted from John Speed's landmark work, Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain.

Canterbury Reference Works

England Research Guide (1538-Present)

A beginner’s guide to researching ancestry in England.

Parish Register Abstract (1538-1812)

Compiled in 1831, this book details the coverage and condition of parish registers in England & Wales.

Building History Research Guide (1066-Present)

A comprehensive guide to researching the history of buildings in the British Isles.

Surname Origins (1790-1911)

A service that provides advanced and custom surname maps for the British Isles and the US.

British Family Mottoes (1189-Present)

A dictionary of around 9,000 mottoes for British families who had right to bear arms.

Canterbury Information

Civil & Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction:

Historical Description

Canterbury is the capital of the county of Kent, and the see of an archbishop, who is primate of all England, is situated in a pleasant valley, about two miles wide, between hills of a moderate height and easy ascent, with fine springs rising from them. Besides which, the river Stour runs through it, whose streams often dividing and uniting again, form islands of various sizes, in one of which the western part of the city stands.

The origin of this distinguished city is too remote to be satisfactorily-ascertained. It was certainly in existence previous to the arrival of the Romans in Britain. It was called by them, Durovernum, which name some derive from the British word Dwr-whern, which signifies a rapid river.

The glain nardi, or druidical beads, are stated to have been frequently found here, as well as the British weapons called Celts.

In the Itinerary of Antoninus this place is noticed by its appellation of Durovernum, and the roads to the Portus Rutupensis, to Dover and to Lymne, branched off from this city. Many coins and specimens of Roman pottery have been found in various parts of the city, together with tessellated pavements of curious workmanship. The city walls contain Roman bricks in abundance; and there were three semicircular arches formed with the same materials, standing about twenty years ago. The late John Thorpe, Esq. in the first part of his Antiquities of Kent, describing one of these arches, called Worthgate, says, "that without doubt it was the finest remnant of antiquity in this city, and perhaps the most entire of the kind in the kingdom. The boldness of the arch, consisting entirely of Roman bricks, struck the eye of the beholder with a kind of veneration. In the inside, next the castle yard, the ground had been raised so much from time to time, that no more than one foot six inches of the stone piers or columns to the springs of the arch were to be seen; but when viewed on the garden side of the city ditch, the gate made a noble appearance, as the height of the pier was seven feet six inches. These piers were composed of a kind of rag stone, two feet six inches in breadth, which had been originally squared, but were become irregular and uneven, from being much corroded and mouldered away through the great length of time; whilst the arch, which consisted of a double row of bricks, remained as fine and as durable as ever; so well had the Romans the art of tempering and burning their clay. The length of the longest brick, on the castle side, was one foot five inches; the depth of the thickest, three inches. The diameter of the arch, in the inside, was 12 feet 3 1/2 inches, and it sprung from the piers, six feet and half an inch." Some Roman arched brickwork was found during the reign of Charles the First, by sinking a cellar in Castle-street. At the commencement of the last century, the remains of a foundation, composed of Roman bricks, were discovered about four feet below the present surface of the street, in the parish of St. Alphage; and a Roman tessellated pavement was about the same time found in St. Margaret's parish. In the year 1730, a fine Roman vase of red earth, of an elegant form and pattern, with the inscription, TARAGETDE TEVE, was found near this city, together with a brass lachrymatory. Various other Roman antiquities have also been discovered, not less curious than those of which we have inserted a description.

During the time of the Saxons, this city was called Cant-wara-byrgi or the Kentishmen's city; and Bede mentions it as "the chief place in all the dominions of King Etheibert." There are but few important occurrences in the annals of Canterbury, independent of the affairs of the church, until the year 851, when the Danes landed from 350 ships, and laid the city waste.— In 918 they again obtained possession, but were driven out by the Princess Elfleda, the daughter of the great Alfred. In 1009 the inhabitants purchased a peace of the Danes, of short duration, at the enormous price of 30,0001. In the year 1011 the Danes again besieged Canterbury, with a large army, and, after acontest of twenty days, set fire to some houses, and having forced the gates, they entered the city with loud shouts and the sound of trumpets. The streets were soon covered with the dead bodies of the unfortunate inhabitants; women were dragged by their hair through the streets, and after being exposed to every insult, were at length thrown into the flames. Neither sex nor age was exempted from the sword, and it is believed that nearly 8000 persons perished in this massacre. The greater part of the city was on this occasion burnt to ashes, together with the cathedral to its bare walls.

Besides these afflictions, Canterbury has suffered at various other times by the calamity of lire. In the year 1161, the city was reduced to ruin, by an accident of this description. According to some historians, another dreadful lire occurred in the year 1174; and it is certain that the cathedral was burnt down in 1180. In the year 1247, St. Mildred's Church and great part of the city were again destroyed by fire. Notwithstanding these" misfortunes, through the favour of our kings, and by the patronage of the archbishops, who in general resided here in the early ages, Canterbury still recovered, from time to time, from the calamities it had suffered, with increasing improvements. Much of its opulence arose from the numerous religious houses founded here; and great advantages were derived from the shrine of Thomas a Becket, which attracted multitudes of pilgrims and devotees of all ranks.

Leland, who wrote in the reign of Henry the Eighth, gives this description of the city, as it remained in his time : "The town of Cantorbyri, ys wailed, and hath five gates, thus named, Westgate, Northgate, Burgate, now cawlled Mihelsgate, St. George's-gate, and Riderh-gate; the which John Broker, the mayor of the town, did so much diminish, that now carts cannot for Iowness pass through it. Worlhegate, the which leadeth to a streate cawled Stone Streate, and so to Billirca, now Curtop Streate. In the towne be XIII paroche churches, and the cathedral church of black monks Without the walles there he III paroche churches." For the most part the towne stondeth on the farther syde of the river Stour, the which", by a probable conjecture, 1 suppose was cawlled in the Britan's time Avona. For the Romayn cawlled Canterbury Duravernum corruptly; for of Dor and Avona, we should rather say Doravona, or Doravonum."The river yn one place runneth through the city walle, the which is made there with two or three arches for the course of the streme."Lanfranc and Sudbury, the which was hedded ' (beheaded) by Jack Strawe, were great repayrers of the cite. Sudbury builded the Westgate, and made new and repaired together fro thens to the Northgate, and wold have done likewise abowt all the town, yf he had lyved. The most auncyent building of the town appereth yn the castel, and at Rider's Gate, where appere long Briton bribes : without the town at St. Pancrace's Chapel, and at St. Martin's, appere also Briton brikes. There hath been sum strong fortress by the castel, wher as now the eminent dungen hill riseth." In the early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign, the city of Canterbury derived considerable benefit from the influx of the refugee protestants, who were driven out of the Netherlands by the cruelty of the Spanish government. Those who made choice of this place for their habitations were weavers in silks and stuffs. They consisted of only eighteen housekeepers, besides children and servants, who on their arrival petitioned the mayor and aldermen for the grant of certain privileges for their convenience and protection; and they obtained from Queen Elizabeth in 1561, a grant of the under croft of the Cathedral Church, as a place of worship for themselves and their successors; the number of these refugees increased prodigiously in the subsequent reign. At the beginning of the reign of Charles II. in the year 1665, there were in Canterbury 126 master weavers; their whole number here amounting to near 1300, and they employed 759 English, so that the king thought proper to grant them a charter in the year 1676; by which it appears that their number here was then but little short of 2500. At the commencement of the eighteenth century, the number of these industrious artificers had still further increased; and as the wealth of the city was proportionally augmented it became more populous; the poor obtained constant employment, and the owners of houses finding sufficient tenants, at increasing rents, were induced to rebuild, or to enlarge and improve their estates, much to their own emolument and the public welfare of the city.— But of late years the silk manufactory having greatly decayed, there are but a very small number of master weavers remaining, though there are numbers of the descendants of the first settlers. These descendants of the Walloons maintain their own poor; they still use the undercroft of the cathedral for their place of worship; they have a minister, who is ordained by a bishop, but they do not use the liturgy of the church of England, having a prescribed form of prayer and church service, the same as is used by the Calvinists in Holland.

The city of Canterbury is of an oval shape; it is within its walls about half a mile from east to west, and somewhat more from north to south.— The circumference of its walls is not quite a mile and three quarters; it has four extensive suburbs, situated at the four cardinal points. Besides the streams of the Stour, the city is supplied with plenty of excellent water, which flows from two springs, rising, the one among the ruins of St. Augustine's monastery, and the other at St. Martin's Hill; for the dispensing of which there are several public conduits in the principal streets of the city; and there is a strong chalybeate water in the western part of it.

Of the ancient city gates, only that termed the Westgate is now standing. This structure was erected by Archbishop Sudbury, in the reign of Richard II. in the room of an ancient gate, which was become ruinous. This gate, situated at the west end of the city, through which the high road passes towards London, consists of a centre, flanked by round towers, which present a venerable and commanding appearance. The whole summit is embattled, and the entrance is defended by machicolations: the place for the portcullis is still remaining. Over this gate is the common gaol, or prison, both for criminals and debtors, within the jurisdiction of the city. The western branch of the river Stour, which flows in front of this gate, and in the bed of which the foundations of the towers are partly laid, is here crossed by a bridge of two arches, belonging to the Archbishop.

The city is divided into six wards, each named from one of the six principal gates which it formerly possessed. These wards are divided into twelve parishes, in which are the several churches of All Saints; St. Alphage; St. Andrew; St. George; St. Mary Bredin; St. Mary Bredman; St. Mary Magdalen Burgate; St. Mary Northgate; St. Mildred; St. Margaret; Holy Cross; Westgate; and St. Peter; by which names the twelve parishes are called. Besides these there were formerly five other churches within the walls, which have been long since demolished, and the profits united to the other churches. And there are now in the suburbs, the three parishes and churches of St. Dunstan, St. Paul, and St. Martin.

The city of Canterbury being, in the early period of its history, a part of the royal demesne, was under the government of an officer appointed by the king. From the last year of King John, two bailiffs were yearly appointed for the purpose, and continued so to be till King Henry III. by his charter in the 18th year of his reign, granted the town to the citizens in fee-farm, and franchised them with licence and power to choose in it bailiffs for themselves. In the 40th year of the same king, other charters of divers liberties and franchises were obtained, which were confirmed by Edward I. Edward II. and Richard II. The city continued to be governed by bailiffs, with little alteration, until the 26th Henry VI. when the king granted the citizens an ample charter of further privileges, among which were those of choosing a mayor, instead of bailiffs, on Holy Cross day yearly, and of becoming a corporation, by the name of the mayor and commonalty. All the above mentioned charters, were confirmed by Edward IV. who also granted the citizens still further privileges. The Kings Henry VII. and Henry VIII. also confirmed the charters, liberties, and privileges of the city. The existing charter was granted by James I; in conformity to which, the corporation consists of a mayor, a recorder, twelve aldermen, including a chamberlain, and twenty-four common councilmen, including the sheriff and town-clerk. A court of Burghmote, for the business of the city, is held on every fourth Tuesday, and is called by summons, and by the blowing of a horn; which latter custom is of a very ancient date.

The city first sent members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I. The right of election is vested in the freemen, and the number of voters about 1600.

Canterbury is plentifully supplied with all kinds of provisions, for which there are two market days weekly, on Wednesday and Saturday : both days for poultry, butter, and garden stuff, and the latter for butcher's meat, cheese, corn, hops, and all sorts of cattle.

There are several yearly fairs held in the different parishes of the city and its suburbs, for toys and pedlary, on the days inserted in our list. Besides these there is a principal fair, held yearly, on the 10th of October, in the Cathedral churchyard, which is usually called Jack and Joan fair, from its being a statute fair, for the hiring of servants of both sexes, for which purpose it continues till the second Saturday, or market day of the city is passed.

Canterbury, and the adjacent country, as to the establishment of the customs, is within the port of Favershara.

After the decay of the silk manufacture, this city became famous for its beautiful muslins, the commencement of which manufacture is thus noticed by Mr. Hasted, "I cannot quit this subject of the Walloon and refugee manufactory of Canterbury, without paying a due tribute of praise to an ingenious and public-spirited manufacturer of this place, John Callaway. The mode n inventions of spinning-jennies and mules for weft, and the great improvement of spinning cotton twist for warps, by the water machinery of the famous Sir Richard Arkwright, have been the principal means of improving all sorts of cotton goods whatsoever." During the American war, such was the falling off of the silk trade, that many skilful workmen were reduced to so low a condition as to apply for relief at the general workhouse. This distress of the silk manufacturers determined Mr. Callaway to travel into the north and west of England, in search of something new for the employment of these deserving and distressed people : and this his ingenuity effected, after a long and expensive journey, for he discovered a method of mixing Sir Richard Arkwright's level cotton-twist with his looms of silk warps, by which contrivance he introduced to the public a new manufacture, that afforded employment, and consequently subsistence, not only to the poor unemployed workmen in Canterbury, but in other parts of England also. This beautiful new article, was called Canterbury muslin, and the manufacture of it spread so rapidly, and the demand for it became so great, that from the time of its invention, which was about the year 1787, it has employed all the weavers in this city, and many thousands more in London, Manchester, and Scotland, where they still retain their first name of Canterbury muslins." The city of Canterbury has suffered but little injury from the decay of its manufactures. The cultivation of hops, plantations of which cover many hundred acres of land in its immediate vicinity, presents a permanent and much greater source of wealth. In them the labouring poor, both men and women, find, a constant employment throughout the year, as the aged and infirm do in the manufacture of sack and bagging, in which the hops are put. The hop trade may, indeed, be said to constitute the principal business of the inhabitants.

In our description of the public buildings of this ancient city, we shall commence with the cathedral and religious foundations.

The Cathedral church of Canterbury is undoubtedly one of the most splendid, venerable, and interesting piles of ancient architecture possessed by this country; and its foundation is of a correspondent sublimity of character, and is closely connected with an important event in the general ecclesiastical annals of the kingdom. Augustine, emphatically styled the apostle of Britain, fixed his early residence at Canterbury, when he entered this country at the head of forty missionaries, with a view of inculcating the tenets of Christianity among the pagan Anglo-Saxons. Ethelbert, King of Kent, became the convert of his zeal, and received baptism in the year 597. Augustine was now invested by the Pope with archiepiscopal authority. He fixed his metropolitical chair in the city of his early residence in Britain; and the foundation of the cathedral was promptly laid. The original building, though not completed at the time of his death, he dedicated to our "Saviour Christ;" and the existing edifice is still generally called Christ Church.

It is believed that the cathedral was twice destroyed hy fire, and other ravages of the Danes, between the date of its first erection and the accession of King Canute. From the description of the Saxon building, as given by Eadmer, it appears to have consisted only of a body, without aisles, and having towards the west a tower on each side.

After the accession of Canute to the sovereignty of this island, Archbishop Agelnoth, who presided over the church from the year 1020 to the year 1038, began and finished the repair, or rather the rebuilding of it, assisted in that undertaking by the munificence of the king, who, in 1023, presented his crown of gold to the church, and gave to it the port of Sandwich with its liberties. Notwithstanding this, in about forty years afterwards, when Lanfrane, soon after the Norman conquest, eame to the see, he found the cathedral nearly in ruins, having been destroyed by a third fire, the year prior to his advancement to the archbishopric; in which fire all its ancient records were lost.

Archbishop Lanfranc, who arrived from Normandy in 1073, being the fourth year of the conqueror's reign, was struck with astonishment at the first sight of the ruinous state of the church : by his care and perseverance, however, the cathedral and monastery were completely restored, and in a more magnificent manner than had been before seen in any structure used for religious purposes in this kingdom. The whole of the church, with the palace and monastery, the wall which encompassed the court, and all the offices belonging to the monastery within the wall, were thus rebuilt and finished within the compass of seven years. The Archbishop, moreover, furnished the church with ornaments and rich vestments; after which, the whole being completed, he altered the name of it, by a dedication to the Holy Trinity.

After Lanfranc's death, the cathedral rose to still greater splendour, under his successor the Archbishop Anselm. This prelate, the better to carry his intentions into effect, constituted Ernulph and Conrad successive priors of the church; ' and with their aid, either wholly rebuilt the choir, or otherwise enlarged it, and considerably improved its embellishments. Conrad, who succeeded Ernulph in his office, perfected the choir which his predecessor had left unfinished, adorning it with curious pictures, and enriching it with many precious ornaments. This great undertaking was not completed until five years after the death of Archbishop Anselm, which happened in 1109, when being finished, in honour of its builder, and on account of its more than ordinary beauty, it gained the name of the glorious choir of Conrad.

The church continued without any thing material happening to it till about the year 1130, when it suffered some damage by fire, but was soon repaired; and on the fourth of May, that year, the bishops performed the dedication of it with great splendour and magnificence; King Henry I. the Queen, David, king of Scots, many prelates, and the chief nobility of both kingdoms being present. The former name of the church was now restored, and it was, henceforth, commonly called Christchurch. Forty-four-years after this dedication, on the 5th of September, anno 1174, a fire happened which destroyed great part of this stately fabric, namely, the whole choir, from the angel, or central tower, to the east end of the church, together with the prior's lodging, the chapel of the Virgin Mary, the infirmary, and some other offices belonging to the monastery; the angel steeple, the lower cross aisles, and the nave, appear to have received no material injury from the flames.

Upon this destruction of the church, the prior and convent, without any delay, determined upon the rebuilding of it in such a manner as should surpass all the former structures, as well in beauty as size and magnificence. To effect this, they collected the most skilful architects that could be found, either in France or England. Accordingly, the new building was larger in height and length, and more beautiful in every respect, than the choir of Conrad. The capitals of the pillars were now richly ornamented with carved work;— whereas they were before plain; and six more pillars were added than there were before. The former choir had but one triforium, or inner gallery, but now there were two made round it, and one on each side aisle, and three in the cross aisles; before, there were no marble pillars, but now such columns were introduced in a gorgeous abundance. In forwarding this great work, the monks had spent eight years, when they could proceed no further, for want of money; but a fresh supply coming in from the offerings at St. Thomas's tomb, they were encouraged to set about a more grand design, which was to pull down the eastern extremity of the church, with the small chapel of the Holy Trinity adjoining to it, and to erect upon a stately undercroft a most magnificent building, of the same height as the roof of the church. At the east end of this chapel another was afterwards erected, at the extremity of the whole building, since called Becket's crown, on purpose for an altar, and the reception of some part of his relics.

The completion of the church was so far advanced in the year 1180, that, on the 19th April, being Easter Eve, the archbishop, prior, and monks, entered the new choir with a solemn procession, singing Te Deum for their happy return to it. Three days before, they had, privately, by night, carried the bodies of St. Dunstan and St. Alphage to the places prepared for them near the high altar. The body, likewise, of Queen Edive, which after the fire had been removed from the north cross aisle, where it lay under a stately gilded shrine, to the altar of the great cross, was conveyed to the altar of St. Martin, where it was placed under the coffin of Archbishop Livinge.

In the month of July following, the altar of the Holy Trinity was demolished, and the bodies of those archbishops which had been laid in that part of the church were removed to other places. Odo's body was laid under St. Dunstan's, and Wilfrid's under St. Alphage's; Lanfranc's was deposited nigh the altar of St. Martin, and Theobald's at that of the blessed Virgin, in the nave of the church, under a marble tomb; and, soon afterwards, the two archbishops, on the right and left hand of Archbishop Becket in the undercroft, were taken up, and placed under the altar of St. Mary there.

Although there is no mention of a new dedication of the church at this time, yet it appears to have been from henceforth usually called the church of St. Thomas the martyr, and to have continued to be so termed for above 350 years.

It may not be improper here to mention some interesting transactions relating to this favourite saint, from the time of his being murdered in this church, on December 29,1170, to that of his translation to the splendid shrine, prepared for his relics. His body, having been privately buried towards the east end of the undercroft, the monks tell us, that about the Easter following miracles began to be wrought by him, first at his tomb, then in the undercroft, and in every part of the fabric of the church; afterwards throughout all England; and, lastly, throughout all the world. The fame of these miracles procured him the honour of a formal canonization, from Pope Alexander III. whose bull for that purpose is dated March 13th, in the year 1172. Hereupon, crowds of zealots, led on by a frenzy of devotion, hastened to kneel at his tomb. In 1177, Philip, Earl of Flanders, came hither for that purpose, when King Henry met, and had a conference with him at Canterbury.— In 1178, King Henry, returning from Normandy, visited the sepulchre of this new saint; and, in July following, William, archbishop of Rheims, came from France, with a large retinue, to perform his vows to St. Thomas of Canterbury', when he was met by the king, and received with great honour. In the year 1179, Lewis, King of France, came into England, in the manner and habit of a pilgrim, and was conducted to the tomb of St. Thomas by a solemn procession; he there offered a cup of gold, and a precious stone of great value; and gave the convent a yearly rent for ever, of a hundred muids of wine, to be paid by himself and his successors.

From the liberal gifts of these royal and noble personages at the tomb of St. Thomas, the expenses of the rebuilding of the choir were in a great measure supplied; the offerings, however, at the shrine of the new saint did not in any degree abate, but, on the contrary, they daily increased. On July 7th, anno 1220, the remains of St. Thomas were translated from his tomb to his new shrine, with the greatest solemnity and rejoicings. Pandulph, the Pope's legate, the Archbishops of Canterbury and Rheims, and many bishops and abbots, carried the coffin on their shoulders, and placed it on the new shrine, the King himself gracing these solemnities with his Royal presence.

About the year 1304, or soon afterwards, the whole choir was repaired and beautified, and three new doors made; the pulpitum was also then made, as were the flight of steps, and the fine skreen of stonework, so curiously carved, and still remaining at the west end of the choir.

In the year 1379, Archbishop Sudbury took down the old nave of the church, which Lanfranc had erected, as being too mean, and greatly inferior to the choir, and which probably had by this time fallen into decay, purposing to rebuild it again at his own cost, in a manner proportionable to the beauty of the rest of the church. But in the year 1381, before he had laid one stone for the foundation of it, he fell into the hands of the mutinous rabble, headed by Wat Tyler, who cut off his head on Tower Hill. The succeeding archbishop, Courtney, in whose time the building was begun, contributed towards it one thousand marks, and the next archbishop, Arundel, in whose time it was finished, gave a like sum of one thousand marks to this work.

The prior, William Selling, who was elected in 1472, is said to have begun the rebuilding of the great tower in the middle of the church, and his successor, prior Thomas Goldstone, to have finished it. For the strengthening of this lofty tower, of most beautiful form, Prior Gotdstone caused two larger and four smaller arches of stone to be fixed underneath it, from pillar to pillar, as they now remain.

Subsequent to the above period there have only been some few ornamental improvements made, not any of which demand particular notice.— The cathedral suffered severely during the civil wars in the reign of Charles I. Much beautiful painted glass was then broken; the inscriptions, figures, and coats of arms engraven upon brass, were torn from the ancient monuments; and the graves were ransacked. At the Restoration in 1660, the church was found in so dilapidated a state, that no less a sum than 12,000l. was required to put it in a decent state for the celebration of divine service.

From whatever point of approach we view this magnificent cathedral, it is calculated to impress the mind, with a religious awe and veneration; and notwithstanding the different ages in which the several parts of it have been built, and the various kinds of architecture peculiar to each, scarcely one part corresponding with that adjoining, yet there seems nothing unsightly or disagreeable in the general combination. The same observation may, with justice, be applied to the incongruous, but grand and impressive, interior of the edifice. Its general form is that of a double cross, terminating circularly at the east end, and having two massive towers at the west end; another and more elegant tower rises from the intersection of the nave and west transept.

The west front is irregular, in regard to architectural character. It consists of a centre, having a low recessed entrance, in the pointed style, with a large and elegant widow above, between two towers. That to the northwest is of Norman architecture, and is generally supposed to have formed a portion of Lanfranc's building, though some parts of it have been altered. This tower was formerly surmounted by an octagonal spire, built at the cost of Archbishop Arundel; whence it was afterwards called by his name. The spire was taken down soon after the great storm in 1703, in which it was much damaged. The southwest tower is called the Chicheley steeple, from the rebuilding of it having been commenced by that prelate. The upper part is embattled, and finished by four elegant pinnacles at the angles, with smaller ones between. The west entrance, now rarely used, opens beneath a large pointed arch, and is ornamented with various shields and canopied niches. The south porch, which now forms the principal entrance to the cathedral, is a large and handsome fabric. The roof is vaulted with stone, beautifully groined.

The south side of the cathedral is marked by a great diversity of character. From the south porch to the western transept, are seen large pointed windows, of elegant form and workmanship, with correspondent particulars of the English style of architecture. St. Michael's chapel adjoins the west transept; beyond which part of the fabric are interspersed considerable vestiges of the original work of Lanfranc, denoted by semicircular, intersecting arches; short and massive columns, and mouldings rudely executed.

The north side of the cathedral possesses a general uniformity with the south; but the view is much impeded by various adjoining buildings. The great tower which rises from the intersection of the west transept with the nave and choir, is one of the most chaste and beautiful specimens of the pointed style of architecture in this island. It rises to a considerable height above the roof; and, from its summit, commands an extensive and rich view over the whole of Canterbury, and the adjacent highly-cultivated country.

On entering the interior of the cathedral from the south porch, the noble simplicity of the nave, and the beauty of its vaulted roof, excite the admiration of the spectator. This division of the building is separated from the aisles by eight piers, or columns, on each side. The aisles are nearly uniform with the nave; the windows are large and elegant, and the whole range of the building presents a fine specimen of the architecture of the fifteenth century.

The area formed by the columns of the great tower is nearly 35 feet square. The four arches on which the tower rises, are very finely proportioned; and the interior part of the tower being open to a considerable height, gives this portion of the cathedral a very grand and interesting effect.

A triple flight of steps leads from the nave to the choir; before the entrance to which latter part of the structure, is a beautiful stone screen, and over it a superb organ, brought hither from Westminster abbey, where it had been originally erected for the commemoration of Handel. This screen is stated to have been made at the charge of the Prior de Eastry, between the years 1304 and 1331; and is still in an excellent state of preservation. In six niches are placed the same number of full length statues of sovereigns. Four of these statues sustain an orb; the hand of the fifth is broken off; the sixth holds a resemblance of a Saxon church, and was probably intended for the figure of King Ethelbert.

At the upper part of the nave are two cross aisles; that on the north, from the circumstance of St. Thomas Becket's murder having taken place in it, is called the Martyrdom. In this wing stood an altar, by the wall where Dr. Chapman's monument now is placed, commonly called the altar of the martyrdom of St. Thomas, which is thus described by Erasmus :—" There is here to be seen an altar, built of wood, consecrated to the Blessed Virgin, small, and remarkable on no other account, but as it is a monument of antiquity, and upbraids the luxury of these present times. At the foot of this altar, the holy martyr is said to have bade his last farewell to the Blessed Virgin, at the point of death. Upon this altar lies part of the sword by which his head was cleft, and his brain being contused, it speedily hastened his death. We religiously," says Erasmus, "kissed this piece of the aword, as rusty as it was, out of love and veneration to the martyr." It may not be undesirable to remind the reader, in this page, that Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, became an object of aversion, and almost of dread to his sovereign, Henry II., in consequence of his haughty conduct and dangerous efforts towards rendering the archiepiscopal power completely independent of royal jurisdiction. It was natural for Henry to wish the removal of so ambitious and turgid a churchman; but we are not warranted by history in believing that the monarch so far condescended from majesty and good morals, as to sanction that act of private assassination, which terminated the evil-doings of this stern prelate.

The destruction of the archbishop was perpetrated by four persons of some consideration, who appear to have been stimulated to the deed by some angry but unmeaning expressions of the king. At the first alarm of their entrance into the palace of the bishop, on the afternoon of his fatal day, Becket was hurried by the monks through the cloister into the northwest transept. Thither he was closely followed; and, as he was proceeding up the steps of that transept towards the choir, the death men arrested him, and, after a violent struggle, he expired, beneath the wounds which they indicted, at the base of St. Benedict's altar.

Our superstitious ancestors highly esteemed this place, the walls of which were hung with arras; and the veneration in which the spot was held, seems to have been the reason of its being chosen for the solemnization of the espousals of King Edward I. with Margaret, daughter of the King of France, which were celebrated here September 9th, 1299, by Robert, archbishop of Canterbury, near the door at the entrance of the cloister.

The fine painted window in this transept, which was given by Edward IV. was in the time of fanaticism, during the wars of the seventeenth century, nearly destroyed; sufficient of it, however, remains to show how beautiful it must have been in its perfect state.

It is said that in this window, before its destruction, was "the representation of God the Father, and of Christ, besides a large crucifix, and the Holy Ghost, in the form of a dove, and the twelve Apostles; there were likewise seven large pictures of the Virgin Mary, in as many glorious appearances; as of the angels lifting her up into Heaven, and the sun, moon and stars under her feet; each having an inscription under it. To these were added many figures of saints, as St. George, &c; but the favourite saint of this church, Archbishop Becket, was pictured in this window in full proportion, with his cope, crochet, mitre, crozier, and other pontificals; and at the foot of the window was a legend, showing that it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary." In repairing this fine window, many transpositions and false matchings have been made; and much of the glass which the window now contains has been brought from other parts of the church. It comprises a multitude of lights, or panels of glazing; the three lower ranges of which are very Dirge, and have seven in each row. The middle one is almost all of coloured glass, the others plain, except some escutcheons of arms.

The coloured range has, at present, in its middle panel, the arms of the church, under a canopy; but is supposed to have once had a crucifix, or some other representation, held equally sacred, as all the figures on each side are kneeling to it. These are said to be intended for King Edward IV. and his family. The king is placed in the centre panel to the west; in those behind him are Prince Edward, and Richard Duke of York: in that on the east side is the Queen; in the next, three Princesses; and in the last two others: all, except these two, have crowns or coronets. In the ranges of small lights at the upper part of the window, each only capable of holding one small figure, are those of different saints; their height and distance having preserved them from being broken.

Adjoining to the north side of this transept or Martyrdom, behind Archbishop Warham's tomb, without the wall of the church, was the chapel, or chantry, being a very small one, erected by him for a priest to celebrate masses for his soul; but, at the time of the Reformation, this was pulled down. Contiguous to the martyrdom, on the east side, is the chapel, generally called the Dean's Chapel, from several of the deans of this church having been interred in it. It has a curious vaulted roof of carved stonework; it was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, whence, till the Reformation, it was called our Lady's Chapel. It appears by the work to be of the time of Henry VI.; and, at the latter end of that reign, was called the new chapel of the Virgin Mary.

Almost the whole of the opposite, or south-wing, is now paved with the gravestones removed from the nave of the church, when that was newly paved some years since; on the sides are several monuments of marble. The great window at the south end of this transept has been rebuilt; and being filled with the painted glass taken from different parts of this church and neighbourhood, makes a very handsome appearance.

The chapel of St. Michael is on the east side of this wing, built on the site of a former edifice, most probably, by the appearance of the architecture, at about the same time as these cross aisles and the nave of the church were taken down and rebuilt, but upon a smaller scale, as appears by Archbishop Langton's tomb, who lived in the reign of Henry III. which is at the east end of it, and remains one half within the chapel, and the other 'without, in the church yard, the wall of the chapel being built across the middle of it.

Over the chapel is a beautiful room, in the same style, being part of Archbishop Sudbury's repairs; the roof is of ribbed arches, on the key stones of which are the faces carved of three members of this priory, with their names and degrees, in legends now partly obliterated.

The choir is about 180 feet in length and 38 feet in breadth. The roof is groined, and is supported by pointed arches, resting on high and slender columns, alternately circular and octagonal. The capitals are highly wrought, and bear a strong resemblance to those of the Corinthian order. Above the large arches, on each side, is a range of double arches, with light shafts of Purbeck marble, and over these arches are the windows. The stalls for the dean and prebendaries are at the west end, six on each side the entrance. They are of wainscot, divided by fluted pillars and pilasters, with capitals of the Corinthian order, supporting arches, canopies, and a front elegantly carved with rich foliage, and other ornaments of crowns, sceptres, mitres, &c. On them are the arms of England and France, of the archbishopric, and of the dean and chapter. This work was part of what was performed after the Restoration, at a vast expence, among the repairs of those mischiefs done by the Puritans in the time of the preceding troubles.

About the year 1706, the present throne was given by Archbishop Tenison; the whole is of wainscot, the canopy and its ornaments being raised very high on six fluted pillars of the Corinthian order. At the right hand of the throne, is the seat or pew for the archdeacon. This seat, as well as the throne, is situated, as the former ones had been, in that part of the choir called the presbyterium, or chancel, which is distinguished from the lower part by two steps.

The ascent to the altar is by a flight of six steps, reaching from side to side within the altar-rails. The altarpiece was erected soon after the year 1729, from a design of Sir James Burrough. It is of the Corinthian order, very lofty, and well executed; the expense of it was defrayed by a legacy of 5001. left by Dr. Grandorge, in 1729. At the same time a handsome wainscoting was carried on from the altarpiece to the two side doors of the choir, in a taste designed to distinguish the chancel from the rest of the choir. The central part of the altar-screen, which was originally a blank space, has been judiciously opened, and is now glazed with plate glass, in a framing of copper gilt, by which means a fine view of the whole eastern extremity of the cathedral is obtained from the choir.

Behind the screen of the high altar is the chapel of the Holy Trinity, in the midst of which formerly stood the shrine of Becket. The arches of this building are quite irregular, some being semicircular, and others pointed. The aisle, which surrounds the above chapel, opens by a large arch to a circular structure, called Becket's Crown, which terminates the eastern extremity of the cathedral.

The outside walls of the aisles on each side of the choir appear to have remained unhurt by the fire which destroyed this church in the year 1174, and to have been altered to the purpose of the new building; in the middle of them are two cross aisles, with two circular porticos on the eastern side of each. In the north portico of the north wing, was the altar of St. Martin, and in the window over it there still remains his figure on horseback, cutting off part of his cloak to cover a naked beggar. Above these cross aisles are two towers, with pointed turrets, the one dedicated to St. Andrew, the other to St. Anselm.

The audit room is at the upper end of the north aisle, on the north side, to which the dean and chapter adjourn, after having first begun their chapter annually in the ancient chapter-house of the priory, and where they hold their audits, and transact other business. Adjoining to this is an ancient room, built of stone and vaulted at top, now called the Treasury, formerly the Great Armoury, so called to distinguish it from the lesser armoury, under the high altar; in the former all the ancient charters and records of the church are kept, in large wooden lockers, made in the shape of copes. The adjoining room, upon the same plan, is now called the vestry, being used when the dean and prebendaries meet to robe and unrobe before and after divine service.

Many of the painted windows in this cathedral have been entirely destroyed, and others much defaced; yet there are still sufficient remaining to prove how beautiful and grand an appearance the whole must have made when perfect. There are still several which are very deservedly admired for the richness and brilliancy of their colours, and the variety and elegance of the Mosaic grounds and borders.

The two windows near the door of the former organ loft in the north aisle, are filled with beautiful painted glass, the remains of twelve windows which escaped the almost general destruction of the ornaments of the cathedral. The paintings appear to be in the same style with those in Becket's chapel.

The uppermost range of windows in the additional height which was given to the eastern parts of this church after the fire in 1174, are in a different style from those already mentioned; only two figures of a large size are contained in each of these, whilst, in the others, the figures are small, and the compartments numerous. The range of these begins over the north side of the choir, and runs from the northeastern corners of the great tower round the cross aisles and the Trinity chapel, and hack again to the great tower on its southeastern corner; the subject of these is thought to be the genealogy of our blessed Saviour. The upper half of the first window is quite defaced; the lower has the figure of Adam, in his husbandry work, with his name to it. Several of the rest are without figures, and some with carpet patterns of beautiful colours. They are in the whole forty-nine in number, including two large circular windows at the end of the two cross aisles. The upper range in the western part of both aisles, having been entirely demolished, have been since filled up with fragments from other places; but it is not possible to find out what they are intended to represent: the lower range of windows in the cross aisles have only borders round them, interspersed with some few coats of arms.

The range of large windows in the Trinity chapel and in Becket's crown, were designed to represent the passion of St. Thomas, with the story of his miracles. They appear, by the remains of them, to have been finely painted. The figures are small, and so are the panels that contain them, which, with the iron work fitted to them, are contrived with a still greater variety of patterns than those hitherto mentioned; though much of the painted glass, especially on the north side, is still remaining, yet great part has been destroyed; and though at a little distance, the windows in Becket's tower appear entire, yet they have suffered in many places, and have been awkwardly mended.

The great window over the western entrance into the nave, was made in the latter part of the reign of King Richard II. It is in the Gothic style, mitred at top, and very large, with many compartments in several stories, or stages, one above another, divided by stonework, and each finished at top in form of the niches of that order.

The uppermost compartment, which is close under the point of the mitred arch, contains the arms of King Richard II. who having chosen Edward the Confessor for his patron, impaled his coat. The second range contains six small figures between the arms of his first wife, on the north, and those of his second on the south. On the third stage are ten saints; on the fourth stage, twelve saints, with a youth kneeling on the south side, and another kneeling figure on the north. Below these, in the uppermost range of large compartments, under Golhic niches, are figures representing Canute, Edward the Confessor, Harold, William the Conqueror, William Rufus, Henry I. and Stephen. They have been much damaged and patched up again.

The two next stages consist of fourteen niches, the tops of the canopies of which are all that now remain.

The dimensions of the principal parts of the cathedral are as follows (in feet):

Length from east to west 514 ——from the west door to the choir 214 ——of the choir to the high altar 150 ——from thence to the eastern extremity, about 150 ——of the western cross aisles, from north to south 124 ——of the eastern 154 Breadth of the body and aisles 74 —— of the choir, 40 Height of the southwest tower 130 Height of the northwest tower 100.

Though when the spire of lead, taken down in August, 1705, was standing on the same, it was 200 Amongst the numerous monuments in this magnificent cathedral the following appear to be chiefly entitled to notice: In the north cross aisle, commonly called the Martyrdom, against the north wall, is the monument of Archbishop Peckham, under an arch which has been adorned with carving and gilding; this is of stone, but the effigies of the archbishop, lying at length in his pontifical habit, is of oak wood, entirely sound, although more than five hundred years old. It is not fixed to the tomb, but lies fastened to a slab of the same wood; a circumstance which has induced some persons to doubt whether it was really designed as a representation of the prelate over whose remains it is now placed.

Next to this, against the same wall, is the monument of Archbishop Warham, of beautiful Gothic stone work; on which is the figure of the archbishop, lying at full length in his pontifical habit; the brasses of the coats of arms, on the base of the tomb, have been purloined. He died in 1534. This monument has been thoroughly cleaned from the white wash which covered it, so that its original elegance of Gothic architecture is now displayed; and for the future preservation of this, and the other monuments in the Martyrdom, the dean and chapter have inclosed the whole with an iron railing.

In the upper south aisle, adjoining to the choir, under the second south window eastward, even with the wall, is the tomb of Archbishop Walter Reynolds, who died in 1327, with his effigies in his pontifical robes, lying at full length on it, but much defaced, the inscription round it obliterated; and under the next window is that of Archbishop Hubert Walter, who died in 1193, of the like form, only with a dog at his feet, and in the same condition. Their robes were once adorned with the armorial bearings of their families. On the opposite or north side, next the choir, is the monument of Archbishop Cardinal Kemp, having an inscription round it in brass. He died in the year 1454. Next above this, on the south side of the high altar, is that of Archbishop Stratford, who died in 1341, having his effigies on it, lying at length in his pontifical dress, made of alabaster; but without any inscription. Above this is the monument of Archbishop Sudbury,who being beheaded by the rebels in London in the year 1381, his body was brought hither and buried in this tomb; a fragment of his epitaph round it, in brass, yet remains. To this tomb the mayor and aldermen of the city used annually to come, with much form and ceremony, in grateful commemoration of the great benefactions he had made to the city.

Opposite the last tomb mentioned, is that of Archbishop Meopham, of black marble, making part of an elegant screen of stonework between this side aisle and St. Anselm's chapel, under the great south window of which is a raised part, said to be the tomb of Archbishop Bradwardin, who died in 1439, but without any inscription or ornament.

On the opposite side of the choir, in the north aisle, are two monuments; on the south side of it adjoining to the choir, being the westernmost of the two, is that of Archbishop Chicheley, founder of All Soul's college, who died in 1443. It was made in his life time, at his own expence, and is richly carved, gilt, and painted. There are several small figures of the apostles, of death, time, &c. round the two pillars at the end of it; upon the tomb, which is of marble, lies the effigies of the archbishop in his pontifical dress, with his cross, as in full health; at his head are two angels sitting, and at his feet two priests kneeling in the attitude of prayer; underneath, the tomb is hollowed, and at the bottom of it, as an emblem of that mortality and humiliating state to which he must eventually become subject, is the archbishop's figure represented as an emaciated corpse, almost naked. On the verge of this tomb is an inscription on brass, still entire.

Higher up, on the northern side of the altar, is the monument of Archbishop Bourchier, erected by himself in his life time. It is high and stately, composed partly of Breccia, and partly of fine freestone, the front of which is full of niches, once filled with small figures, but they have long since been removed; the inscription round it in brass is entire. He died in the year 1486.

At the east end of this aisle we ascend the steps which lead to Trinity Chapel, the pillars of which building were so arranged as to form a circle round the eastern part of the shrine of Becket; and this spot was devoted to the burial of persons of high rank and transcendent renown. The first monument on the north side, is that of King Henry IV. and his queen, Joan of Navarre. Their effigies in their royal robes and crowned, curiously sculptured of white marble or alabaster, lie at full length on it; his feet against a lion couchant, hers against a leopard, (the queen on the right hand) under a canopy carved, painted and gilded, having on it three shields, one with the arms of England and France, quarterly; another with the same, impaling Evreux and Navarre, and a third Evreux and Navarre quarterly; all these on a ground diapered with eagles volant, and the word soverayne, as the king's device and motto : and ermines, collared and chained, with the word attemperance for that of the queen It is to be regretted that this canopy, and many other parts of the monument, are now in a mutilated state. There is, likewise, a tablet at the foot of the tomb, on which is the painting of an angel, standing and supporting a large escutcheon, charged with the same achievements.

On the opposite side to the above, is the monument of Edward the black prince, the eldest son of King Edward III. who died at the archbishop's palace here, June 8th 1376, and his funeral exequies were celebrated in this church on the feast of St. Michael following. It is a noble monument, entire, and very beautiful; his figure large as life, lies at length on it, his feet against a lion conchant, all in gilt brass; the figure completely armed, except the head, on which is a scull-cap with a coronet round it, once set with stones, of which only the collets now remain, and from hence hang a hood and mail down to his breast and shoulders; below which is his surcoat of arms, old France and England quarterly; the head of the figure rests on a casque, or helmet, joined to his cap, which supports his crest (a lion) formed after the trophies above the monument, where are his gaunt-Jets curiously finished and gilt; his coat, on which are the arms above-mentioned, quilted with line cotton, and at least as rich as any of those worn now by the officers at arms on public occasions, but much disfigured by time and dust; and the scabbard of his sword, which appears by it to have been but a small one. His shield hangs upon a pillar near the head of his tomb, on which are the same arms of old France and England quarterly; it once had handles to it.

Round the edge of the tomb is a long inscription, on brass, of French prose and verse, the whole of which is printed in Weever, Sandford, Battely,and other writers; the former,being the only material part of it, is as follows : Cy gist le noble Prince, Monsr. Edward aisnez filz dulres noble Hoy. Edward tiers: Prince d'Aquitaine el de Gales, Due de Cornwaille et Count de Castre, qi morusl en la feste de la Trinite gestrit le Fill. Jour de Juin Van de grace mil trois cens Septante Sisime, L'aline de qi Dieu eit mercy. Amen.

The sides and ends of the tomb are adorned with sculpture and shields of arms, on which are alternately the arms of old France and England, quarterly with a file of three points; over the shield is a label, on which is the word Houmout in old English letters. The other shield has his own arms, viz. three ostrich feathers, the quill end of each in a socket, with a label crossing, on which is his motto, Ich Dien, and a label above the shield in like manner, with the same motto. On the canopy over the monument is painted the figure of our Saviour, now defaced, and the four Evangelists, with their symbols, in small compartments at the four corners of it.

Between the two next pillars, eastward, is the elegant cenotaph of Archbishop Courtney, who died in the year 1396, having his effigies in alabaster, dressed in his pontifical vestments, lying atfull length, but without any inscription.

Under the next arch is the plain tomb of Odo-Colignie, bishop elect of Beauvais, who was poisoned in 1571, as tradition reports, to prevent his embracing the Protestant religion, for which purpose he had come to England, and put himself under the protection of Queen Elizabeth.

Opposite to this tomb, on the north side of the chapel, at the foot of King Henry IV's monument, is that of Dean Wotton, who died in 1566; he was descended of a noble family in this county, and was an eminent statesman, and an accomplished courtier; he continued in favour, and to act in a public character under four reigns, in which there were as many changes in religion. He is represented kneeling on his tomb, his hands joined and uplifted, in the attitude of prayer, before a desk, on which is a book lying open; it is an excellent piece of sculpture, the head especially, which is said to be taken from life, and executed at Rome during his stay there; the countenance is very expressive; he is in his doctor's robes, bareheaded, and with short curly hair and beard; he appears by the figure to have been of small stature.

Near the south wall of this chapel, opposite to Archbishop Courtney's monument, is an ancient and curious sepulchral erection, which is shewn as the tomb of Archbishop Theobald.

On the north side of the small circular building, at the eastern extremity of the church, termed Becket's Crown, is the tomb of Cardinal Archbishop Pole. It is plain, but the form is not inelegant; on it was this inscription, Depositum cardinalis Pali; above it there were some beautiful paintings in fresco, on the wall, of which but little now remains; they are described to have been two angels, supporting a shield of the cardinal's arms of eight coats, and between them two cherubim, holding a cardinal's hat; over this tomb is still remaining an old painting of St. Chrysostora carrying our Saviour over a river.

Beneath the whole eastern division of the cathedral, from the high ascent of the choir to the extremity of the building, runs a spacious and most interesting crypt, or undercroft; the western part of which is of Norman architecture, and is unquestionably of the foundation of Lanfranc; while the eastern part is of the time of Henry II. and forms a striking contrast to the other. That part of the crypt which is under the choir and side aisles, has for many years been appropriated to the Walloons and French refugees, for their place of worship. Under the upper south cross aisle, or wing of the choir, was the chapel or chantry of Edward the Black Prince, with an altar in it dedicated to St. Mary, founded by him in the year 1363, and endowed by license of his father. King Edward III. with the yearly revenue of forty marks, to be paid by the prior of the convent, for the support of two chaplains to pray for his soul, &c. This chantry was suppressed in the reign of Henry VIII. and is now in a dilapidated state, but still presents some traces of fine and impressive architectural labour.

Near the middle of the crypt are the remains of the very elegant chapel of the Virgin, once beautifully ornamented in the pointed style, but now fast mouldering into ruin. This chapel consisted of a body and a chancel, divided by a step in the middle; the altar at the east end is destroyed, but the niche over it for the statue of the Virgin still remains, as well as the pedestal on which it stood, adorned with small figures in relievo of the annunciation and other parts of her history, not quite defaced.

The stone work, which encloses this chapel, at the sides and east end, is extremely elegant; towards the west it is left quite open. Since the dissolution of the priory, and the reformation that followed, this chapel, formerly so much celebrated, has been deserted. Erasmus, who saw it by the especial favour of Archbishop Warham, thus describes it: "There the Virgin mother has an habitation, but somewhat dark, enclosed with a double sept, or rail, of iron, for fear of thieves; for, indeed, I never saw a thing more laden with riches; lights being brought we saw a more than royal spectacle; in beauty it far surpassed that of Walsinghara." A little to the eastward from our Lady's chapel, is a spot termed Becket's tomb, which is so called from Archbishop Becket's first interment there, by the monks. It was to this place (where an altar was erected to the honour of the tomb of the blessed Martyr St. Thomas,) that Henry II. came with bare feet to pray, in performance of his penance; and King Lewis VII. of France came also to visit St. Thomas's tomb, and make his offering; to the saint.

This part of the undercroft, admired for its architecture, was built under the magnificent chapel of the Holy Trinity, which the monks had erected after the fire of the church, instead of the small one at the east end of Lanfranc's church; at the east end there is an arch, over which there is remaining the figure of a crucifix, with a person standing on each side. This opens into a circular building, of about thirty feet diameter, and is the vault under Becket's crown, the roof being arched with ribs meeting in the centre. The greatest part of it is now walled off, and allotted for household uses, to the first prebendal house.

The principal buildings attached to the cathedral consist of the library, the chapter-house, and the cloisters; the whole of which lie on the north side of that structure. The library is a handsome gallery, erected on the ancient walls of the prior's chapel. Here are preserved a good collection of books and some valuable manuscripts. The chapter-house is a spacious and elegant apartment, opening from the east side of the cloisters. This fine building was erected by Prior Chillenden, about the year 1400. The cloister form a noble quadrangle, enclosing a large area, to which they open by eight elegant arches, or windows, on each side. In the vaulting of the roof are inserted about 680 shields, which displays the arms of the nobility and gentry of Kent, who contributed towards the erection of this splendid ambulatory.

At a short distance from the cathedral Precincts, in the eastern suburbs of the city, stand the venerable remains of St. Augustine's Abbey, which at one period, almost equalled the cathedral itself in magnificence and celebrity. The following historical particulars are presented respecting this building. King Ethelbert, having seated St. Augustine in his palace at Canterbury, was persuaded by that pious missionary to commence, in the year 598, the building of a monastery, to the honour of St. Peter and St. Paul; after which, in 605, the king, with his queen Bertha, and their son Eadbald, St. Augustine, and the nobles of the realm, celebrated the solemnity of Christmas at Canterbury, when, with the general consent and approbation of all present, as well clergy as laity, the king delivered up this monastery, with the endowment of it, to the monks of the Benedictine order. The foundation of the abbey being thus laid, it soon advanced in consequence by the enlargement of its buildings and the augmentation of its endowments. The privileges granted to this abbey by the papal bulls were numerous and extensive : in the first of them it is called the first born, the first or chief mother of monasteries in England, and the Roman chapel in England. At the dissolution the revenues of the abbey were valued, according to Dugdale, at 1413l. After this period all the great buildings, such as the dormitory, kitchen, halls and the like, to which may be added the church, being covered with lead, were stripped of it, and the walls either demolished, for the sake of the materials, or being left uncovered, soon fell to decay, so that the very ruins of the far greatest part of this once extensive monastery scarcely appear.

When we enter the site of the monastery, the first object is Ethelbert's tower; the beauty of which, though now much defaced, bears ample testimony of the magnificence of the whole building. This tower was built about the year 1047, and named in honour and memory of King Ethelbert. It is a curious specimen of the decorated Norman style of architecture. There are but small remains of the ancient abbey church, independent of the above tower. These consist of a wail of one of the aisles on the southern side, and the east end of another, with the stone case, or frame, of a pointed gothic window.

Ethelbert's tower seems to have stood in the centre of the west front of the church. About sixty feet southward from it was, till within these few years, a very massive ruin, composed of flints and rubble stone of an extraordinary thickness, seemingly a part of the two sides of a hollow square tower, which was probably the campanile, or belfry. This huge fragment was taken down in 1793, having been undermined by the united efforts of near two hundred men, and with the assistance of jacks and ropes with great difficulty thrown down. The materials of it amounted, exclusive of the rubbish, to near five hundred cart loads.

The small and dilapidated chapel of St. Pancras, situated among these ruins, is an object of antiquarian curiosity, on account of the numerous Roman bricks which are worked into its walls. The ground northwestward from this chapel is very uneven, consisting, underneath the surface, entirely of the ruined foundations of buildings. Close to the wall of the east end of the ruins of the abbey church is a plentiful spring of most excellent water, with which the city, by the bounty of the family of Hales, owners of the site and precincts of the monastery, is in a great measure supplied.

In 1573, Queen Elizabeth kept her court here, in a royal progress; and enough remained of the building to receive King Charles I. at his wedding, which was here consummated with much splendour.

So little is the veneration paid at this time to the remains of this once sacred habitation, that the principal apartments adjoining the gateway are converted into a tavern; the gateway itself (a fine structure erected in the time of King Edward I.) into a brew-house; the great court yard is turned into a bowling-green; and the chapel and aisle of the church, on the north side, into a fives court.

At a small distance to the east of St. Augustine's abbey, stands St. Martin's church. This structure appears to have been raised from the materials of a more ancient building, the walls being composed of a confused mixture of flints, stone, and Roman bricks. The occurrence of these tiles, or bricks, has given rise to a very common opinion, that the existing fabric is, in its greater part, the very building which Bede mentions to have been constructed here, in the Roman times. But, from the architectural style which prevails, there is confident reason, for believing that the entire edifice, in its present form, has been erected since the commencement of the 12th century. The building consists of a nave and chancel only. The font is curious, and apparently of Norman workmanship. It consists of a cylindrical stone, of near two feet six inches high, and as much in diameter; it is but a shell, so that the bason is sufficiently large to dip a child. The outside has four series of ornaments; the lower one is a simple scroll; the next a kind of hieroglyphical true-lovers' knot; the third small Saxon arches, intersecting each other; the upper one a kind of lacing in semicircles, inverted, and also intersecting one another. All the ornaments are small, and much enriched.

The Hospital of East-bridge, or King's-bridge, in St. Peter's Street, is traditionally said to have been founded by St. Thomas a Becket, for the purpose of receiving, lodging, and sustaining poor pilgrims, for one night only, if in health, with right of burial in Christ Churchyard for such as should happen to die within the hospital. It was under the direction of a master, and a vicar under him; and had twelve beds, and an aged woman to look after and provide necessaries for the pilgrims. The present building, though ancient, is substantial, and here twenty boys are instructed gratis, in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The schoolmaster has an apartment in the house, as have also ten poor persons, who receive an annual stipend of 6l. each, and ten others, who are not residents, have about 26s. a year from this foundation. Not far from hence is Jewry Lane, formerly inhabited by Jews, who had a school and synagogue, till they were expelled by Edward II. About thirty years ago, a fair mosaic pavement, of a carpet pattern, was discovered here, in digging a cellar, about three or four feet below the level of the street.

A house for secular priests was founded, in the year 1084, in Northgate street, by Archbishop Lanfranc, dedicated to St. Gregory. At the time of the Dissolution there were in this priory thirteen religious, who were endowed with the yearly revenue of 125l. 15s. 1d.

The Hospital of St. John is situated on the opposite side of the road to the Priory of St. Gregory last mentioned, with which it was founded at the same time by Archbishop Lanfranc, and endowed for the maintenance of poor, infirm, lame, or blind men and women. It was under the government of a prior, and its revenues were valued at the dissolution at 93l. lbs. The present establishment of this hospital consists of a prior, reader, eighteen in-brothers and sisters, and twenty-two out-brothers and sisters, who have a pension of 1l. 4s. per annum each; of whom twenty resident in or near Lambeth are nominated by the archbishop, and the other two are recommended by the master, who is the same as of St. Nicholas' Hospital, in Harbledown. The revenues of this hospital, in the whole, amount to about 3001. per annum.

Maynard's Hospital, situated in Spital lane, was endowed in 1317, for three brethren and four sisters.

Cogan's Hospital, on the south side of St. Peter's ' Street, almost opposite to the gate of the Black Friars, was founded by Mr. John Cogan, of this city, who by his will, proved in 1657, bequeathed the mansion wherein he dwelt, in St. Peter's, Canterbury, together with his moiety of the manor of Littlebourne, and his other estates, for the support and maintenance of six poor widows of clergymen, to be nominated and approved by the mayor of Canterbury and five senior aldermen.

The Bridewell,or Poor Priest's Hospital, situated in Lamb-lane, was founded by Simon Langton, about the year 1240. An act of parliament having been obtained in the year 1729, for the establishment of a general workhouse, for the better relief and employment of the poor of Canterbury, this house or hospital was allotted for the purpose; since which time it has been usually known by the name of the City Workhouse.

Boys's Hospital, named by the founder Jesus Hospital, is situated in the suburbs of Northgate. It was founded and endowed by the will of Sir John Boys, of St. Gregory's, for eight poor men, and four poor women, at the least, besides the warden or principal of the house; who was to "teach freely to read and write, and cast accounts," twenty boys, above twelve years old, of the parishes of Northgate, St. Paul's, St. Mildred's, St. Alphage, Westgate, or St. Dunstan's. In 1787, it was ordered that one more brother should be added to the number, and six more boys should be taught to read and write, and cast accounts; and that three of these boys should every year be put out apprentices, with a premium of eight pounds.

Bridgets Almshouses were built in 1778, in pursuance of the will of Mrs. Sarah Bridger, of Canterbury, for six poor women.

Harris' Jims-houses were built by Thomas Harris, hop merchant of Canterbury, in the year 1726, for the habitations of five poor families.

The benefactions to this city, for charitable purposes, are numerous, and the revenues arising from them very considerable.

Besides the splendid foundations of Christ Church and St. Augustine's, there were the following Religious houses within the walls and suburbs of the city : the Grey Friars, a convent situated at a small distance southward from St. Peter's street, of which there are remaining only some walls and ruined arches. This convent was occupied by Friars of the Franciscan order, who came into England in the year 1220, nine in number, of which five staid at Canterbury, by the direction of King Henry the Third, and here fixed the first house of their order. John Diggs, an alderman, translated them to an island, then called Bynnewith, on the west side of the city, where they continued until the Dissolution. The convent, or priory, of the Black Monks, was situated on the opposite, or north side of Peter Street. The Black Friars settled in this city in the year 1217, and this convent was built for them by Stephen Langton, then archbishop. In the eastern suburb of the city, about a quarter of a mile from the ancient Riding-gate, almost adjoining to the Watling Street, stood the nunnery of St. Sepulchre, of which some ruins are still visible. It was founded by archbishop Anselm, about the year 1100, for Black Benedictine Nuns, and was under the immediate protection and patronage of the archbishop, being built contiguous to the church dedicated to the Holy Sepulchre, from whence this house assumed its name. It was in this convent that Elizabeth Barton, generally called the Holy Blaid of Kent, performed the farce of her pretended inspiration, in the reign of Henry VIII.

In April 1760, as some workmen were digging in an orchard near St. Sepulchre's remains, for brick earth, at the depth of about four feet they found a leaden coffin much decayed, containing the scull and bones of a woman. The coffin was six feet long, the head of it fifteen inches over, twelve-deep, and the foot nine inches over. It lay upon some small tiles, which had some marks upon them, though so much defaced as to be unintelligible; under the middle of the coffin was a stone, sixteen inches by fourteen, with a hole in the centre, four inches square, full of small coal and dust. Some time before, there was found in digging near the same place, an urn, fourteen inches deep, and twelve inches over, which was likewise full of small coal and ashes. Many more human bones have, at times, been dug up in the same orchard, which most probably was the burying place of the nunnery.

There are at present, within the walls of the city, twelve churches. There were formerly five more, which have been long since demolished; and there are three churches now situate in the suburbs.

All Saint's church stands on the north side of the High Street, almost adjoining King's Bridge. It is built of rubble stone, covered with plaister, and appears to have been erected about the time of Edward III. It consists of two aisles and two chancels, having a turret at the west end of the south side, new built in 1769.

St. Alphage church is situated in the north part of the city, on the west side of Palace-street. It is a large and handsome building, consisting of two aisles and two chancels, having a square tower steeple at the west end of the north aisle. There were formerly many coats of arms in the windows of the church, most of which have been long since destroyed.

St. Andrew's church stands in a small recess, about the middle of High-street. It was built in the room,of an ancient church of the same name, which stood at a small distance in the centre of the street. The present church is a neat building of brick, erected since the year 1764. In the vestibule of the new church are placed the monuments formerly in the old edifice.

St. George's church is situated on the north side of the High-street, near the gate of the same name; it is a spacious structure, consisting of two aisles and two chancels, and is surmounted with a well-built tower.

St. Margaret's church stands on the west side of the street of that name. It is a large building, consisting of three aisles and three chancels, having a tower steeple at the west end of the south aisle.

St. Mary Breadman's church is so named to distinguish it from others in the city, dedicated to St. Mary, which surname it had from the bread market formerly kept beside it. This church is situated on the south side of the High-street. It is a small, but ancient building, and displays some curious traces of Norman architecture.

St. Mary Bredin, usually called Little Lady Dungeon church, is situated at a small distance northwestward from the Dungeon, or Dane-john district, whence it takes its name. This is, also, a small structure, and evinces considerable antiquity. It is thought to have been built by William, surnamed Fitz Hamon, grandson to Vitalis, who came over with William the Conqueror.

St. Mary Magdalen's church, in Burgate, consists of two aisles and a chancel, with a square tower at the northwest corner. There are several handsome monuments in this church.

St. Mary Northgate is built partly on the city gate, called Northgate, and partly on the west side of it. It consists only of a body and chancel, being remarkably long and narrow, with a square tower, built of brick in the room of one which fell down some years ago.

St. Mildred's church is situated at the southwest extremity of the city, near the old castle and the river Stour. It is a spacious and well-built fabric, erected in place of a more ancient church, that was destroyed by fire in the year 1247. There are numerous monuments in this church, several of which are well entitled to notice.

Holy Cross Westgate church stands just within the city gate, called Westgate, on the south side of the street, almost adjoining the city wall. It is a large church, but low, consisting of three aisles and a chancel, with a tower at the west end. On the north side of the church, eastward of the porch, there are the ruins of a chantry adjoining to the walls of the church.

St. Peter's church is situated at a small distance from the north side of the street of that name; it consists of three narrow aisles and a chancel, with a tower at the west end of the south aisle. In the windows of this church there are considerable remains of painted glass, particularly in the north aisle. The three churches without the walls of the city, are respectively dedicated to St. Paul, St. Dunstan, and St. Martin. We have already noticed the last—the two former contain little that is remarkable.

The archbishop's palace adjoined to the west side of the priory court, and anciently composed the site of the palace of King Ethelbert A building on this spot, peculiarly devoted to the residence of the archbishop, was first erected by the Norman prelate, Lanfranc; but the greater part was re-edified by Archbishop Hubert Walter, about 120 years afterwards. This prelate laid the foundation of the great hall, in which so many costly celebrations were held at different times; and which, together with other principal parts of the palace, remained habitable until the troubled reign of Charles I.

Among other remarkable circumstances which took place in this magnificent hall, it is recorded, that in September, 1299, the nuptial feast of Edward Land Margaret, the King of France's sister, was sumptuously kept in this apartment for four days together, most of the nobility both of England and France being present. During the time of Archbishop Warham, in the year 1520, there was celebrated, on one of the nights of Whitsun-week, a splendid ball, in the great hall of this palace, at which the newly-elected Emperor Charles V. danced with the Queen of England; and Henry the VIII. with the Queen of Arragon, the Emperor's mother. This being finished, "a royal feast commenced, the tables were covered in the hall, and the banqueting dishes served in; before which rode the Duke of Buckingham, as sewer, upon a white palfrey, and in the midst of the hall was a partition of boards, at which the Duke alighted and keeled on his knee, and that done, again mounted his horse, and proceeded until he was almost half-way to the table; he there again alighted and keeled as before; he then rode to the table, where he delivered his palfrey, and performed his office, kneeling at the table where the Emperor was, while the king with his retinue remained at the other end of the hall." There is so little remaining of the palace, that it is difficult to conjecture what it might have been. The principal parts now left are comprised in two buildings, converted into tenements, opposite the western side of the cloisters; both of which have the appearance of considerable antiquity. One of them has a regular and handsome front. The other house adjoining opposite the western door of the cloisters, is a high building of stone rubble and flint mixed, which appears of itself to be very ancient. From this part of the palace is a high wall embattled, reaching to the northwest tower of the church.

The Castle at Canterbury was probably one of those many castles, or fortresses, built by William the Conqueror, in the early part of his reign. It had a bayle, or yard, adjoining to it, of upwards of four acres, surrounded by a wall and ditch. The passage from the city to it was anciently by a bridge, and beyond that a gate built at the entrance of the castle-yard; and on the opposite side, towards the country, was the ancient gate of the city, called Worthgate, which was a Roman work, removed a few years ago.

The present remains are those of the Keep, and evince a similar degree of ingenuity as the Keep at Rochester. Its form is nearly square, and the interior was divided into three parts by two strong walls.

It is easy to perceive that the present entrances of this structure have been forced, and could never have been there originally; and that there was indeed once a grand entrance, similar to that at Rochester.

This Keep is eighty-eight feet in length, and eighty feet in breadth; and the two fronts, which are of the greatest extent, have each four buttresses; whereas the others have only three; and the walls are in general about eleven feet thick. But, as this tower is so much larger than that at Rochester, there are two partition walls instead of one; and in these are, in like manner as at Rochester, the remains of arches of communication.

In this castle is a well, within the substance of the wall, and descending from the very top of the castle; and in the pipe of this well, as it passes down by the several apartments, are open arches for the convenience of drawing water upon every floor.

There is, also, a gallery in the wall; of which a part is laid open, and is visible; but the staircases are so much ruined that they cannot be ascended here to examine every thing with the same accuracy as at Rochester. Nor can it be precisely determined whether there were more than, two staircases; though, from the appearance of the walls, it may be supposed that there were, and that only one went down to the ground floor.

In all other respects, the mode of fortification seems to have been designed on the same principles; for there were only loop holes, and not one window under any of the arches in the walls on the first floor; and only a very few loop holes on the ground floor. And the state apartments may clearly be seen to have been in the third story; where alone are found large and magnificent windows, as in Rochester Castle.

It is very evident that the present entrances on the East side are modern breaches, made through the places where probably were two arches in the wall, leading to small loop holes.

Baton the North there appears, at a considerable height, a large old arch, like a doorway or portal, now bricked up; and this, on examination, will he found to be, unquestionably, the original grand entrance; for under it is a very considerable projection of solid stone work, which appears to have been the; foundation of some staircase, or strong adjoining building; and there are, also, on the wall of the castle, marks of the upper part of the stairs descending from this portal.

These marks, however, of the remains of steps ascending to the portal, are not the only indications of it having been the original entrance; for the whole plan and formation of the structure within proves it. At the back of the arch, thus bricked up, is a very large arched doorway of stone, within the castle, of very curious workmanship; and directly under it is a steep staircase leading down to a dungeon; the situation of which kind of prisons appears usually to have been under the entrances of most castles; and was so at Dover particularly, as well as at Rochester.

It is supposed by some persons, that this arch was broken through for the use of one of the houses, which were formerly built against the side of the castle; but the largeness of the arch, the regular stone work round it, the symmetry with which it is finished, and the rich stone arched doorway within the castle, directly against this arch, show their mistake in this matter. And that it was in reality much more ancient than those houses, may also be concluded from the very circumstance of its being bricked up so carefully; for although it seems highly probable, for many reasons, that it might be stopped up at the time when the houses were built, yet it is in the highest degree improbable that they should have taken the trouble of doing so when the houses were pulled down, and when so many other cavities and breaches in the castle were left open, without any such care being taken.

It must therefore be concluded, that here, and here only, was the original entrance, approached by means of a flight of steps, and a drawbridge, as at Rochester; and that the fragment of the foundation of those steps, and of the outward entrance, now remaining at the corner, was found too strong to be destroyed, when the adjoining houses were built.

Within the castle-yard, on the eastern side of the road, is the Sessions House for the eastern part of the county of Kent, built in the year 1730.

Distant about one furlong from the castle, on the southeast, is the Dungeon Hill.

The Dungeon, or Danejohn-field, for it is known at present by both these names, lies near the site of the old Riding-gate, adjoining, but within, the walls of the city. The name is variously written in ancient deeds, Dangon, Daungeon, and Dungen.

At the southeast corner of this field, close to the city wall, there is thrown up a vast artificial mount, or hill, now to all appearance circular, which had formerly a deep ditch round such parts as do not touch the wall. It is much higher than the wall ever was, when entire; and from the top there is a clear view over the whole city, as well as a great extent of the adjacent country. The field itself, before late alterations, consisted of very uneven ground. On the outward or opposite side of the wall to the above mount, (the city ditch and a high road only separating the two,) is another artificial mount, of a much smaller size, and not half so high. This place was esteemed of so much consequence that it gave name to the adjoining manor of the Dungeon.

The original of its name is thought to have arisen from its having been the Danes' work, and to have been from thence corruptly called Dangeon and Daungcon, for Danien, or Danes-hill. But the mount is probably of an origin much more remote. Whether this artificial elevation were formed by the ancient Britons, or by any other people who attained domination over the island, it is easy, observes Mr. Hasted, "to perceive that the works, both within and without the present wall of the city, were not counter-works one against the other, but were once all one entire plot, containing about three acres of ground, the outwork of a triangular form, with a mount or hill intrenched round within it; and that, when first made and cast up, it lay wholly without the city wall, and that part of the mount which now forms the larger one, and most part of the outwork likewise, towards the north of it, for the greater security of the city, has been walled in, since that side of the trench was formed, which encompasses the smaller mount now lying without and under the wall (meeting with the rest of the city ditch,) after both sides of the outwork were cut through to make way for it, at the time of the city being walled and in-ditched." In the year 1790, Mr. Alderman James Simmons, to whom this city is indebted for many of its late improvements, converted this place into a city mall. The sides of the hill were then cut into serpentine walks, so as to admit an easy ascent to its summit; and were connected with a terrace, formed upon the high rampart within the wall, and extending to the length of upwards of 600 yards. Additional walks were also made in the adjoining-field; and a double row of limes planted on the sides of the principal walk. The public-spirited conduct of the worthy alderman is commemorated by a pillar placed on the summit of the mount; and although the antiquary may regret these recent alterations, the inhabitants of Canterbury are certainly much indebted to the good intention of a fellow-citizen who provided for them so agreeable a promenade.

The Guild, or Court Hall, as it is usually called, is situated in High Street, and is a handsome and commodious building. At the upper end, where the court of justice is kept, there are several portraits, most of them whole lengths.

The Royal Cavalry Barracks were built of brick in the year 1794, at the expense of about £40,000, including the purchase of sixteen acres of ground. Near the above, additional barracks for 2,000 infantry were erected in 1798, and were afterwards constituted a permanent station for detachments of the royal horse and foot artillery.

For the amusement of the inhabitants and neighbouring gentry, a theatre was erected some years ago, and there is also a public assembly-room, situated in the High Street.

The Kent and Canterbury Hospital is a respectable brick edifice, erected on part of the precincts of the ancient monastery of St. Augustine, at an expense of upwards of £4,000. The first stone was laid on June 9, 1791, and the building was opened for the reception of patients, on the 26th of April, 1798. Within the same precincts is a gaol, and house of correction for the eastern part of the county of Kent; contiguous to which is a Sessions House, for the same district. These buildings were completed in the year 1808. It is pleasing to observe, that the system of gratuitous education meets with due encouragement in this ancient city. A national school has been formed, on a comprehensive plan, and promises to be of essential benefit to the manners of the lower orders.

Chalybeate waters, although long known to have existed here, experienced almost universal neglect until the last few years. These waters are situated near the west gale; and convenient accommodations are now provided for such persons as resort to their use.

According to the returns under the Population Act in 1811, the city of Canterbury then contained 2,199 houses, and 10,200 inhabitants.

Topography of Great Britain, written: 1802-29 by George Alexander Cooke

CANTERBURY is the chief city in Kent, and, though not the seat of the assizes, is a city and county of itself, and under the provisions of the “Local Government Act, 1888,” has been declared a county borough, situated on the river Stour and on the ancient Watling Street; it is the head of a poor law parish and county court district, in the Eastern division of the county, Home petty sessional division, and lathe of St. Augustine; it is also the head of a diocese, and gives its name to a rural deanery and an archdeaconry. The Ashford and Ramsgate, the Canterbury and Whitstable branch, and the Elham Valley branches of the South Eastern and Chatham railway, place it in communication with the metropolis and with other parts of the country.

The geographical position of the city is 51 deg. 17 mm. north latitude and 1 deg. 15 min. east longitude: its boundaries are 12 ¼ miles in length and the extent of the city, within the wall, is about half a mile from east to west and rather more than that distance from north to south: it is 61 miles from London by rail, and 55 ¼ by road; 16 north-west from Dover by Tail and 16 by road; 20 south-west from Margate by rail and 15 by road; 16 south-west from Ramsgate; 26 east-by-south from Rochester; 15 north from Folkestone by road; 12 west from Sandwich; 17 west-by-north from Deal; 14 north-east from Ashford; 27 east from Maidstone; 40 north-east from Tonbridge; 45 north-east from Tunbridge Wells; 30 north-east from Rye and 41 from Hastings. Whitstable, 6 miles north is its port on the Thames side, and Fordwich, 2 miles below, on the Stour, the frequent scene of Royal landings and embarkations in old times, was formerly its port on that river. The Stour is crossed by several bridges and has on it some ancient flour mills, by which the navigation is impeded.

Under the provisions of the “Local Government Act, 1894,” an Order of the Corporation, dated July 1, 1896, and confirmed by Local Government Board Order, No. 35,274, dated March 26, 1897, the parishes comprising the old Canterbury poor law union have been formed into one civil parish.

By Local Government Board Order, No. 31,649, in 1894, part, of Nackington civil parish was added to St. Mary Breden, parts of Bekesbourne and Patrixbourne added to St. Paul, parts of Fordwich, Hackington Sturry added to St. Mary, North Gate, and part of Littlebourne added to St. Martin.

By the same Order, the civil parishes of St. Dunstan Within and Without were created from the old civil parish of St. Dunstan.

Canterbury returned two members to Parliament until the passing of the “Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885” (48 & 49 Vict. c. 23), by which the number was reduced to one. At the time of the Conquest Canterbury was governed by a Prefect appointed by the Crown. Henry II. granted to the citizens a charter conferring new privileges, and Henry III. empowered them to elect two bailiffs, who in the reign of Henry VI. gave place to a mayor; Edward IV. confirmed all previous charters, and constituted the city a county of itself; various modifications in the government were made by Henry VII. and Henry VIII.; and James I. in 1607, granted a new charter of incorporation, but under the provisions of the “Municipal Corporations Act, 1835” (5 and 6 Wm. IV. c. 76), the city is now divided into the municipal wards of Dane John, Northgate and Westgate, which by that Act replaced) the six ancient wards of Worthgate, Northgate, Westgate, Burgate, Queningafce and Ridingate, each named from one of the entrance gates, and is governed by a Corporation consisting of six aldermen and eighteen councillors, from whom the mayor is chosen, and who appoint a sheriff. There is a commission of the peace for the city, and quarter sessions are held by the Recorder.

The city is lighted by electricity and with gas and supplied with water by a company, whose works are within the precincts of the ancient castle; this company has obtained an increased supply of good water at Thanington, by boring to the depth of 525 feet, and large works with powerful machinery have been erected, from whence a good supply at constant high pressure is conveyed to all parts of the city, the surplus water being forced up to a reservoir on the summit of St. Thomas’ hill. The precincts of the cathedral are supplied with water from a private source. The gas works cover over an acre of ground and have gasometers capable of holding about 920,000 cubic feet of gas: there are 112 retorts and 3 gasholders: sulphate of ammonia has been made here for the last 20 years. In 1898 a system of electric lighting was introduced by the Corporation, both for public and private use, and extensive works were erected at Northgate in 1899, at a total cost of about £50,000.

The Canterbury Sewage Works are on the Sturry road. The works, 72 acres in area, belong to the Corporation, and differ from other sewage farms in supplying liquid manure to the entire exclusion of all solid matter.

Canterbury was evidently a British town, “Dafyrraha,” deriving its Romanized name of “Dubris” or “Durovernum” from the Cymric “dwr” (water), and may even have been of Iberian origin; in Julius Caesar’s time it was held by the Belgae, afterwards by the Romans themselves, when it became an important city, and there are still Roman remains in St. Martin’s church and the burial ground near St. Sepulchre’s; being captured by Hengist and the Angles, Frisians and Jutes, it was named “Cantwarabyrig,” the Kentishmen’s borough, a term now converted into Canterbury: it was besieged and sacked by the Danes more than once, but for the last 800 years has suffered few vicissitudes. During the Middle Ages it profited very much from the troops of pilgrims who came from all parts of England and Europe to the shrine of St. Thomas & Becket; and subsequently from the industry of the Walloons, who carried on here an extensive trade in woven fabrics. The present importance of Canterbury is due in part to its position as the capital of East Kent, but chiefly to the greatness and endurance of its historical associations, and to its high ecclesiastical rank as the chief city of the English Christian World.

Canterbury is the See of the Right Honourable and Most Reverend the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Primate of all England and Metropolitan Patriarch of the English Church-an ecclesiastical dignitary who holds the highest rank in the kingdom as a peer next to the Royal Family, taking precedence of the dukes, and receiving the title of “His Grace,” and “The Most Reverend Father in God:” his Archiepiscopal authority extends over that part of England and Wales lying south of the Trent and he is also Bishop for the greater part of Kent and exercises control over the colonial churches. By virtue of his rank the Archbishop is president of the Houses of Convocation of bishops and procurators for the South of England, his chief official residence being Lambeth Palace. Canterbury has held the dignity of an Archiepiscopal See since King Ethelbert, the Bretwalda, introduced Christianity into this country, upwards of twelve centuries since; and many of its prelates have been venerated as saints, including St. Augustine, St. Alphege, St. Dunston, St. Anselm, and St. Thomas a Becket.

The cathedral of Christ Church, the city’s greatest ornament, stands on the site of the palace in which Ethelbert, Bretwalda and King of Kent, resided, when persuaded to become a Christian by Bertha, his Queen, and St. Augustine, afterwards the first Archbishop of Canterbury. The king gave the palace to the saint, who converted it into a cathedral and monastery: it was subsequently much enlarged, but was plundered by the Danes and Archbishop Alphege martyred. Archbishop Lanfranc, after the Norman accession, repaired the cathedral and rebuilt it on a magnificent scale. In 1174 the choir was burned, and, on its re-erection, the church was extended to the eastward by William of Sens and an English architect of the same name: in the new chapel of St. Thomas was dedicated, on the 7th of July, 1220, the shrine erected for St. Thomas a Becket, who, on December 29, 1170, had been massacred in the north-west transept, by four barons of Henry II. named Reginald Fitzurse, William de Tracy, Hugh de Moreville and Richard Brito: this spot has ever since borne the name of “The Martyrdom,” and was the object of many pilgrimages; the Primate was mounting, the afterwards removed stairs to the north aisle, when, hearing himself called a “traitor,” he returned and met the knights at the entrance to the aisle; the spot where he fell is now marked by a stone in the floor. The shrine was removed in Sept. 1538, by commissioners appointed by Henry VIII. and Becket’s remains taken out of the shrine and verified, and although it was asserted at Rome that they had been burnt, and the ashes scattered to the wind, it appears certain from evidence collected in 1891 by the late H. S. Milman esq. F.S.A, that after verification, they were really buried with other relics. At various subsequent periods the edifice has been repaired and greatly extended and more recently considerable restorations have been very carefully effected.

The plan of the cathedral is that of a double cross and consists of a choir of six bays, with aisles, a choir transept forming an additional bay, with two apsidal chapels in each wing; a presbytery of two bays, with aisles; St. Thomas’ apsidal chapel of four bays, with a magnificent procession path and aisles; and eastward, the circular chapel of the Holy Trinity; King Henry IV.’s chapel of St. Edward, north of St. Thomas’ Chapel; the apsidal chapel of St. Anselm, south of the presbytery, and north of it the similar chapel of St. Andrew; the Lady Chapel, east of the north wing of the great transept; St. Michael’s Chapel, east of the south wing; a nave of nine bays, central and two western towers, and a crypt or undercroft, 163 feet by 83 feet 6 inches, the largest, finest, and most interesting structure of its kind in this country. The grand central tower, completed in, 1495, was originally called “The Angel Steeple,” from its being once surmounted by a pinnacle bearing a gilt angel, but is now more familiarly known as “Bell Harry Tower,” from “Bell Harry,” a small bell given by Henry VIII. and placed on its summit under a penthouse: it is chimed, each time for ten minutes, every morning at ¼ to 6 in the summer, and ¼ to 7 in the winter half of the year (this custom being the only existing remnant of an early service formerly held in the Sermon House or Chapter House), before morning and afternoon daily service in the choir and as a curfew at 8 p.m.; it is never tolled but on the death of an Archbishop of Canterbury, or of a member of the Royal Family.

The North-west or Arundel Tower was originally built by Lanfranc, whose work remained until 1834, when the tower, having fallen into a dilapidated condition, was rebuilt by the Dean and Chapter, under the superintendence of Mr. G. Austin, at a cost of £25,000, as the exact counterpart of the south-western or Chichele Tower, a leaden spire, 100 feet in height, having been previously removed in August, 1705; of the three, the “Bell Harry” may justly be regarded, from its superh and harmonious design, as the glory of all towers; it consists of two stages, with two two-light transomed windows in each face, the lower tier being canopied; it is 35 feet square, surmounted by octagonal turrets at each angle and rises to a height, including the pinnacles, of 249 feet 4 inches; the western towers are each of six stages, with battlemented parapets and four large double pinnacles at the angles and are 156 feet high. The whole of the western portion of the cathedral, as far as the choir, is Perpendicular; the eastern part, including the choir and chapels, exhibits highly curious Early English work, some of which is but just emerging from the ruder Norman; the arches of the choir and all the lower portions may be regarded as Norman, but late in style; the treasury, situated north of Trinity chapel, is a very fine example of Norman work, with Tanges of intersecting arches; the west window is of seven lights; the nave has no triforium, each bay being sub-divided into pier arch with clerestory and panelling reaching to the string course above; the roof under the lantern was painted in fresco by Mrs. Austin: the soft and silvery glazing of the north window in this transept was given by Edward IV.; the south window is filled with portions of old glass.

The choir offers the earliest instance of the Pointed arch in England, as well as of groining on a large scale and is approached by noble flights of steps; the screen, with its niched imagery of founders and saints, dates from the fifteenth century; the clerestory of the choir is filled with stained glass representing the Genealogy of Our Saviour; the archbishop’s throne, a gift of Archbishop Howley, cost £1,200 and was carved by Flemish workmen from the designs of Mr. Austin: the stone pulpit, designed by Mr. Butterfield, was set up in 1846; the eagle lectern is dated 1663: the old organ, rebuilt by Samuel Green, contained the open diapasons from the origan used at the Handel Festival in Westminster Abbey in, 1784 and was enlarged by Hill in 1842; but a new organ, including these diapasons, was built in 1886 by Willis & Son, at a cost of £3,125, and dedicated July 30Th 1886: it is worked by electricity, 79 miles of wire connecting the key board over the choir screen, with the action of the instrument in the triforium; the organ is blown by hydraulic power; in a recess in the north choir aisle is a wall painting of the Conversion of St. Eustace.

In the apse, approached by broad flights of steps, is St. Thomas’ Chapel, surrounded by a double arcade of columns; it has also a curious mosaic pavement, of white marble, serpentine and porphyry: this chapel contains the tomb of Henry IV. 1413, and his queen, Joan of Navarre; it is of alabaster, richly sculptured with effigies of both and was originally painted and gilt; here also is the alter tomb of Edward the Black Prince, 1376, with gilt bronze recumbent effigy under a flat tester, the surrounding iron railing is of the 15th century; the shield, surcoat, helmet, cap of maintenance, crest, gauntlets and sword scabbard so long suspended over the tomb, were taken down by the Dean and Chapter in June, 1894, and by their permission were shown at the Heraldic Exhibition of the Society of Antiquaries of London, held at Burlington, House at that date, but have since been re-hung as before. From a careful examination of the relics, it is now stated by experts to be quite doubtful whether the shield and surcoat ever belonged to Prince Edward, since there is no trace of their having borne his distinctive file or label, which is also absent from the lion crest; but they were probably part of the paraphernalia carried at his funeral: in this chapel are also the tombs of Odo Coligny Cardinal Chatillon, 1571; the Very Rev. Nicholas Wotton LL.D, d. 1566, first Dean of Canterbury and Dean of York, with his effigy kneeling before a desk; Archbishop Courtenay, 1397, with his effigy on an altar tomb; Archbishop Hubert Walter, 1193—1205, whose tomb was examined in the spring of 1891 when his crosier, ring, mitre, and other relics were found in it: in the centre of this chapel once stood the sumptuous shrine of St. Thomas, inclosing his coffin of iron, the body of the Martyr being placed here with much pomp, July 7, 1220, in the presence of King Henry III.; to this tomb came great numbers of pilgrims, and the steps, still existing, are worn, into hollows by their kneeling; hither also from 1177 to 1520, came various English monarchs and foreign potentates; and here, in 1299, Edward I. Offered the crown of Scotland: eastward of this chapel is an elegant part of the edifice, called Becket’s Crown, which has been left externally incomplete; probably, however, the cathedral is, even so, grander than if modern Norman spires were now added to it; it was possibly erected on the site of the ancient circular baptistery and tomb-house of the Saxon primates and bears some similarity to the east end of the Marien Kirche, at Lubeck; some decayed paintings linger on the interior walls; the stained glass, of the east window is of the 13th century. The Treasury contains the ancient charters, a number of them Saxon and some prior to the Norman accession, one being a charter by Bang Ethelbert, written by St. Dunstan: in the north aisle are two fine painted windows. From the Martyrdom a flight of steps conducts to the crypt, or undercroft, of which the south aisle, under St. Anselm’s Tower, has been appropriated to the worship of the Walloons and French Huguenot refugees since 1568, when their looms were here set up; they are now not so numerous as formerly, though a respectable congregation still attends the French service. In the crypt no less than ten archbishops are buried. Here is the site of the original tomb of St. Thomas, to which King Henry II. came barefoot to do penance and before which he suffered flagellation, receiving five strokes from each prelate and abbot and three from every one of the 80 monks; on the same spot, also King Louis VII. of France watched a whole night.

In the south aisle of the choir, divided off by the screen of Archbishop Meopham’s monument, are the chapel (anciently that of St. Peter and St. Paul) and tower of St. Anselm, with a fine window, built by Prior Oxenden, 1336; on the north-east wall of the chapel is an extremely interesting painting of the early 12th century, representing St. Paul shaking off the viper when at Malta: westward of this chapel is the choir transept, the two apses of which were the chapels of SS. Stephen and Martin; the south apsidal chapels were those of SS. John and Gregory, once containing the tombs of four Saxon primates; in the north aisle of the apse is King Henry IV.’s chantry, with rich fan-tracery in the vault. Under the choir transept is the chantry of the Black Prince, founded by him in 1366 and east of it St. John’s chapel, with an inner chamber: in the south aisle is a memorial to H.M. 31st Foot (now East Surrey Regiment), by Richardson, above which the old regimental colours were placed, February 11Th 1850: in the north aisle are suspended the colours of the 3rd Buffs (East Kent Regiment) and some Afghan, flags captured by the 50th Foot (1st Battalion Royal West Kent Regiment).

Here also is a marble tablet to Lieut. C. G Monsell and the non-com. officers and men of the Buffs, who died in the Chitral and Punjaub frontier campaigns of 1895.

The memorial to Archbishop Tait, who died 3 Dec. 1882, consists of an altar tomb of marble, bearing an effigy executed by Sir J. E. Boehm bart. R.A. at a cost of about £2,500, and is placed in the north-east transept.

In 1891 a cenotaph with recumbent effigy in marble in the north aisle of the nave, was unveiled to the late Right Rev. Edward Parry D.D. Bishop of Dover, 1870—90. Archbishop Benson, who died suddenly in Hawarden church, while on a visit to the late Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P. was interred under the north-west tower in October, 1896, and near this spot is now a canopied tomb with a life-size recumbent effigy in marble of the Archbishop, unveiled by H.R.H, the Duchess of Albany in July 1899; mural tablets have also been placed to the Ven. Benj. Fredk. Smith M.A. late archdeacon of Maidstone, d. 1900, to Lieut.-Col. R. C. Cokayne-Frith d. 1500, and to the Hon. J. G. Beaney M.D. of Melbourne, a generous benefactor to this city, d. 1891.

In the cathedral have been interred St. Alphege (1012), St. Anselm (1109), King Henry IV. (1413) and Queen Joan of Navarre (1437), Edward the Black Prince (1376), John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset K.G. (1410), Margaret Holland (1449) and her two husbands, John (Beaufort) Marquess of Dorset, K.G. (1409), and Thomas (Plantagenet) Duke of Clarence, who fell at Beaugs in 1421, tomb with effigies; John Earl of Somerset (1444), Archbishops Hubert Walter (1205), Thomas a Becket (1170), Richard (1184), Peckham (1292) altar tomb with effigy in Irish oak; Warham (1534); Courtney (1397); Winchelsea, who was considered as a saint (1313); Reynolds (1327); Walter (1215); Kempe (1454), altar tomb with an elaborate wooden tester; Stratford (1348); Simon of Sudbury, beheaded 13th June, 1381; Meopham (1333), coped tomb with a beautiful sculptured open screen; Brad warden (1349), Chichele (1444), raised tomb, screen with imagery and effigy and cadaver restored in polychrome in 1846; Langton (1228); the Cardinal Archbishop Bourchier (1486), raised tomb of Bethersden marble, under an arch; Cardinal Archbishop Morton (1500); Cardinal Archbishop Pole (1558); Cardinal de Chatillon (1571); the learned Casaubon; Orlando Gibbons, the musician (1625); Sir John Boys (1612); Colonel John Stuart, Doctor Chapman and Prior Thomas Goldstone; Deans Wootton (1566); Rogers, Bishop Suffragan of Dover (1597); James Wedderburn, Bishop of Dumblane (1639); Fotherbye (1619); Boys (1625); Bargrave (1643); Turner (1672); Powys (1809); Joan (de Burghersh) wife of John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun of Dunster (1395).

In the north-west transept, the scene of St. Thomas’s martyrdom, Edward I. was married to Queen Margaret in 1299. The large window in this transept was once remarkable for its splendour, but it was almost entirely destroyed in 1643 by a fanatic named Richard Culmer, a Puritan, commonly called “Blue Dick,” who was thrust by the Parliamentarians during the usurpation of Cromwell into the office of one of the “Six Preachers.” Mounting a ladder, with a pike in his hand, this fanatic demolished the beautiful glass as he ascended, crying, “I am doing the work of the Lord and rattling down proud Becket’s glassy bones.” A bystander said, “I’ll help him;” and with a well-directed stone, struck him on the head and brought him down, but not before he had almost completely demolished the finest window in the cathedral: its remains have still considerable interest and bear a sad testimony to its original grandeur. The great window in the opposite transept is a patchwork of ancient glass but still magnificent. In June, 1882, a memorial window to the late Mr. Pemberton was placed in the south-east transept. The patriarchal or metropolitan chair of Bethersden marble, in which the Primates are enthroned, formerly stood behind the high altar, but was removed for the enthronement of Archbishop Sumner, who was enthroned in it in front of the altar, and it is now placed in the round chapel of the Holy Trinity.

The dimensions of the cathedral are-nave, 220 feet long and 72 in breadth; choir, 180 feet in length and 40 in width; great transept, 124 feet long; choir transept, 154 feet long; cloisters, 144 feet square; Trinity chapel, 71 feet long and 69 in breadth: external length 530 feet; internal length 514 feet; western towers, 156 feet 8 inches in height; central or Bell Harry Tower, 235 feet; or including its pinnacles, 249 feet 4 inches.

The cloisters have eight bays on every side, the panes being mullioned and the stone roof groined with 700 shields on the bosses; on the north side is a range of stone seats canopied.

The old library, erected on the site of the prior’s chapel, with the original ambulatory beneath contains a valuable collection of books and manuscripts, belonging to the late Ven. Benjamin Harrison M.A. Archdeacon of Maidstone. The cathedral library contains the manuscripts of Isaac Casaubon, William Somner, the antiquary, and others; a collection of Greek and Roman coins and on extensive collection of Bibles. A handsome and extensive building, in the Norman style, erected in 1868 on the north side of the Chapter House, for the reception of the library, was opened on the occasion of the enthronement of the late Archbishop, on February 4Th 1869, and is open for reference for two hours on Tuesday and Friday in each week. In the Green Court is the Deanery, a spacious house, formerly the Prior's lodging for guests; in the entrance hall, as well as in the noble drawing-room and dining-room, are portraits of many former deans of Canterbury; only one portrait, that of Dean Aglionby (1622—25), being wanting to make the set of portraits complete. The Chapter House, approached from the east walk, was built in 1264, repaired in 1304, and the upper part rebuilt in the 15th century; it is 90 feet long, 37 broad and 54 high, and is a beautiful and well-proportioned building, with a canopied arcade on three sides, large east and west windows and an exquisitely carved roof of Irish oak. During 1897—8 the interior has been re-floored, some of the shafts of the arcading renewed, the walls replaistered, the elaborate tracery of the roof decorated in colour, and a stained window erected.

The cathedral precincts contain some remains of the former priory; the fine cemetery gateway, known as Christ Church gate, at the junction of Burgate street and Sun street, was built by Prior Goldstone in 1517.

The precincts of the Cathedral and ville of Christ Church are under the jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter, and are in Blean union. The Dean and Chapter have the patronage of about 30 livings, chiefly in the south-eastern counties. Of the Archbishop’s palace in Palace street a small portion remains, and this has now (1902) been incorporated in the new palace erected in the precincts, at an estimate of £18,967, from designs by Mr. W. D. Caroe, architect.

The parish of All Saints is now annexed ecclesiastically to that of St. Alphege: the church, in Eastbridge, now used as a Sunday school, was rebuilt in 1828, nearly on the site of the original church (erected in the reign of Edward III.), and is of brick, in a modern style of Gothic, with a square tower containing a clock and one bell: the edifice was reseated and restored in 1878. The register dates from 1559.

St. Mary-de-Castro and St. Mildred’s form a united benefice. The ancient church of St. Mary-de-Castro has disappeared, but its site can still be traced. This parish, though included in the consolidated benefice and under the spiritual charge of its rector, is an extra-parochial precinct.

St. Mildred’s, Stour street, is chiefly of flint and principally Early English, with windows of Perpendicular date: there are a number of stained windows: the church was restored in 1860, at a cost of £1,200, and is endowed with an ample repair fund, founded about three centuries since, by John Hind: the parish possesses some antique and valuable communion plate, especially a small and very ancient golden paten and a chalice, presented by Sir Anthony Honywood bart. in 1622: there are 300 sittings. The register dates from the year 1559 and is in excellent preservation. The living is a rectory, net yearly value £250, with 1 ½ acres of glebe and residence, in the gift of the Lord Chancellor, and held since 1896 by the Rev. Arthur Stevens B.A. and L.Th of Durham University.

All Saints and St. Alphege now form another united benefice, the church of the former parish being disused except for Sunday school purposes.

The church of St. Alphege, in Palace street, is of rough flint 1 and brick, in the Decorated and Perpendicular styles: there are several memorials: the church affords 265 sittings.

The mission church of St. Mary, in Northgate street, is of brick and flint, with traces of a Norman and a Perpendicular window, and contains an inscription to Ralph Brown, alderman and mayor of Canterbury: there are 400 sittings. The registers date from 1558 and 1640 respectively.

The rectory of St. Alphege, and part of the vicarage of St. Mary, Northgate, with the rectory of All Saints, constitute a united benefice, net yearly value, St. Alphege £13 10s. and All Saints £2, in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and held since 1899 by the Rev. Alfred Butler M.A. of St. John’s College, Cambridge, and master of Eastbridge hospital.

St. Dunstan’s is a parish at the west end of the city and without the city walls. The church of St. Dunstan, in St. Dunstan’s street, is of flint with stone dressings, in the Decorated and Perpendicular styles, and has a tower containing 6 bells and a clock: there are several memorial windows and tombs and monuments to the Roper and other families: in a vault below, inclosed in a leaden case, resting in a niche, is preserved the head of Sir Thomas More, placed there by the pious care of his favourite daughter, Margaret Roper, who had rescued it from the gate tower of London bridge, where it was placed after his execution 6th July, 1535; his body was buried at the old church of St. Luke, Chelsea. The church was restored in 1878—9: there are 400 sittings. The register of baptisms dates from the year 1574; marriages, 1561; and burials, 1559. The churchwardens’ accounts from A.D. 1484—1580 have already been printed by Mr. J. M. Cowper and will be gradually completed. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £260, including 10 acres of glebe, with residence, in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and held since 1894 by the Rev. William, Ernest Evill B.A. of Trinity Hall, Cambridge.

The church of St. George the Martyr and Mary Magdalene, in St. George’s street, enlarged on the demolition of the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Burgate, has a tower with spire containing a clock: the chancel and north aisle were added in 1871: there are a number of memorial windows and one brass: the church affords sittings for 500 persons. The registers of St. George the Martyr date from 1538; the portion between that date and 1574 being a copy from some pre-existing book; those of St. Mary Magdalene date from 1664 only, and both have been copied and edited by Mr. J. M. Cowper.

St. George the Martyr and St. Mary Magdalene form a joint rectory, net yearly value £180, in addition to house-tithe, fees and offerings, and residence, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, and held since 1900 by the Rev. Francis Thomas Vine M.A. of Magdalene College, Cambridge.

The church of St. Gregory, near Military road, erected in 1848, and consecrated in Aug. 1852, as a memorial to Archbishop Howley, is of flint with stone dressings in the Early Decorated and Perpendicular styles, and has a belfry containing 3 bells: there are 270 sittings. The register dates from the year 1852. The living is a vicarage, originally a ville in the parish of St. Mary, Northgate, net yearly value £325, with residence, in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and held since 1901 by the Rev. Francis Robert Mercer M.A. of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and chaplain of St. John’s Hospital.

The parishes of St. Margaret, St. Andrew and St. Mary Bredman were ecclesiastically united in 1888 by Order in Council.

In 1902 a faculty was obtained constituting St. Margaret’s the parish church of the three united parishes, and giving equal Tights in St. Margaret’s vestry to the ratepayers of the united parishes.

The church of St. Mary Bredman, High street, was taken down in 1900, and the site railed in and planted with shrubs; the mural tablets were removed to St. Andrew’s church.

The church of S. Margaret, in St. Margaret’s street, is of stone in the Perpendicular style, and has a tower containing 3 bells: there are various stained windows and numerous monuments: the church affords 320 sittings. The register of St. Margaret’s dates from the year 1654, St. Mary Bredman’s 1558 and St. Andrew’s 1538; the last-mentioned parish has also churchwardens’ accounts from 1483. The united livings form a rectory, net yearly value £240, with residence, in the gift of the Archbishop and Archdeacon of Canterbury, and held since 1898 by the Rev. Henry Day French M.A. of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and rural dean of Canterbury.

The church of St. Andrew, rebuilt in 1774, is of brick, but was closed in 1880, and has recently been converted into a room for the use of the united benefice of St. Margaret with St. Andrew and St. Mary Bredman, as well as for general church purposes, under the designation of St. Andrew’s Church' House: a handsome gateway in the Renaissance style, surmounted with a statue of St. Andrew, forms the entrance from the Parade.

St. Martin and St. Paul constitute a united parish. St. Martin’s church is at the foot of St. Martin’s hill, Longport; the first authenticated record concerning it is the well-known sentence of Beda-“There was near the City, towards the East, a Church built of old in honour of St. Martin, while the Romans inhabited Britain”: it has been said to be the oldest church in England, but whether it had a wholly Roman or a wholly Saxon origin, or whether it incorporates work of both periods is a question still debated and therefore unsettled: the outer walls are chiefly of rough flint, with a mixture of what looks like Roman brick, besides other material: the church now consists of chancel, nave, and a low, ivy-covered western tower containing 3 bells, dated 1641, but originally comprised a nave (incorporating the western portion of the present chancel), eastern apse, and a little chamber on the south side of the nave; the font, presumably Saxon (in which it is traditionally said Ethelbert, the first Christian king, was baptised by St. Augustine), is a very fine work of cylindrical form, surrounded by rude and shallow sculpture, assumed to be surrounded by rude and shallow sculpture, assumed to be of later date: there are some brasses of the 16th century, and a mural monument to Sir John Finch, Baron Finch of Fordwich, Speaker of the House of Commons, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and Lord Keeper, d. Nov. 20, 1660: the church was restored in 1647: there are 120 sittings.

St. Paul’s church, standing just outside the city walls, in Church street, St. Paul’s, a continuation of Burgate street, is of flint, and probably of Early English date, and was almost entirely rebuilt and very considerably enlarged in 1856: the turret contains 3 bells: there are several brasses and a stained window: in this church is buried Sir George Rooke, the famous admiral: there are 400 sittings. The register of St. Martin dates from the year 1662, and that of St. Paul from the year 1562. The living is a rectory and vicarage, net yearly value £250, with half an acre of glebe and residence, in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and held since 1901 by the Rev. Edward Hoare Hardcastle M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge.

The church of St. Mary Bredin, in Rose lane, rebuilt in 1867, is of flint in the Gothic style, and has a turret with spire containing 3 bells: the church was new roofed in 1890 at a cost of £220; there are 540 sittings. The register dates from the year 1695. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £225, including glebe, with residence, in the gift of Simeon’s trustees, and held since 1895 by the Rev. Joseph John Bambridge M.A. of Durham University.

St. Peter and Holy Cross constitute a united parish. St. Peter’s church, in St. Peter’s street, is of flint, with some Decorated and Perpendicular features, and has a tower containing 3 bells: the church has been thoroughly repaired since 1882. The church of Holy Cross was rebuilt on its present site, in Westgate, granted for this especial purpose, in the third year of Richard II. (1380), and is of flint, in the Decorated and Perpendicular style, with a tower, erected about 1880, and containing 5 bells: there are 400 sittings. The registers date respectively from 1560 and 1568. The living is a rectory and vicarage, joint net yearly value £200, in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and held since 1901 by the Rev. Thomas Gibson Hill M.A. of Queen's College, Oxford.

Other ancient churches which have shared the fate of St. Mary de Castro, are those of St. John, in the parish of St. Mildred; St. Michael, in Burgate; St. Edmund, in Ridingate; and the chapel of St. Mary, Queningate.

The Archiepiscopal Visitation is held once in four years. The Archdeacons hold their visitations yearly about Eastertide.

The Benedictine abbey of St. Augustine, founded by King Ethelbert in 598, stood in Longport and was richly endowed, holding 12,000 acres of land and with revenues estimated at the Dissolution at £1,431 us. 4 ½d.; it was once a place of considerable magnificence; Henry VIII. converted it into a palace; Philip and Mary granted it to Cardinal Pole, and within its precincts Queen Elizabeth kept her court for several days, and Charles I. was married to Queen Henrietta Maria; in the churchyard are the remains of the chapel of St. Pancras, built almost entirely of re-used Roman material and probably erected by St. Augustine himself while the abbey church was in progress; this abbey was rebuilt in 1848 as a Missionary College, at a very great expense, the site and remains of the abbey having been given for this purpose by the late Right Hon. Alexander James Beresford Beresford-Hope P.C., M.P., D.C.L, who purchased the property in 1844; the object of the college is to provide an education qualifying young men for the ministry of the Colonial and Missionary Church, at an annual charge for maintenance and education of £45; its educational staff and governing body consists of a warden, sub-warden and three fellows, and there are about forty students; the buildings comprise an elegant little chapel with a crypt, hall, library, warden’s lodgings and suitable rooms for the sub-warden, fellows and students; the great 14th century gateway of the monastery, still remaining, has been, carefully restored; the appointment, of all the authorities, who must be graduates of Oxford, Cambridge or Durham, rests with the two archbishops and the bishop of London.

The Catholic church, in Burgate, dedicated to St. Thomas, is of Kentish rag and Bath stone: the east window is stained, and the church has sittings for 500 persons.

The Jews’ Synagogue, in King street, has sittings for 100 persons.

The meeting house of the Society of Friends, in Qanterbury lane, is a building of stone, and seats 100 persons.

St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church of England, in Wincheap, erected in 1880—1, at a cost of £5,000, is of red brick and Bath stone in the later Early English style.

The Baptist chapel, St. George’s place, erected in 1823, has 650 sittings. The Congregational chapel, founded in 1645, will seat 800.

There are also Wesleyan, Unitarian and Primitive Methodist chapels, and one for the Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion, built in 1760, and has 480 sittings.

The Cemetery, near the Whitstable road, comprising an area of 12 acres, was opened 4th July, 1877, for those parishes lying within the parliamentary and municipal limits; about half the ground has been consecrated and a portion of the other half is reserved for consecration should it be required; the remainder being allotted to Nonconformists, Catholics, Jews and the Society of Friends; there are two chapels; the total cost was about £9,000; the Town Council form the Burial Board.

The Guildhall, or Courthall, in High street, and in the parish of St. Mary Bredman, was rebuilt in the reign of Queen Anne, replacing an older building erected in 1437; its walls are decorated with pikes, matchlocks and other ancient arms, taken from Lady Wootton’s house in the time of the Commonwealth; it also contains a collection of portraits of former aldermen, eminent men and benefactors of the city and poor of Canterbury, including among others, Sir Thomas White, the founder of St. John’s College, Oxford; Elizabeth widow of the Rev. George Lovejoy M.A. late fellow of Merton College, Oxford, some time headmaster of the King’s school; Sir John Boys knt.; Lord Chief Justice Tenterden; Alderman Barham, father of the late Rev. Richard Harris Barham M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford, minor canon of St. Paul’s, and author of the “Ingoldsby Legends;” Alderman Simmons M.P. (who left an endowment for keeping up the terrace and garden of the Dane John), and other Canterbury worthies. In 1880 the whole of the interior was re-arranged and re-decorated.

The Beaney Institute, for the education of working men, in High street, with which is combined a public library and museum, was erected in 1897—99, at a cost including land and furnishing, of about £15,000, of which £11,000 was left for the purpose by the late Dr. Beaney, a native of Canterbury, who died in 1892 at Melbourne, Australia: the building is in the Renaissance style, from designs by Mr. A. N. Campbell A.M.I.C.E. city surveyor of Canterbury, and comprises a spacious suite of rooms devoted to newsapapers and journals, ladies’ room, lending and reference libraries, all on the ground floor, the upper floor being devoted to a museum and art gallery: in the basement is the natural history section, storage and workroom: the balance of cost was provided by the Corporation, and the Canterbury Museum and Free Library, founded in 1858, and containing over 6,000 volumes, were removed from Guildhall street in 1898 to this building.

The Museum contains many curiosities, and includes a collection of Roman antiquities, found in the city when the streets were being excavated for drainage. The Natural History Room contains the valuable animals, birds and weapons, bequeathed by the late S. R. Lushington esq.

The late Mr. T. Sidney Cooper C.V.O., R.A. of Harbledown (d. 1902), established at his own expense, in the house of St. Peter’s street in which he was born, a gallery of casts, statues and drawings for the use of students, which is carried on as a School of Art in connection with the Art Department, South Kensington; the school is managed by the Town Council, and conducted by the Museum Committee.

The Swimming Bath in Whitehall road, was constructed in 1876, and has a total length of 375 feet, and a width of 75 feet.

The Castle, of which there are still amply sufficient remains to show that it was formerly a strong and important fortress, is now occupied by the Gas and Water Works Company (Incorporated).

St., Margaret’s Hall, a spacious room, in St. Margaret’s street, will hold 800 persons. Under this is the auction mart, which is largely used for the sale of property.

The Agricultural Hall, just outside the city wall and close to the Canterbury East station, covers half an acre of ground and is used for cattle-shows, flower-shows &c. and also let for menageries and acrobatic performances.

The Masonic Temple, in St. Peter’s street, the foundation stone of which was laid 4Th March, 1880, by the Mayor of Canterbury, was built from the designs of the late Mr. J. G. Hall. The following lodges and chapters hold their meetings here:-The United Industrious Lodge, No. 31; the St. Augustine Lodge, No. 972; the Royal Military Lodge, No. 1449; the Bertha Chapter (Royal Arch), No. 31; the Saint Martin Mark Master Mason Lodge, No. 262; the Ethelbert Chapter, Rose Croix, No. 82; the Black Prince Preceptory and the Invicta Council, No. 14.

St. George’s Hall, in St. George’s street, is 84 feet long, 27 feet wide and 20 feet high; it will hold about 500 persons, and is let for musical entertainments &c.; E. B. Goulden, agent.

Canterbury is a considerable military station, being the head quarters of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade and for depots of cavalry regiments serving abroad, and is also the head quarters of the 3rd Regimental district, and the Regimental depot of the Buffs or East Kent Regiment (3rd Foot) and the head quarters of the 3rd Battalion East Kent Militia. The Cavalry Barracks, in Military road, consist of four blocks of fine brick buildings, forming three sides of a square and were erected in 1794; they will hold 1,500 men and 450 horses. The Old Infantry Barracks, sufficient for 1,000 men, are also on the Margate road, and were built in 1798; besides these there are barracks for artillery, available for 150 men and 266 horses and now occupied by cavalry. The Military Hospital, behind the barracks, is a plain edifice of red brick with stone dressings.

Canterbury is also the headquarters of the Royal East Kent Imperial Yeomanry, and the Band Companies of 1st Volunteer Battalion the Buffs (East Kent Regiment).

H.M. Prison, in Longport street, erected in 1808, was formerly the house of correction for East Kent; since the transfer of prisons to the Government in 1878, it has been greatly enlarged and will now hold 199 males and 18 females. Near it is the Sessions House, a building of the Doric order, also erected in 1808.

The Theatre, in Guildhall street, was decorated by the late Thomas Sidney Cooper, the celebrated animal painter and will hold 800 persons.

Markets are held on Saturday in each week, for poultry, butter and vegetables; on Wednesday during summer for fruit; and on Saturday for meat, corn, hops and lean cattle.

The Cattle Market, with St. George’s gate, is spacious; the market days for fat stock are held fortnightly (on Mondays). The Corn and Hop Exchange, in St. George’s street, is a building of stone, of the Ionic order, erected in 1824, by public subscription, on the site of the old Shambles and since considerably enlarged.

Here also are the offices of the East Kent Agricultural Society; shows are held every July in some part of the county.

Several fairs used to be held in Canterbury, but all are now extinct, except the “Canterbury Fair,” held in October, which still continues. No races are now held here, but the city has of late years become famous for its cricket matches, held on a large inclosed ground on the Old Dover road, for one week, dating from the first Monday in August, when some of the strongest county teams play against the Gentlemen of Kent.

There are three banks, viz.: the Canterbury bank, carried on under the firm of Hammond, Plumptre, Hilton, McMaster & Furley, and branches of the London and County Banking Company and Lloyds Bank.

The following newspapers are published here weekly:-“Canterbury Journal,” Saturday, Charles Tilleard Mudford, 49 St. George’s street; “Kentish Observer,” Thursday and Saturday, Charles Tilleard Mudford, 49 St. George’s street; “Kentish Gazette and Canterbury Press,” Friday, E. B. Goulden and Co. 39 St. George’s street; “Kent Herald,” Wednesday afternoon, J. A. Jennings Limited, proprietors, 9 High street; the “Kentish Chronicle,” Friday afternoon, J. A. Jennings Limited, proprietors, 9 High street, and the “Canterbury Register,” Saturday, H. H. Battley, publisher, 16 Burgate street.

There are breweries, malting, tanneries, coach lofts, linen weaving establishments, rope walk's, and brick yards.

The Kent and Canterbury Hospital in Longport street, instituted in 1793, owes its origin to the late well-known Canterbury physician, Dr. Carter, formerly fellow of Oriel College, Oxford: two additional wings have been added and it now contains 104 beds: the number of inpatients treated during the year 1901 was 749, and of outpatients, 931, and 1,476 casualties, besides 368 dental cases; the daily average of in-patients was 67, and their average time in the hospital 32 ½ days. In 1902 the late Miss Fanny Blackman, of Ramsgate, bequeathed £10.000 to the Hospital to found a Blackman Ward.

The Dispensary in Burgate street was instituted in 1836.

The Borough Lunatic Asylum, erected in 1902, on the road to Littlebourne, is available for 50 private and 200 pauper patients.

The City Sanatorium for Infectious Diseases was erected at St. Martin’s in 1897, for 42 patients and 8 small pox patients.

Cogan’s Hospital on the London road, but originally in St. Peter’s street, was founded in 1199 for six poor widows of clergymen; within the old buildings are the remains of a dwelling belonging to the Grey or Franciscan Friars, who were settled here in 1224 by Henry III.; the premises, now occupied by Mr. A. Wells, contain some very good old oak carvings: the six houses now forming this hospital stand on the London road, near St. Dunstan’s church; each inmate receives £25 yearly and a house rent free.

The site of the monastery of the Dominicans, or Black Friars, who settled here in 1221, was in St. Peter’s street, and is now occupied by a wool warehouse; some portions of their once extensive priory, including an Early English refectory, now used as a Unitarian chapel, still remain, but part has been converted into tenements.

The hospital of St. Thomas & Becket, commonly called King’s Bridge or East Bridge hospital, and situated in the High street, was founded by Archbishop Hubert Walter 1197—1206, and endowed by him with the tithes of certain mills; Archbishop Langton, 1207—29, confirmed to the hospital the gift of Blean church and parsonage, and Archbishop Parker in 1569 enlarged the foundation, at first intended only for pilgrims; the hospital now (1902) supports five brothers and five sisters, who are resident, and as many of each sex who are nonresident, all these having yearly pensions of £25 each, and there are also four non-resident pensioners, each receiving £10 yearly: on any vacancy occurring among the brothers and sisters the mayor for the time being nominates two persons to the master, who then, as directed by the statutes, chooses one to fill the vacancy: the building includes a chapel with a good roof, and a hall, or refectory, containing an ancient fresco: the mastership, which is in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, is valued at £200 yearly, and has been held since 1899 by the Rev. Alfred Butler M.A. rector of St. Alphege and All Saints.

Maynard’s and Cotton’s (or St. Nicholas’ and St. Catherine’s) Hospital, in Hospital lane, originally founded before 1203, is now for four men and as many women, of 50 years of age, and was refounded by John Maynard and Leonard Cotton, formerly mayors of the city; the buildings, having fallen into decay, were re-erected in 1708 by the Corporation, and the charity, which is under their control, now maintains ten aged men and women.

The endowed charities, amounting to about £300 yearly, are derived from cottage property in various parts of the city and invested funds, and are distributed amongst the poor weekly.

The hospital of St. John the Baptist and the remains of St. Gregory’s Priory are in Northgate street; both were founded by Archbishop Lanfranc, the former in 1084, and the latter, c. 1074, for canons regular of the order of St. Augustine: in the chapel of St. John’s Hospital is an ancient font, a carved pulpit and other good woodwork, and in the hall an old carved chest; the precincts exhibit some good examples of Domestic Gothic: here are maintained twenty-five brothers and sisters; the Rev. Francis Robert Mercer M.A. vicar of St. Gregory’s, has been chaplain since 1901; the stipend is £30 per annum; Canon Francis James Holland M.A. is prior, and has the nomination of the inmates. Jesus Hospital, founded by Sir John Boys in 1595, is also in Northgate street: it maintains eight men, four women and a warden, appointed by the dean with the approval of the Archdeacon of Canterbury, the warden living in a separate house: on the occasion of any vacancy on this foundation the dean nominates two persons, from whom the mayor selects one; scholarships are also maintained at the Simon Langton Schools from the revenues of this hospital. Harris’s Spital in Wincheap maintains five poor persons, two from the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, two from Thanington and one from St. Mildreds: the management is vested in the incumbents of those three parishes with certain other trustees: it is endowed with Morley farm, in the parish of Kingstone, near Canterbury. Six almshouses were erected in 1901 in Chantry lane, for six poor people with money left by T. S. & H. Cooper esqrs. St. James’ Hospital for lepers, at Wincheap, founded in the time of Henry II. is now defunct.

In Chantry lane are the remains of Doge’s Chantry, now converted into a cottage, St. Sepulchre’s Priory, near Oaten Hill, founded by Archbishop Anselm in 1100, for Benedictine nuns, was the abode of Elizabeth Barton, the so-called “Holy Maid of Kent,” who was hung at old Tyburn, April 21, 1534; the ground behind was a Roman burial ground, where urns have been found. Lawrence House stood a little further on; a large stone, with the figure of St. Lawrence and his gridiron, is the only relic of it.

In St. George’s street stands one of the gateways of the now destroyed Priory of the Augustinian friars, or Friars’ Eremites, founded by R. French in 1325, and of which John Capgrave D.D. the historian, was a member; the house was dissolved in 1557.

The Mint, in Palace street, once belonging to the Knights Templars, is a privileged extra-parochial place, under the jurisdiction of the Board of Green Cloth.

Staplegate is also a privileged district, which has now 259 inhabitants; and is the spot where St. Augustine was first received by King Ethelbert.

St. Radigund’s Bath without Northgate, is an ancient establishment, supposed to have been Roman, and is supplied by a natural spring. West gate, the only one of the city gates now remaining, is a structure of squared stone with two fine round towers and a battle-mented parapet: the old city gaol, which is joined to it by a corridor, is now used as the city police station.

The Dane John, a favourite walk of the citizens, is a lofty artificial mound overlooking the city and the picturesque scenery of the surrounding country; it has been much improved and is maintained by an ample endowment fund, bequeathed by Alderman Simmons, whose munificence is commemorated by a pillar standing on the mound. During the repair, in Oct. 1883, of the old city wall and buttresses still in existence beside the Dane John, a piece of Roman tesselated pavement was found embedded in the structure, skeletons, Roman urns, a fragment of a bowl, coins, rings, bracelets, some curious flint instruments, and rounded sling stones have also been found.

In 1886 the remains of a Roman pavement were discovered in the playground of Simon Langton School, but were left undisturbed.

In 1891 a bronze statue of a muse was erected in the Old Butter Market, to commemorate the ter-centenary of the poet Christopher Marlowe, who was born in this city in 1564, and died at Deptford, 1 June, 1593.

In 1899 a granite pillar was erected near Wincheap street, to commemorate the martyrdom of forty-one persons, whose names appear thereon, and who were burnt at the stake on this spot during the reign of Queen Mary 1553—1558. The cost, amounting to about £600, was subscribed publicly.

The population, area and rateable values of the parishes in the municipal and parliamentary borough, are as follows:—

NamePop. (1901)Area (acres)Rateable Value (£)
*Canterbury parish19,8043,51791,222
++Archbishop’s Palace17741,226
++Charist Church203191,699
+Holy Cross, Westgate Without.750573,912
++St. Dunstan Within1,7752199,875
++St. Gregory1,207102,427
++Staplegate3201590
+Thanington Within6631493,075
TOTAL24,899

*Including 9 officials and 191 inmates in the Workhouse, 30 officials and their families and 74 inmates in the Kent and Canterbury Hospital, 49 in His Majesty’s Prison, 2,902 in the Cavalry and Remount Depot, 195 in the Infantry Barracks, and 151 in the Military Hospital.

Marked thus + are in Bridge Union.

Marked thus ++ are in Blean Union.

The area of the municipal borough is 3,976; rateable value, £119,535.

The population of the ecclesiastical parishes in 1901 was Christ Church Cathedral, 380; St. Alphege with St. Mary, Northgate and All Saints, 1,753; St. Dunstan, 2,000; St. George the Martyr with St. Mary Magdalene, 1,528; St. Gregory the Great, 6,799; St. Margaret with St. Andrew and St. Mary Bredman, 974; St. Martin with St. Paul, 1,897; St. Mary Bredin, 2,161; St. Mary de Castro with St. Mildred, 3,232; St. Peter with Westgate Holy Cross, 2,762.

St. Stephen’s (otherwise called Hackington) adjoins St. Dunstan’s to the north The former name, by which it is more generally known, was given to it from the fact of the church being dedicated to the Proto-martyr St. Stephen. This parish is within the lathe of St. Augustine, and the hundred of Westgate, partly in the union of Blean, and in the county court district of Canterbury and rural deanery and archdeaconry of Canterbury. The church of St. Stephen is of flint, and has a tower containing a clock and 8 bells: in the church is a monument to Sir Roger Manwood, who was chief baron of the Exohequer and founder of Sandwich school, ob. 1592: the church has been restored, and affords 330 sittings. The register dates from the year 1567. The living is a rectory, net yearly value £340, with half an acre of glebe and residence, in the gift of the Archdeacon of Canterbury, and held since 1886 by the Rev. Frederick Harrison Hichens M.A. of Exeter College, Oxford, and hon. canon of Canterbury. St. Stephen’s Almshouses, near Hales’ Place, were endowed in the year 1590 by Sir Roger Manwood kt. for the benefit of six aged persons, with an allowance of about £5 yearly, one house being for the parish clerk. Hales’ Place, near St Stephen’s church, lately the residence of Miss Hales, was built in 1768 by Sir Edward Hales, but is now a religious house, having been purchased by a society of French Jesuits for the purpose of founding an educational establishment, called the college of St. Mary, for French students. The area is 1,867 acres of land and 1 of water; rateable value, £6,171; the population in 1901 was 617.

Petty Sessions are held at the Sessions house, Canterbury, every Saturday, at 12 o’clock. The following places are included in the Petty Sessional Division:-Blean, Bekesbourne, Bridge, Chartham, Chislet, St. Dunstan’s, Harbledown, Lower Hardres, Upper Hardres, Herne, Herne Bay, Hoath Nackington, Patrixbourne, Petham, Reculver, Seasalter, St. Stephens, Starry, Swalecliff, Thanington, Waltham, Westbere, Westgate Without, Whitstable, Milton, St. Nicholas.

FIRE BRIGADES

City; head quarters, Police station, Westgate; four ladders with ropes, 1,000 feet of hose; 2 hose carts & 1 escape;Supt. John W. Farmery, chief of the amalgamated brigades, captain; number of men, 14.

County (formed in 1867); head quarters, 35 St. George’s street; fire station, Rose lane; Capt. W. G. Pidduck, 2 lieutenants, an engineer & 7 men. The engine is a Merryweather “Paxton” manual, & was, with all the necessary appliances, supplied to the brigade by the directors of the County Fire Office.

Kent; head quarters, 29 Westgate; engine house, Palace street, Acting Capt. Leonard T. Ashenden, 2 lieutenant & 6 men; appliances, 1 steam engine, 1 manual, 2 host Teels & 2,500 feet of hose.

Fire Escape; the City fire escape is kept at the police station & is worked by the police force.

VOLUNTEERS

1st Volunteer Battalion, The Buffs (East Kent Regiment) (B & C Companies), 66 Northgate street B Company:-Capt. E. C. Frend; C Company, Capt. C. A. Moxon; Charles James Newport, sergeant-instructor.

Canterbury Poor Law Parish

Board day, tuesday.

The Parish comprises the following ecclesiastical parts of parishes & precincts, viz.:-All Saints, Beaksbourne (part of), Black Prince’s Chantry, East Bridge Hospital, Fordwich (part of), Hackington or St. Stephen’s (part of), Holy Cross, Westgate Within, Littlebourne (part of), Nackington (part of), Old Castle, Patrixbourne (part of), St. Alphage, St. Augustine’s Monastery Almonry & Precinct, St. Andrew the Apostle, St. George the Martyr, St. John’s Hospital, St. Margaret, St. Martin, St. Mary Bredin, St. Mary Bredman, St. Mary Magdalen, St. Mary Northgate, St. Mildred, St. Paul, St. Peter & the Whitefriars. The population of the parish in 1901 was 19,804; the area is 3,517 acres; rateable value in 1902, £96,852.

The Workhouse, at the top of Nunnery fields, near the Old Dover road, on the south-west side of the city, is a large red brick building, in the later Gothic style; although available for 416 inmates, its average number is not greater than 200, who are employed in making bread, wood splitting & gardening.

The Workhouse Infirmary, adjoining the Workhouse, was erected in 1883, at a cost of about £4,000 & contains 70 beds.

PLACES OF WORSHIP, with times of services

R. signifies Rectory. V. Vicarage.

The Cathedral, Cathedral yard; 8.15 (holy communion), 10.30 a.m. noon (holy communion) 3 p.m. & 6.30 p.m.. daily, 10 a.m. & 3 p.m. (Nov. Dec. Jan. & Feb. 4 p.m).

Holy Cross, V. Westgate; Rev.Thomas Gibson Hill M.A.; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.

St. Alphege, R. Palace street, Rev. Alfred Butler M.A.; 11 a.m. & 3 & 6.30p.m.; alternate sun. 8.15 a.m.; wed. 8.15 p.m. winter only.

St. Dunstan's, V. St. Dunstan’s street, Rev. William Ernest Evill B.A.; 10.30 a.m. & 7 p.m.; wed. 7.15 p.m.

St. George the Martyr, R. St. George’s street, Rev. Francis Thomas Vine M.A.; 8 & 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; wed. & fri. 11 a.m.; Saints days, 7.30 a.m.

St. Gregory’s, V. Military road, Rev. Francis Robert Mercer M.A.; 8 & 11 a.m. 3 & 6.30 p.m.; week days, 10 a.m. & 6 p.m.

St. Margaret’s, R. St. Margaret street, Rev. Henry Day French M.A.; 8 & 11 a.m. & 7 p.m.; fri. 4.30 p.m.; Saints’ days, 8 a.m.

St. Martin’s, R. Longport, Rev. Edward Hoare Hardcastle M.A.; Rev. Arthur W. Payne M.A. curate; 8 & 11 a.m.; 3.30 p.m.

St. Mary Northgate, V. Northgate, Rev. Francis Robert Mercer M.A.; services irregular.

St. Mary Bredin, V. Rose lane, Rev. Joseph John Bambridge M.A.; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; wed. 7 p.m.

St. Michael’s, R. Harbledown, Rev. Charles Hairby Barton; 8 & 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.

St. Mildred’s, R. with St. Mary de Castro (no church), near the Castle, Rev. Arthur Stevens B.A. L.Th.; 11 a.m.. 3 & 6.30 p.m.; wed. & fri. 11 a.m.

St. Nicholas, V. Thanington, Rev, Matthew Flyn Evans; 11 a.m. & 3.30 p.m.

St. Paul’s, V. Church street, Rev. Edward Hoare Hardcastle M.A.; 8 & 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; daily 10 a.m. & 4 p.m. in winter & 10 a.m. & 6 p.m. in summer.

St. Peter’s, R. St. Peter street, Rev. Thomas Gibson Hill M.A.; 8 & 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; daily 7 & 7.45 a.m. 5.30 p.m.

St. Stephen’s, R. Hackington, Rev. Canon Frederick Harrison Hichens M.A.; 10.30 a.m. & 3 p.m.

Military Church, Military road, Rev. Henry Arthur Darnell, chaplain; 11 a.m. & 6 p.m.

Catholic (St. Thomas), Burgate street, Rev. Richard Power, priest; 9 & 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; daily, 8 a.m.; thurs. 8 p.m.; holy days, 8 & 10 a.m.

French Huguenot Church, Cathedral crypt, Rev. John R. Barnabas, pastor; 3 p.m.

Jewish Synagogue, King street, sabbath 6.30 p.m. & 9 p.m.

Society of Friends', Canterbury lane; 11 a.m.; thurs. 11 a.m.

Presbyterian Church of England, Wincheap, Rev. John Patterson; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; wed. 7 p.m.

Baptist, St. George’s place, Rev. R. Henry Knowles Kempton; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; mon. 8.30 p.m.; wed. 7 p.m.

Baptist (Particular), Burgate lane, Rev. James Bouse; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; thurs. 7 p.m.

Baptist Mission, Reehabites Temperance hall; 11 a.m. & 3 p.m.; tues. 7.45 p.m.

Countess of Huntingdon’s, Watling street, Rev. William Edmondson; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; mon. 8.15 p.m.; wed. 7 p.m.

Congregational, Guildhall street, Rev. William Edwin Stephenson; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; mon. 3.30 p.m.; wed. 8.30 p.m.

Plymouth Brethren, Foresters’ Hall, High street; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.

Plymouth Brethren, Cross street, St. Dunstan’s, 6.45 p.m.

Primitive Methodist, Borough, Rev. Richard William Burnett; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; tues. 8 p.m.

Salvation Army Barracks, White Horse lane; 11 a.m.. 3 & 6.30 p.m.

Unitarian, Blackfriars, North John Remington Wilson M.A.; 10.45 a.m.

Wesleyan, St. Peter street, Rev. William J. Britton & Rev. Richard Hall; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; mon. & wed. 7.15 p.m.

COLLEGES & SCHOOLS

The King’s School, situated in the Mint yard & approached by the celebrated Norman staircase, claims to be the oldest public school in England, having been in existence in the days of S. S. Ethelbert & Augustine, but was refounded in 1541 by Henry VIII. for 2 masters.

& 50 king’s scholars, forming an integral portion of the cathedral foundation. Among the eminent men whom it has produced are Christopher Marlowe, the dramatist; Richard Boyle, “the great Earl of Cork”; William Harvey M.D. the digcoverer of the circulation of the blood; Archbishop Winchelsey, of Canterbury; , Accepted Frewen, Archbishop of York (1660—4) J Wm. Somner, the antiquary & historian of Canterbury, auditor of the cathedral; the Rev. William Gostling M.A. minor canon; Archdeacon Denne, Sir Samuel Brydges bart, M.P. Samuel Pegge, antiquary; Bishops Boyle of Cork (1660-3), Gunning of Ely (1675—84), Marsh of Peterborough (1819-39), & Broughton of Sydney (1847—54); Deans Boys & Lynch of Canterbury, Spencer of Ely, Castle of Hereford, Gregory of Kildare, Durand of Guernsey & Nairne of Battle; Lord Chancellor Thurlow; Lord Chief Justice Tenterden; Sir Henry Heyman, Sir Andrew Clarke G.C.M.G. Sir Edward Dering bart.; the Rev. John Johnson M.A. best known as the author of “The Unbloody Sacrifice”; Archdeacon Randolph D.D. president of C.C.C., & Vice-Chancellor of Oxford; Walter Pater, the essayist, & many others. A history of the school was published in 1865 by the late Rev. J. S. Sidebotham M.A. (d. 1901). The school was re-organized by the Charity Commissioners in 1879, & has a yearly endowment of £1,000. The 50 king’s scholars are divided into 25 probationers (£10 for 2 years), 15 junior (£15 15s. for 5 years) & 10 senior scholars (£25 for 3 or 4 years); there are also 2 Heyman scholarships of £20 each, founded in 1625, tenable for 4 years at any school, but limited to the kin of P. Heyman, or in default to natives of Sellinge, Kent; 4 exhibitions of £50 a year, tenable for 4 years at Oxford or Cambridge; 2 exhibitions of £50 a year, founded by Archbishop Parker in 1569, tenable with a foundation scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; the Bunce exhibition of £50 a year, tenable for four years at Oxford or Cambridge; two exhibitions of £50 a year, founded by the Rev. J. Ford D.D. in 1850, & tenable for 4 years at Trinity College, Oxford; one exhibition of £50 a year, founded by Dean Stanhope in 1798, & tenable for 4 years at Oxford or Cambridge; & one exhibition tenable at Woolwich, Sandhurst or Cooper’s Hill. The entrance scholarships, awarded half-yearly, are of the annual value of £40, £30, £20 & £15, & there are house scholarships of £10 yearly, for 2 years, & several gifts, awarded as an outfit for college, besides numerous prizes. There are about 225 boys. There is a junior Department for boys between 7 & 13, erected in 1881, at a cost of £3,000, granted by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in consideration of £1,000 being raised by subscription & expended on the then existing portion; they also granted to the school portions of the old archiepiscopal palace and grounds; this addition provides room for 60 or 70 additional boys & 32 boarders; a gymnasium & three new fives-courts have also been added. Close to the school is a cricket ground & lawn tennis, courts, & in addition to these there is a large cricket & football field; the school also maintains a boat club, bicycle club & natural history & musical societies, a museum & a good library & reading room. The Dean & Chapter are the governors; Rev. Arthur John Galpin M.A. late senior scholar Trinity College, Oxford, headmaster.

Missionary College of St. Augustine, Rev. Robert James Edmund Boggis B.D. sub-warden; Rev. Watkin Wynn Williams M.A. & Rev. Bernard Horatio Parry Fisher M.A. fellows; Henry A. Gogarty esq. M.D. lecturer in practical medicine; T. W. Ueid esq. M.D., F.R.C.P. Edin., L.R.C.P.Lond, lecturer in practical surgery.

St. Edmund’s School, St. Thomas’ hill, Rev. Edward Jn. Walford Houghton M.A. of Christ. Church, Oxford, headmaster.

Kent Wesleyan College, St. Thomas’s hill, was established in 1886, at a cost of £14,000 by the Kent Wesleyan Methodist School Association Limited, & is under the management of a board of 12 directors, of which John Stainer esq. J.P. is chairman & A. Atkinson esq. sec; The building is of red brick with Bath stone facings from designs by Mr. Charles Bell, architect, of London, & is available for 120 boarders.

School of Science & Art (The Sidney Cooper), 23 St. Peter’s street, Joseph Ogden, principal; George F. Francis, hon. sec.; Arthur John Harris, curator.

Diocesan National, Broad street, erected in 1842, for 180 boys, 180 girls & 180 infants; average attendance, 145 boys, 145 girls & 127 infants.

The original hospital in Lamb lane & Stour street, called the Poor Priests’ Estate or Bluecoat Schools, was founded by Simon de Langton, archdeacon of Canterbury, in 1243, for the benefit of “poor priests,” the estates of which, at its dissolution in 1575, were bestowed by Queen Elizabeth on the city & afterwards transferred by Act of Parliament to the guardians of the poor, who applied the Surplus revenue to the benefit of the poor rate, after maintaining, educating & apprenticing out sixteen poor boys, called” The Bluecoat Boys,” each having a premium of £30 paid for him, with £5 allowed for clothing; the revenue of these estates, chiefly derived from lands, amounted to about £600 yearly; this foundation, by a scheme prepared by the Charity Commissioners in 1878 under the Endowed Schools Acts, was transferred about 1880 to a new governing body for the purpose of establishing the Simon Langton schools as stated below; the cost being in part defrayed by the transfer of the educational endowments of various charities, under the jurisdiction of the trustees of the City Charities, and as to the remaider, by the sale of part of the Bluecoat School Foundation property & the accumulation of income; the scheme provides sixteen scholarships of £15 each in the boys’ school, & ten of £12 each in the girls’ school, each to be held for 3 years & to be tenable by pupils from the public elementary schools of the city & £100 yearly is to be expended in exhibitions from the schools to others of a higher grade; by a subsidiary scheme, the educational endowments of Jesus hospital, in Northgate, are also transferred to the Simon Langton school, four additional scholarships of £15 each to the boys’ school, & two of £15 each to the girls’ school being thus secured; the schools were opened in 1881: there are at present (1902) 210 boys in the school; the girls’ school has been enlarged since 1881 & has now (1902) 120 pupils. The schools, which are situated in White Friars, were erected in 1878, on a site acquired at a cost of £3,500: the total cost of the buildings, together with residences for the headmaster & headmistress, being £4,700; the boys’ school was enlarged in 1890 at a cost of £500, in 1894 a cost of £580, in 1897 ab a cost of £600, & again in 1901 ab a cost of £1,200, the enlargements in 1894 & 1897 being to provide physical & chemical laboratories & manual instruction room, & those in 1901 for additional lecture room, physical laboratory & art-room; it will now hold 250 boys & the girls’ school holds 120 girls.

The Home for Children, formerly called The Industrial School, Wincheap, provides a safe home & good instruction for respectable girls who desire to become household servants; the school consists of 19 girls, of whom 14 are partly paid for by subscribers or friends: these enter at the age of 8 or 9, & ordinarily stay in the school till 15 years of age; a few wear the old-fashioned school dress & are boarded, lodged & educated gratuitously; these go by the name of “The Blues,” & are the survival of the Grey & Blue schools which existed in Canterbury for nearly 200 years: the school has a small endowment.

A School Board of 9 members was formed in 1871; Henry Fielding, 15 Burgate street, clerk to the board; Frederick Hardiman, 86 Northgate street & W. W. Knight, St. Martin’s hill, attendance officers.

Pupil Teachers’ Centre, 92 Northgate street, George Thos. Marsh, principal.

St. John’s Board School, St. John’s place, Northgate, erected in 1871, for 255 boys, 255 girls & 200 infants; average attendance, 250 boys, 250 girls & 200 infants.

St. Dunstan’s Parochial (mixed), London road, erected in 1862, for 170 children; average attendance, 150.

St. Dunstan’s (infants), London road, erected in 1862, for 110 children; average attendance, 90.

St. Mary Bredin (mixed), Rhodaus Town, erected in 1860, for 154 children; average attendance, 147.

St. Mary Bredin (infants), Rhodaus Town, erected in 1860, for 54 children; average attendance, 54.

St. Mildred’s (boys), Church lane, erected in 1860, for 115 children; average attendance, 95.

St. Mildred’s (girls), Church lane, erected in 1855, for 108 children; average attendance, 109.

St. Mildred’s (infants), Church lane, erected in 1855, for 80 children & enlarged in 1888 for 106 children; average attendance, 98.

St. Paul’s (boys), Church street, erected in 1872, for 117 children; average attendance, 117.

St. Paul’s (girls), Church street, erected in 1855, for 141 children; average attendance, 134.

St. Pauls (infants), Church street, erected in 1872, & enlarged in 1892, for 135 children; average attendance 135.

Holy Cross & St. Peter’s (boys), St. Peter’s place, erected in 1872. for 100 children; average attendance, 90.

Holy Cross & St. Peter’s (girls), St. Peter’s place, erected in 1872, for 90 children; average attendance, 87.

Holy Cross & St. Peter’s {infants), St. Peter’s place, erected in 1872, for 140 children; average attendance, 115.

St. George’s & St. Mary Magdalene (mixed), Canterbury lane, erected in 1859, enlarged 1902, for 230 children; average attendance, 180.

St. Stephen’s (mixed & infants), Hackington, erected in 1848, for 155 children; average attendance, 120.

Harbledown (mixed & infants), Harbledown, erected in 1852, for 140 children; average attendance, 105.

Thanington (mixed), Thanington, erected in 1838, for 38 children; average attendance, 38.

Elementary School, Chantry lane, erected in 1895, for 154 boys, 155 girls & 100 infants.

Catholic (St. Thomas’) (mixed), Stour street, for 100 children; average attendance, 66.

Wesleyan (mixed & infants), St. Peter’s street, erected in 1870 & enlarged 1886, for 420 children; average attendance, 300.

Kelly's Directory of Kent (1903)

Surnames Found in Canterbury

RankSurnameNo. of People% of Population
1Smith3481.61
2Baker1400.65
3Andrews1340.62
4Wilson1300.60
5Martin1220.57
6Taylor1180.55
7Wood1110.51
8Johnson1080.50
9Harris1070.50
10White1050.49
11Williams980.45
12Hills870.40
13Marsh830.38
14Jones810.38
15Webb800.37
16Kemp790.37
17Finn730.34
18Castle720.33
19Cook680.32
20Jordan660.31
21Brown640.30
22Court630.29
23Harvey600.28
24Marshall590.27
25Green580.27
26Parker580.27
27Hayward580.27
28Styles550.25
29Kennett550.25
30Austin540.25
31Cullen540.25
32Pilcher540.25
33Sutton530.25
34Fairbrass530.25
35Cox520.24
36Page510.24
37Stone510.24
38Hall500.23
39Richardson500.23
40Brett500.23
41Filmer500.23
42Moore490.23
43Powell490.23
44Browning490.23
45Wright480.22
46Mills480.22
47West480.22
48Barber480.22
49Collard480.22
50James470.22
51Richards470.22
52Anderson460.21
53Howard460.21
54Bing460.21
55Roberts450.21
56Watson450.21
57Davis450.21
58Young450.21
59Clements450.21
60Rogers440.20
61Goldsack440.20
62Cole430.20
63Crow430.20
64Terry420.19
65Hammond410.19
66Ratcliff410.19
67Bailey400.19
68Hunt400.19
69Knight400.19
70Russell400.19
71Gibbs400.19
72Fagg400.19
73Twyman400.19
74Hughes390.18
75Lewis390.18
76Bennett390.18
77Skinner390.18
78Hopper390.18
79Lemar390.18
80Scott380.18
81Morris380.18
82May380.18
83Hopkins380.18
84Chambers380.18
85Dawkins380.18
86Dunk380.18
87Laming380.18
88Allen370.17
89Read370.17
90Horton370.17
91Swain370.17
92Elvy370.17
93Clark360.17
94Foster360.17
95George360.17
96Belsey360.17
97Lefevre360.17
98Robinson350.16
99Carter350.16
100Lee350.16